Pediatric Neurology (PEDIATR NEUROL)

Publisher: Elsevier

Journal description

Pediatric Neurology publishes timely peer-reviewed clinical and research articles covering all aspects of the developing nervous system.Pediatric Neurology features up-to-the-minute publication of the latest advances in the diagnosis, management, and treatment of pediatric neurologic disorders. The journal's editor, Kenneth F. Swaiman, MD, heads an internationally recognized editorial board, ensuring the most authoritative and extensive coverage of the field. Among the topics covered are: epilepsy, mitochondrial diseases, congenital malformations, chromosomopathies, peripheral neuropathies, perinatal and childhood stroke, cerebral palsy, as well as other diseases affecting the developing nervous system.

Current impact factor: 1.50

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 1.504
2012 Impact Factor 1.416
2011 Impact Factor 1.522
2010 Impact Factor 1.513
2009 Impact Factor 1.497
2008 Impact Factor 1.505
2007 Impact Factor 1.375
2006 Impact Factor 1.542
2005 Impact Factor 1.368
2004 Impact Factor 1.184
2003 Impact Factor 1.243
2002 Impact Factor 1.247
2001 Impact Factor 1.011
2000 Impact Factor 1.007
1999 Impact Factor 1.119
1998 Impact Factor 0.921
1997 Impact Factor 0.918

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 1.67
Cited half-life 7.20
Immediacy index 0.32
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.56
Website Pediatric Neurology website
Other titles Pediatric neurology
ISSN 1873-5150
OCLC 11930271
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details


  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Authors pre-print on any website, including arXiv and RePEC
    • Author's post-print on author's personal website immediately
    • Author's post-print on open access repository after an embargo period of between 12 months and 48 months
    • Permitted deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate, may be required to comply with embargo periods of 12 months to 48 months
    • Author's post-print may be used to update arXiv and RepEC
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Must link to publisher version with DOI
    • Author's post-print must be released with a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License
    • Publisher last reviewed on 03/06/2015
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • Pediatric Neurology 09/2015; 53(3):181-2. DOI:10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2015.07.005
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    ABSTRACT: X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy is a rare, cardio-specific form of dystrophinopathy allelic to Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy that results in heart failure without skeletal muscle weakness. We describe a previously healthy 16-year-old boy who presented with palpitations progressing to heart failure who was ultimately found to have a novel duplication of exons 13-16 in the dystrophin gene resulting in diagnosis of X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy. The patient was diagnosed with X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy through clinical diagnosis and genetic testing. X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy shares genotypic overlap with Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy, with its distinctive feature being a lack of progressive muscular weakness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pediatric Neurology 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2015.07.008
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    ABSTRACT: We describe the case of a boy with a TUBA1A mutation presenting with microphthalmia and congenital cataracts in addition to microcephaly and severe brain malformation. A boy presented in early infancy with microphthalmia, congenital cataracts, and microcephaly. His neurological course included severe hypotonia and drug-resistant epilepsy. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed a complex malformation that included agenesis of the corpus callosum, severely hypoplastic cerebellar vermis, mildly hypoplastic and dysplastic cerebellar hemispheres, mildly hypoplastic brainstem, mild posterior simplified cerebral gyral pattern, dysplastic basal ganglia and thalami, hypoplastic optic nerves, and absent olfactory bulbs. TUBA1A genetic testing was conducted and revealed a previously unreported heterozygous 808G>T missense mutation. Parental genetic testing was negative, indicating that the child's mutation was de novo. The TUBA1A gene encodes tubulin alpha-1A, a protein with an important role in microtubule function and stability. Human mutations can result in a wide spectrum of brain malformations including lissencephaly, microlissencephaly, cerebellar hypoplasia, agenesis of the corpus callosum, pachygyria and polymicrogyria. Although TUBA1A is expressed in both developing brain and retinal tissue, there are no reported cases of TUBA1A mutations in association with major developmental ophthalmologic abnormalities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pediatric Neurology 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2015.07.004
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    ABSTRACT: Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a tickborne infection that produces a systemic small-vessel vasculitis; its prognosis is excellent if appropriate treatment is initiated early. Because the advent of effective antirickettsial therapies predates the widespread use of brain magnetic resonance imaging, there are limited data on the effect of untreated Rocky Mountain spotted fever infection on neuroimaging studies. We describe a 7-year-old girl with delayed treatment of Rocky Mountain spotted fever who suffered severe neurological impairment. Serial brain magnetic resonance images revealed a progressive "starry sky appearance," which is proposed to result from the same small vessel vasculitis that causes the characteristic skin rash of this infection. Neurological injury can continue to occur despite specific antirickettsial therapy in Rocky Mountain spotted fever. This child's clinical features raise questions about the optimal management of this infection, particularly the utility of immune modulating therapies in cases of delayed treatment and neurological involvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pediatric Neurology 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2015.07.003
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with epilepsy and their caregivers are constantly burdened with the possibility of a seizure and its consequences, such as accidents, injuries, and sudden unexplained death in epilepsy. It is the unpredictable nature of seizures that often affects both patients with seizures and their caregivers, limits independence, and hinders quality of life. There are several types of motion detectors on the market, each with varying degrees of sensitivity. We prospectively tested the SmartWatch, a wrist-worn monitor, on children, adolescents, and young adults with various types of seizures in an epilepsy monitoring unit. Confirmation of seizure type and if there was rhythmic upper extremity jerking associated with the seizure was determined by review of the video electroencephalograph. This was compared with the standard detection system of the watch. This study analyzed a total of 191 seizures in 41 patients aged 5-41 years. Fifty-one of the seizures were generalized tonic-clonic. Forty-seven of the seizures had a rhythmic arm movement component. The SmartWatch detected 30 seizures (16%) of the total, 16 (31%) of the generalized tonic-clonic seizures, and 16 (34%) seizures associated with rhythmic arm movements. Overall, only a minority of generalized tonic-clonic seizures or seizures with rhythmic movements were detected, highlighting the need for an effective seizure detection device. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pediatric Neurology 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2015.07.002
  • Pediatric Neurology 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2015.06.017
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    ABSTRACT: Gabapentin, an anticonvulsant, neuroleptic, and pain medication, is widely used in both adults and children for management of epilepsy, bipolar illness, and neuropathic pain. Gabapentin use has also been recommended for hyperemesis gravidarum and restless leg syndrome in pregnant mothers. Although gabapentin use is deemed safe during pregnancy, no clinical reports of gabapentin withdrawal syndrome in a neonate have been described. We present a newborn who showed signs of withdrawal after prolonged in utero exposure to gabapentin. Clinicians should be aware of possible withdrawal symptoms from drugs such as gabapentin, administered to mothers during pregnancy. We also encourage the tapering of gabapentin treatment in neonates gradually over weeks to months similar to the adult population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pediatric Neurology 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2015.06.023
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    ABSTRACT: Neuropsychiatric comorbidities are frequent in Sydenham chorea. However, cognitive impairment in Sydenham chorea has not been sufficiently described. The objective of this study was to evaluate expressive and receptive language deficits in adolescents with Sydenham chorea. Twenty patients with Sydenham chorea were compared with 20 patients with rheumatic fever without chorea and 20 healthy controls. Participants were matched for age and gender. Participants were assessed with verbal fluency tasks (phonemic and semantic) and with verbal comprehension tasks (Token Test). Patients with Sydenham chorea were also assessed with the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais Sydenham Chorea Rating Scale. Performance in verbal fluency and in verbal comprehension tasks differed significantly (P < 0.01) among the three groups. Patients with Sydenham chorea performed significantly worse than healthy control group in phonemic and semantic verbal fluency tasks as well as in the Token Test. The group with rheumatic fever also performed worse than healthy controls in phonemic verbal fluency. Severity of motor signs in Sydenham chorea inversely correlated with performance in phonemic verbal fluency (words beginning with letter S, and total sum of words beginning with letters F, A, and S). Adolescents with Sydenham chorea show difficulties in verbal fluency and in verbal comprehension. Patients with rheumatic fever also have some degree of language impairment. Future studies must investigate language impairment in difference stages of Sydenham chorea (acute, persistent, and remission) and putative biological markers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pediatric Neurology 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2015.06.022
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    ABSTRACT: Hemimegalencephaly with tuberous sclerosis complex is an uncommon association, usually associated with intractable seizures that begin in the neonatal period or early infancy. Typically, the seizures are managed with medications until the patient is older when surgical treatment is considered safe. We describe a 7-week-old infant with tuberous sclerosis (TSC1 mutation) and hemimegalencephaly who underwent a functional hemispherectomy for status epilepticus. No clinical seizures have occurred since surgery nearly 5 years ago and subsequent weaning of antiepileptic drugs 3 years ago. This is one of the youngest patients with tuberous sclerosis complex treated with a hemispherectomy and one of seven patients described in the literature. Our patient, along with previously reported cases, suggests that a hemispherectomy is a viable option in the very young. With evolution of this surgical process since its inception nearly 6 decades ago, it may now be performed safely in early infancy, engendering the possibility of seizure freedom in most and thus optimizing neurodevelopmental outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pediatric Neurology 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2015.06.020
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    ABSTRACT: Lennox-Gastaut syndrome is an intractable epileptic encephalopathy marked by frequent drop seizures. Most patients develop moderate intellectual disability and behavioral problems, including hyperactivity, aggressiveness, insecurity, and autistic features. Treatment with benzodiazepines, including clobazam, may increase aggression/behavioral problems in patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Post hoc analyses of data from the OV-1012 trial assessed the potential for behavioral effects with clobazam treatment in pediatric (2 to 18 years) patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. OV-1012 was a phase 3, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group trial comprising a 4-week baseline period, 3-week titration period, and a 12-week maintenance period. Data from 194 patients were analyzed for a history of aggression/behavioral problems, occurrence of aggression-related adverse events, and by assessment of potential drug-related effects on four behavior domains of the Child Behavior Checklist. Twenty-nine aggression-related adverse events were reported for 27 (13.9%) patients. Similar percentages of clobazam-treated patients with and without a history of aggressive behavior experienced an aggression-related adverse event (16.7% versus 15.5%, respectively). In the medium- and high-dosage clobazam groups, onset of aggression-related adverse effects occurred within the 3-week titration period with 63.2% resolving by the end of the study. Aggression-related adverse event onset and resolution were similar for the low-dosage clobazam and placebo groups. Analysis of baseline to postbaseline T scores for the behavior domains of the Child Behavior Checklist indicated no significant differences between clobazam and placebo. Post hoc analyses indicate that the overall rate of aggression with clobazam treatment was low and dosage dependent. Clobazam treatment was effective in reducing drop seizures regardless of aggression experience. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pediatric Neurology 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2015.06.021
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    ABSTRACT: Human herpesviruses-6 and -7 have been associated with febrile seizures and with encephalitis, the latter predominantly in immunocompromised individuals. Acute hemorrhagic encephalitis is frequently a fatal disease that can occur in the setting of viral infection or can be a postinfectious phenomenon, often with no cause identified. Although hemorrhagic encephalitis has been reported with human herpesvirus-6 infection, only one individual, an immunocompromised child, has been documented with human herpesvirus-7 infection. The role of immunosuppression is not well-established in the management of this rare condition. We present an 11-year-old boy with hemorrhagic brainstem encephalitis who underwent extensive infectious and autoimmune testing, positive only for human herpesvirus-7 in the cerebrospinal fluid. The patient recovered after treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin, high-dose steroids, and plasma exchange. This is the first report of hemorrhagic brainstem encephalitis with human herpesvirus-7 in a previously healthy individual, adding to existing reports of late-onset human herpesvirus-7 infection associated with encephalitis in children. It also underscores that aggressive immunosuppression may be used early in the course of this disorder and may be beneficial for recovery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pediatric Neurology 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2015.06.016
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    ABSTRACT: Recent data suggest that both disordered sleep and low serum iron occur more frequently in children with autism compared with children with typical development. Iron deficiency has been linked to specific sleep disorders. The goal of the current study was to evaluate periodic limb movements in sleep and iron status in a group of children with autism compared with typically developing children and children with nonautism developmental delay to determine if iron status correlated with polysomnographic measures of latency and continuity and periodic limb movements in sleep. A total of 102 children (68 with autism, 18 typically developing, 16 with developmental delay) aged 2 to 7 years underwent a one-night modified polysomnography study and phlebotomy at the National Institutes of Health to measure serum markers of iron status (ferritin, iron, transferrin, percent transferrin saturation). No serum iron marker was associated with periodic limb movements of sleep or any other sleep parameter; this did not differ among the diagnostic groups. No significant differences among groups were observed on serum iron markers or most polysomnogram parameters: periodic limb movements in sleep, periodic limb movements index, wake after sleep onset, or sleep efficiency. Children in the autism group had significantly less total sleep time. Serum ferritin was uniformly low across groups. This study found no evidence that serum ferritin is associated with polysomnogram measures of latency or sleep continuity or that young children with autism are at increased risk for higher periodic limb movements index compared with typically developing and developmental delay peers. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Pediatric Neurology 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2015.06.014
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    ABSTRACT: Survival in Rett syndrome remains unclear. Although early estimates were grim, more recent data suggest that survival into adulthood is typical. We aimed to define survival in Rett syndrome more clearly and identify risk factors for early death. Participants with clinical Rett Syndrome or methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 mutations without clinical RTT were recruited through the Rett Syndrome Natural History study from 2006 to 2015. Clinical details were collected, and survival was determined using the Kaplan-Meier estimator. Risk factors were assessed using Cox proportional hazards models. Among 1189 valid participants, 51 died (range 3.9-66.6 years) during the 9-year follow-up period. Those who died included 36 (3.9%) classic Rett syndrome females, 5 (5.9%) atypical severe Rett syndrome females, 1 (2.4%) non-Rett syndrome female, the single atypical severe male, 6 (30%) non-Rett syndrome males, and 2 (7.1%) methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 duplication syndrome males. All atypical mild Rett syndrome females, methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 duplication syndrome females, and the single classic Rett syndrome male remain alive. Most deaths were due to cardiorespiratory issues. Only one died from severe malnutrition, scoliosis, and extreme frailty. Survival for classic and atypical Rett syndrome was greater than 70% at 45 years. Overall severity and several modifiable risk factors, including ambulation, weight, and seizures, were associated with mortality in classic Rett syndrome. Survival into the fifth decade is typical in Rett syndrome, and death due to extreme frailty has become rare. Although the leading cause of death remains cardiorespiratory compromise, many risk factors for early death are modifiable. Intense therapeutic interventions could further improve the prognosis for individuals with Rett syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pediatric Neurology 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2015.06.003
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    ABSTRACT: Glucose transporter 1 deficiency syndrome is an autosomal, dominantly inherited neurometabolic disorder caused by mutations in the SLC2A1 gene. Decreased glucose transport into the brain results in seizures and cognitive dysfunction. The ketogenic diet is the treatment of choice, but complicated with compliance problems. Stabilization of blood glucose levels by low glycemic index diet and modified high amylopectin cornstarch would provide steady-state glucose transport into the brain to prevent seizures and cognitive dysfunction in patients with glucose transporter 1 deficiency syndrome as an alternative treatment. We report a new glucose transporter 1 deficiency syndrome patient (c.988C>T; p. Arg330X in the SLC2A1) treated with modified high amylopectin cornstarch (Glycosade) and low glycemic index diet because of compliance problems with the ketogenic diet. She was diagnosed at 11.5 years of age and was treated with the ketogenic diet between ages 12 and 18 years. She was started on modified high amylopectin cornstarch at bedtime and low glycemic index diet with meals and snacks every 3-4 hours. Within the first 6 months of therapy, she improved in her seizures and cognitive functions, but experienced compliance problems afterwards. Neuropsychological assessment was stable at 12 months of therapy. This diet was easy to apply compared with the ketogenic diet and resulted in stable neuropsychological functioning of this glucose transporter 1 deficiency syndrome patient. Modified high amylopectin cornstarch and low glycemic index diet might be an alternative treatment in glucose transporter 1 deficiency syndrome patients with compliance problems to the ketogenic diet treatment, but additional patients should be treated to prove usefulness of this new treatment. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pediatric Neurology 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2015.06.018
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    ABSTRACT: Autism spectrum disorder is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, repetitive behaviors, and restricted interests. Gray matter differences linked to autism spectrum disorder have been studied using a variety of structural imaging methods, but yielded little consensus; the extent to which disparate results reflect differences in methodology or heterogeneity within autism spectrum disorder is not yet clear. Moreover, very few studies have examined gray matter changes as a function of age in autism spectrum disorder. A detailed investigation of gray matter structural development was performed via voxel-based morphometry, cortical thickness, and cortical surface area analyses in 38 autism spectrum disorder versus 46 typically developing children. Relative to typically developing children, the autism spectrum disorder group showed gray matter increases most prominently in the frontal and temporal lobes (including regions such as medial frontal gyrus, Broca's area and posterior temporal cortex), as well as certain parietal and occipital subcortical regions. Gray matter decreases were found only near the temporoparietal junction. Subcortical gray matter increases were found in the putamen and caudate nucleus, while decreases were found in cerebellum. There were age-dependent GM differences in distributed regions including prefrontal cortex, primary sensorimotor cortex, and temporoparietal junction. The results underline the distributed nature of gray matter structural differences in autism spectrum disorder and provide a more comprehensive characterization of autism spectrum disorder-related cortical and subcortical gray matter structural differences during childhood and adolescent development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pediatric Neurology 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2015.06.013
  • Pediatric Neurology 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2015.06.012
  • Pediatric Neurology 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2015.06.011
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    ABSTRACT: Our primary aim was to determine the short-term effects of a ketogenic diet on cardiac ventricular function in patients with refractory epilepsy. Thirty-eight drug-resistant epileptic patients who were treated with a ketogenic diet were enrolled in this prospective study. Echocardiography was performed on all patients before beginning the ketogenic diet and after the sixth month of therapy. Two-dimensional, M-mode, color flow, spectral Doppler, and pulsed-wave tissue Doppler imaging measurements were performed on all patients. The median age of the 32 patients was 45.5 months, and 22 (57.8%) of them were male. Body weight, height, and body mass index increased significantly at the sixth month of therapy when compared with baseline values (P < 0.05). Baseline variables assessed by conventional M-mode echocardiography showed no significant difference at month 6 (P > 0.05). Doppler flow indices of mitral annulus and tricuspid annulus velocity of patients at baseline and month 6 showed no significant differences (P > 0.05). Tricuspid annular E/A ratio was lower at month 6 (P < 0.05). Although mitral annulus tissue Doppler imaging studies showed no significant difference (P > 0.05), there was a decrease in Ea velocity and Ea/Aa ratio gathered from tricuspid annulus at month 6 compared with baseline (P < 0.05). A 6-month duration ketogenic diet does not impair left ventricular functions in children with refractory epilepsy; however, it may be associated with a right ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pediatric Neurology 06/2015; 53(3). DOI:10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2015.06.009
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    ABSTRACT: Cognitive dysfunction is a common finding in patients with multiple sclerosis at all ages. Cognitive impairment may drastically affect the life of younger patients with multiple sclerosis who are still undergoing education and schooling. A systematic review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses recommendations was carried out assessing published data on multiple sclerosis and cognition in pediatric or juvenile patients. Only articles presenting original data on patients with multiple sclerosis diagnosed before the age of 18 years were included. Thirty-two articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria for this systematic review. The conclusion from all articles was that cognitive dysfunction in multiple sclerosis starting before the age of 18 years is significant and disruptive and must be routinely assessed. However, assessment methods were heterogeneous and often very expensive to perform, whereas proposals for treatment were virtually absent in the literature. Cognitive dysfunction can be a significant symptom of multiple sclerosis of early onset, but its impact and management needs to be better assessed. A task force needs to be created to study and manage cognitive dysfunction in pediatric and juvenile multiple sclerosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Pediatric Neurology 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2015.06.007