Journal of Chromatography A (J Chrom)

Publisher: Elsevier

Journal description

The Journal of Chromatography A publishes papers on all aspects of separation science including chromatography, electrochromatography, electrophoresis, hyphenated and other multi-dimensional techniques, sample preparation as well as detection methods such as mass spectrometry. Contributions consist mainly of research papers dealing with chromatographic and electrophoretic theory, instrumental developments and their analytical and preparative applications. Section A covers all areas except biomedical sciences and biomedical applications of separation science, which are published in section B: Biomedical Sciences and Applications. Electronic version.

Current impact factor: 4.17

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 4.169
2013 Impact Factor 4.258
2012 Impact Factor 4.612
2011 Impact Factor 4.531
2010 Impact Factor 4.194
2009 Impact Factor 4.101
2008 Impact Factor 3.756
2007 Impact Factor 3.641
2006 Impact Factor 3.554
2005 Impact Factor 3.096
2004 Impact Factor 3.359
2003 Impact Factor 2.922
2002 Impact Factor 3.098
2001 Impact Factor 2.793
2000 Impact Factor 2.551
1999 Impact Factor 2.52
1998 Impact Factor 2.321
1997 Impact Factor 2.697
1996 Impact Factor 2.457
1995 Impact Factor 2.296
1994 Impact Factor 2.523

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 4.30
Cited half-life 7.90
Immediacy index 0.62
Eigenfactor 0.07
Article influence 0.85
Website Journal of Chromatography A website
ISSN 1873-3778

Publisher details


  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Authors pre-print on any website, including arXiv and RePEC
    • Author's post-print on author's personal website immediately
    • Author's post-print on open access repository after an embargo period of between 12 months and 48 months
    • Permitted deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate, may be required to comply with embargo periods of 12 months to 48 months
    • Author's post-print may be used to update arXiv and RepEC
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Must link to publisher version with DOI
    • Author's post-print must be released with a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License
    • Publisher last reviewed on 03/06/2015
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • Journal of Chromatography A 10/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.chroma.2015.09.067
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Graphene oxide (GO) is an ideal adsorbent for polar and less polar compounds due to its hexagonal carbon network structure with oxygen-containing groups, while its strong hydrophilicity and water solubility limited its application in sample pretreatment techniques. Herein, GO was composited with polyethyleneglycol (PEG) or polyaniline (PAN) through intermolecular interactions to improve its stability, and the GO/PEG and GO/PAN composite coated stir bars were prepared by sol-gel technique. Compared with GO/PAN composite and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coated stir bar, the prepared GO/PEG composite coated stir bar exhibited higher extraction efficiency for five fluoroquinolones (FQs). Based on it, a method of GO/PEG composite coated stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD) was proposed. The factors influencing SBSE, such as sample pH, salt effect, stirring rate, extraction time, desorption solvent and desorption time, were optimized, and the analytical performance of the developed SBSE-HPLC-FLD method was evaluated. The limits of detection (LODs) for five FQs were in the range of 0.0045-0.0079μgL(-1), and the enrichment factors (EFs) were in the range of 41.5-65.5-fold (theoretical enrichment factor was 100-fold). The reproducibility was also investigated at concentrations of 0.05μgL(-1) and the relative standard deviations (RSDs, n=6) were found to be in the range of 4.6-12.1%. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of FQs in chicken muscle and chicken liver samples.
    Journal of Chromatography A 10/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.chroma.2015.09.052
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies represent one of the fastest growing segments in the pharmaceutical market. The growth of the segment has necessitated development of new efficient and cost saving platforms for the preparation and analysis of early candidates for faster and better antibody selection and characterization. We report on a new integrated platform for automated harvesting of whole unclarified cell-culture broths, followed by in-line tandem affinity-capture, pH neutralization and size-exclusion chromatography of recombinant antibodies expressed transiently in mammalian human embryonic kidney 293T-cells at the 1-L scale. The system consists of two bench-top chromatography instruments connected to a central unit with eight disposable filtration devices used for loading and filtering the cell cultures. The staggered parallel multi-step configuration of the system allows unattended processing of eight samples in less than 24h. The system was validated with a random panel of 45 whole-cell culture broths containing recombinant antibodies in the early profiling phase. The results showed that the overall performances of the preparative automated system were higher compared to the conventional downstream process including manual harvesting and purification. The mean recovery of purified material from the culture-broth was 66.7%, representing a 20% increase compared to that of the manual process. Moreover, the automated process reduced by 3-fold the amount of residual aggregates in the purified antibody fractions, indicating that the automated system allows the cost-efficient and timely preparation of antibodies in the 20-200mg range, and covers the requirements for early in vitro and in vivo profiling and formulation of these drug candidates.
    Journal of Chromatography A 10/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.chroma.2015.09.040
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Two, 3-step methods for derivatizing mono- and multi-functional species with carbonyl (CO), carboxylic acid (-COOH), and alcohol (-OH) moieties were compared and optimized. In Method 1, the CO, -COOH, and -OH moieties were converted (1) to methyloximes (R-CN-OCH3) with O-methylhydroxylamine hydrochloride (MHA), (2) to methyl esters (OC-R-OCH3) with (trimethylsilyl)diazomethane in methanol (TMSD/MeOH), and (3) to trimethylsilyl ethers [R-OSi(CH3)3] with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) containing 1% trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS), respectively. Steps 1 and 3 of both methods were identical; however, in Step 2 of Method 2, -COOH moieties were derivatized with 10% (v/v) boron trifluoride (BF3) in MeOH or n-butanol (n-BuOH). The BF3/MeOH and BF3/n-BuOH were ineffective at converting species with more than 2-OH moieties. Average standard deviations for derivatization of 36 model compounds by the 3-step methods using TMSD/MeOH and BF3/(MeOH) were 7.4 and 14.8%, respectively. Average derivatization efficiencies for Methods 1 and 2 were 88.0 and 114%, respectively. Despite the lower average derivatization efficiency of Method 1, distinct advantages included a greater certainty of derivatization yield for the entire suite of mono- and multi-functional species and fewer processing steps for sequential derivatization. Detection limits for Method 1 using GC×GC-ToF-MS were 0.3-54pgm(-3). Approximately 100 oxygenated organic species were identified and quantified in aerosol filtered from 39m(3) of air in an urban location. Levels of species were 0.013-17ngm(-3) and were nearly all above the Method 1 limit of detection.
    Journal of Chromatography A 10/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.chroma.2015.09.041
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A new spiral tube assembly was designed to improve the column capacity and partition efficiency for protein separation. This spiral tube assembly has greater column capacity than the original tubing because of an increase in radial grooves from 4 to 12 to accommodate more spiral layers and 12 narrow spots instead of 4 in each circular loop to interrupt the laminar flow that causes sample band broadening. Standard PTFE tubing (1.6mm ID) and the modified flat-twisted tubing were used as the separation column. The performances of both assemblies were compared for separating three stable test proteins including cytochrome c, myoglobin, and lysozyme using a two phase aqueous-aqueous solvent system composed of polyethylene glycol 1000 (12.5% w/w) and dibasic potassium phosphate (12.5% w/w). All samples were run at 1, 2, 3, and 5mL/min at both 800rpm and 1000rpm. The separation of these three protein samples produced high stationary phase retentions at 1, 2, and 3mL/min, yet separated efficiently at 5mL/min in 40min. After comparing the separation efficiency in terms of the peak resolutions, theoretical plate numbers, and separation times, it was determined that the flat-twisted tubing was more effective in separating these protein samples. In order to validate the efficacy of this novel assembly, a mixture of five protein samples (cytochrome c, myoglobin, ovalbumin, lysozyme, and hemoglobin) were separated, under the optimal conditions established with these three protein samples, at 1mL/min with a revolution speed of 1000rpm. There were high stationary phase retentions of around 60%, with effective separations, demonstrating the efficiency of the flat-twisted spiral tube assembly. The separation time of 6h was a limitation but can potentially be shortened by improving the strength of the column that will permit an increase in revolution speed and flow rate. This novel spiral separation column will allow rapid and efficient separation of mixtures with high yield of the constituent components.
    Journal of Chromatography A 10/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.chroma.2015.09.033
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Alkyl esters of fatty acids (FAAEs) with carbon numbers from 8 to 20 formed protonated monomers and proton bound dimers through atmospheric pressure chemical ionization reactions and these gas ions were characterized for their field dependent mobility coefficients using differential mobility spectrometry (DMS). Separation of ion peaks with a vapor modifier was achieved for ions with masses of 317-1033Da though the differences in these coefficients and the resolution of ion peaks decreased proportionally with increased ion mass. Differences in dispersion curves were sufficient to isolate ions from specific FAAEs in the effluent of a gas chromatograph by dual stage ion filtering using a tandem DMS detector. Methyl linolenate was isolated from nearby eluting methyl oleate, methyl stearate and methyl linoleate within analysis times of 10s without measureable complications from charge suppression in the ion source or leakage in filtering of ions with close proximity of dispersion behavior.
    Journal of Chromatography A 10/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.chroma.2015.09.017
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this paper, a comparison between experimental chromatography data and column simulations is carried out to determine the efficacy of using miniaturized chromatography columns (MiniColumns) for both column modeling parameter estimation and process development. Normalization of the data with respect to column volumes along with appropriate translations to account for system differences is shown to result in comparability of the experimental data for the MiniColumn and benchtop systems. A parameter estimation protocol is then employed to determine the linear steric mass-action (SMA) isotherm and lumped mass transport parameters for two cation exchange resins. The models are then validated and simulations using different parameter sets from the MiniColumn and benchtop systems are shown to result in similar predicted chromatography profiles and calculated retention volumes. The parameters generated from the MiniColumn system are demonstrated to be well suited for predicting experimental data from the benchtop system. These simulation results, the ability to operate MiniColumns in parallel, and the significantly lower material requirements per experiment support an industry trend toward increased usage of miniaturized chromatography columns as a scale-down model for process development.
    Journal of Chromatography A 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.chroma.2015.09.038
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) based on tropine type chiral ionic liquids and inorganic salt solution were designed and prepared for the enantiomeric separation of racemic phenylalanine. The phase behavior of IL-based ATPS was comprehensive investigated, and phase equilibrium data were correlated by Merchuk equation. Various factors were also systematically investigated for their influence on separation efficiency. Under the appropriate conditions (0.13g/g [C8Tropine]pro, 35mg/g Cu(Ac)2, 20mg/g d,l-phenylalanine, 0.51g/g H2O and 0.30g/g K2HPO4), the enantiomeric excess value of phenylalanine in solid phase (mainly containing l-enantiomer) was 65%. Finally, the interaction mechanism was studied via 1D and 2D NMR. The results indicate that d-enantiomer of phenylalanine interacts more strongly with chiral ILs and Cu(2+) based on the chiral ion-pairs space coordination mechanism, which makes it tend to remain in the top IL-rich phase. By contrast, l-enantiomer is transferred into the solid phase. Above chiral ionic liquids aqueous two-phase systems have demonstrated obvious resolution to racemic phenylalanine and could be promising alterative resolution approach for racemic amino acids in aqueous circumstance.
    Journal of Chromatography A 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.chroma.2015.09.058
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In proteomics, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is favored for protein solubilization and mass-based separation (e.g. GELFrEE or SDS PAGE). Numerous SDS depletion techniques are available to purify proteins ahead of mass spectrometry. The effectiveness of the purification has a controlling influence on the success of the analysis. Here we quantitatively assess eight approaches to SDS depletion: in-gel digestion; protein precipitation in acetone or with TCA; detergent precipitation with KCl; strong cation exchange; protein level and peptide level purification with Pierce detergent removal cartridges; and FASP II. Considering protein purity, FASP II showed the highest degree of SDS removal, matching that of in-gel digestion (over 99.99% depleted). Other methods (acetone, strong cation exchange, Pierce cartridges) also deplete SDS to levels amenable to LC-MS (>99%). Accounting for protein recovery, FASP II revealed significant sample loss (<40% yield); other approaches show even greater protein loss. We further assessed acetone precipitation, having the highest protein recovery relative to FASP II, to process GELFrEE fractionated Escherichia coli ahead of bottom-up mass spectrometry. Acetone precipitation yielded a 17% average increase in identified proteins, and 40% increase in peptides, indicating this approach as a favored strategy for SDS depletion in a proteomics workflow.
    Journal of Chromatography A 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.chroma.2015.09.042
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A novel approach for the direct injection from plant tissues without any sample pre-treatment has been developed by simply placing a small piece of the tissue into a capillary electrophoresis vial followed by application of a voltage for electrokinetic injection. Separations of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium were achieved using a BGE comprising 10mM imidazole and 2.5mM 18-crown-6-ether at pH 4.5. The addition of 2% (m/v) hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose to the separation buffer allowed for precise and accurate electrokinetic injection of ions from the plant material by halting the movement of tissue fluid into the capillary. This method provides both qualitative and quantitative data of inorganic cations, with quantitation in zucchini, mushroom and apple samples in agreement with Sector Field Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometric analysis (r(2)=0.98, n=9). This method provides a new way for rapid, quantitative analysis by eliminating sample preparation procedures, and has great potential for a range of applications in plant science and food chemistry.
    Journal of Chromatography A 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.chroma.2015.08.012
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ionic liquids/lithium salts solvent system was successfully introduced into the separation technique for the preparation of two coumarins (aesculin and aesculetin) from Cortex fraxini. Ionic liquids/lithium salts based microwave irradiation pretreatment followed by ultrasound-microwave synergy extraction (ILSMP-UMSE) procedure was developed and optimized for the sufficient extraction of these two analytes. Several variables which can potentially influence the extraction yields, including pretreatment time and temperature, [C4mim]Br concentration, LiAc content, ultrasound-microwave synergy extraction (UMSE) time, liquid-solid ratio, and UMSE power were optimized by Plackett-Burman design. Among seven variables, UMSE time, liquid-solid ratio, and UMSE power were the statistically significant variables and these three factors were further optimized by Box-Behnken design to predict optimal extraction conditions and find out operability ranges with maximum extraction yields. Under optimum operating conditions, ILSMP-UMSE showed higher extraction yields of two target compounds than those obtained by reference extraction solvents. Method validation studies also evidenced that ILSMP-UMSE is credible for the preparation of two coumarins from Cortex fraxini. This study is indicative of the proposed procedure that has huge application prospects for the preparation of natural products from plant materials.
    Journal of Chromatography A 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.chroma.2015.09.037
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Preparative scale supercritical fluid chromatography was used to separate derivatized anomeric monosaccharides. Methyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzoyl-α-d-glucopyranoside and methyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzoyl-β-d-glucopyranoside were synthesized by benzoyl derivatization of the parent anomerically pure monosaccharides. The elution profiles of each anomer were studied, suggesting that separation was possible. Mixtures of the compounds were then prepared at different ratios and separation was achieved using carbon dioxide/ethanol mixtures as the mobile phase and GreenSep™ 5micron particle size silica as the stationary phase. Ethanol co-solvent in the mobile phase was required to give a successful separation of the anomers however over the range 6.5-10.4wt% ethanol concentration studied here there was little variation in the degree of separation. In fractionation trials, separation of mixtures into fractions with >98% purity was achieved, with recoveries greater than 96%.
    Journal of Chromatography A 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.chroma.2015.09.046
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this research, poly (ethylene glycol)-poly (ethylene glycol) grafted flower-like cupric oxidenano particles (PEG-PEG-g-CuO NPs) as a novel fiber coating of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) were synthesized by using sol-gel technology. This fiber was successfully applied to extract and determine the ultra-trace levels of benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and o-xylene in human hair using head space-solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-flame ionization detector. Characterization and chemical composition of the nano particle was performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS) and back scatter analysis (BSA). These methods confirmed the successful fabrication of PEG-g-CuO NPs. The surface morphology of the fibers were inspected by scanning electron microscopy. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed many "crack-like" features and highly porous structure on the surface of fiber. The synthesized nanocomposites were used for preconcentration and extraction of benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and o-xylene (BTEX). The effects of operating parameters such as: desorption temperature and time, extraction temperature, extraction time, stirring speed and salt effect were investigated and optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the method detection limits and the limits of quantification were between 0.00025-50.00000pgmL(-1) and 0.00200-200.00000pgmL(-1), respectively. Linearity was observed over a range 0.00200-200000.00000pgmL(-1). The relative standard deviations for one fiber (repeatability; n=5) were obtained from 3.30 up to 5.01% and between fibers or batch to batch (n=3; reproducibility) in the range of 3.63-6.21%. The developed method was successfully applied to simultaneous determination of BTEX in human hairs, tap water and distillate water.
    Journal of Chromatography A 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.chroma.2015.09.044
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A method based on the combination of hollow fiber liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction and solid-phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography-electron capture detection was developed for the determination of chlorophenols in water and wastewater samples. Silica microstructures fabricated on the surface of a stainless steel wire were coated by an organic solvent and used as a SPME fiber. The analytes were extracted through a hollow fiber membrane containing n-decane from sample solution to an alkaline aqueous acceptor phase. They were then extracted and in situ derivatized on the SPME fiber using acetic anhydride. Experimental parameters such as the type of extraction solvent, acceptor phase NaOH concentration, donor phase HCl concentration, the amount of derivatizing reagent, salt concentration, stirring rate and extraction time were investigated and optimized. The precision of the method for the analytes at 0.02-30μgL(-1) concentration level ranged from 7.1 to 10.2% (as intra-day relative standard deviation) and 6.4 to 9.8% (as inter-day relative standard deviation). The linear dynamic ranges were in the interval of 5-500μgL(-1), 0.05-5μgL(-1), 0.02-1μgL(-1) and 0.001-0.5μgL(-1) for 2-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol and pentachlorophenol, respectively. The enrichment factors were between 432 and 785. The limits of detection were in the range of 0.0004-1.2μgL(-1). Tap water, well water and wastewater samples were also analyzed to evaluate the method capability for real sample analysis.
    Journal of Chromatography A 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.chroma.2015.09.062
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Portable and compact instruments for separating and detecting organic compounds are needed in the field for environmental studies. This is especially the case for pollution studies as in-field detection of organic compounds helps identify sources of pollution. Here we describe the development of a compact GC and simple pre-concentrator coupled to a MS detector. This simple system can easily be incorporated into portable instrumentation. Combining the pre-concentrator and compact column has the advantage of decoupling separation from manual injection and enhances separation of environmentally relevant polar organic compounds, such as levoglucosan. A detection limit of 2.2ng was obtained for levoglucosan. This simple design has the potential to expand the use of gas chromatography as a routine in-field separation technique.
    Journal of Chromatography A 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.chroma.2015.09.015
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Protein retention using dual gradient elution in ion exchange- and mixed-mode chromatography can be modeled using the combination of a modified Yamamoto's LGE model and a conversion term to correlate the elution salt concentration and pH at any given gradient slope. Incorporation of the pH dependence of the binding charges into the model also provides some insights on the dual effects of salt and pH in protein-ligand interaction. The fitted thermodynamic parameters (ΔGP(0)/RT, ΔGS(0)/RT, number of charged amino acids involved in binding) of the dual gradient elution data using lysozyme and mAbs on SP Sepharose(®) FF, Eshmuno(®) HCX, and Capto(®) MMC ImpRes were consistent to the results of mono gradient data. This gives rise to an approach to perform thermodynamic modeling of protein retention in ion exchange- and mixed-mode chromatography by combining both salt and pH gradient into a single run of dual gradient elution which will increase time and cost efficiency. The dual gradients used in this study encompassed a wide range of pH (4-8) and NaCl concentrations (0-1M). Curve fits showed that ΔGP(0)/RT is protein type and ligand dependent. ΔGS(0)/RT is strongly dependent on the stationary phase but not the protein. For mAb04 on mixed-mode resin Capto(®) MMC, ΔGS(0)/RT is 5-6 times higher than the result reported for the same protein on cation exchanger Fractogel(®) EMD SO3(-) (S).
    Journal of Chromatography A 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.chroma.2015.09.032