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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A fully automated and integrated chemiluminescence immunoassay, carried out on a compact disc (CD)-type microfluidic platform, for the detection of alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APnEOs) is described. The pattern of the CD-type microchip was designed so as to permit the sequential solution delivery of the sample solution, the washing solution and the luminol solution, which are required in the chemiluminescence immunoassay process, along with a designed rotation program for spinning the CD-type microchip. The procedure for flowing the washing solution, the volume of which was limited on the CD-type microchip, was optimized by using a recycled spinning-pausing rotation program to overcome the non-specific adsorption of the horseradish peroxidase labeled APnEOs at the detection area. The detection limit of the immunoassay is about 10ppb. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Talanta 02/2015; 133:100-6.
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    ABSTRACT: A simple and expedient flow-based assembly capitalizing on programmable flow is herein proposed for reliable determination of trace level concentrations of aluminum as a potential contaminant in dialysis concentrate solutions without any prior sample clean-up/preconcentration procedure. Using salicylaldehyde picolinoylhydrazone in weakly acidic media as a turn-on fluorescent probe, the manifold is devised to handle three samples concurrently in stopped-flow reaction mode for simultaneous improvement of the analytical sensitivity and sample throughput. Analytical parameters influencing the sensitivity and repeatability of the assays, namely, probe concentration, reaction temperature and reaction time were investigated using a multivariate optimization protocol composed of a full factorial screening design followed by a Doehlert matrix model. The analysis of the Pareto chart and surface response revealed that the reaction time and amount of fluorescent probe were critical parameters for reliable assays of aluminum at the low ngmL(-1) level. Under the optimized chemical and physical variables, a detection limit of 1.1ngmL(-1) Al(III) at the 3sblank level, relative standard deviations better than 1.0%, a dynamic linear range of 5.0-80ngmL(-1) and a sample throughput up to 25h(-1) were obtained with no need for either sample preconcentration or the use of organized supramolecular systems. Demonstrated with the analysis of hemodialysis and peritoneal concentrate solutions, and dialysis waters, the flow-through method copes with the requirements of regulatory bodies (e.g., European Pharmacopeia) for quality control of aluminum in high salinity containing dialysis concentrates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Talanta 02/2015; 133:120-6.
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    ABSTRACT: A method for the simultaneous determination of phosphate and silicate based on spectrophotometric measurement at 385nm of a single peak using a flow injection system with two component calibration is described. In the system, a stream of sample containing both analytes is merged with a stream of ammonium molybdate to form (at 1<pH<2) molybdophosphoric and molybdosilicic acids. Total absorbance of the compounds is registered in a form of a constant signal. Simultaneously, oxalic acid solution is injected into a carrier stream (H2SO4) and then merged with the stream of sample containing the mixture of heteropolyacids. A characteristic peak is registered as a result of selective decomposition of molybdophosphoric acid by oxalic acid. The area (or the absorbance measured at the constant signal) and the absorbance measured at the minimum of the peak can be used as measures corresponding to the phosphate and silicate concentrations, respectively. The time of the peak registration is about 3min. Two-component calibration with the use of four standard solutions of the phosphate/silicate concentrations established in accordance with 2(2) factorial design was applied. Phosphate and silicate can be determined within the concentration ranges of 0.20-15.00 and 0.20-20.00mg L(-1), with precision less than 2.7 and 0.9% (RSD), respectively and accuracy better than 6.2% (RE). The detection limit is 0.054 and 0.092mg L(-1) for phosphate and silicate, respectively. The method was applied to determination of the analytes in certified reference materials of groundwater, wastewater, and river water giving results consistent with the certified values. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Talanta 02/2015; 133:150-4.
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    ABSTRACT: We present a novel chemiluminescence detector, with a cone-shaped detection chamber where the analytical reaction takes place. The sample and appropriate reagents are injected directly into the chamber in countercurrent using solenoid-operated pulse micro-pumps. The proposed detector allows for fast measurement of the chemiluminescence signal in stop-flow conditions from the moment of reagents mixing. To evaluate potential applications of the detector the Fenton-like reaction with a luminol-H2O2 system and several transition metal ions (Co(2+), Cu(2+), Cr(3+), Fe(3+)) as a catalyst were investigated. The results demonstrate suitability of the proposed detector for quantitative analysis and for investigations of reaction kinetics, particularly rapid reactions. A multi-pumping flow system was designed and optimized. The developed methodology demonstrated that the shape of the analytical signals strongly depends on the type and concentration of the metal ions. The application of the detector in quantitative analysis was assessed for determination of Fe(III). The direct-injection chemiluminescence detector allows for a sensitive and repeatable (R.S.D. 2%) determination. The intensity of chemiluminescence increased linearly in the range from about 0.5 to 10mgL(-1) Fe(III) with the detection limit of 0.025mgL(-1). The time of analysis depended mainly on reaction kinetics. It is possible to achieve the high sampling rate of 144 samples per hour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Talanta 02/2015; 133:112-9.
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    ABSTRACT: A new approach is presented for sensitive and selective measurement of sulfite (SO3(2-)) in beverages based on a simple flow injection system with amperometric detection. In this work, the sulfite sensor was a glassy carbon electrode modified with multiwall carbon nanotubes-poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-gold nanoparticles composites (CNTs-PDDA-AuNPs/GC). Electrochemical oxidation of sulfite with this electrode was first studied in 0.1M phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) using cyclic voltammetry. The results indicated that the CNTs-PDDA-AuNPs/GC electrode possesses electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of sulfite with high sensitivity and selectivity. Sulfite was quantified using amperometric measurement with the new sensor at +0.4V vs Ag/AgCl in conjunction with flow injection. The linear working range for the quantitation of sulfite was 2-200mgL(-1) (r(2)=0.998) with a detection limit of 0.03mgL(-1) (3σ of blank) and an estimated precision of 1.5%.The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of sulfite in fruit juices and wines with a sample throughput of 23 samples per hour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Talanta 02/2015; 133:134-41.
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    ABSTRACT: Micro-sequential injection lab-on-valve (µSI-LOV) is a well-established analytical platform for absorbance and fluorescence based assays but its applicability to chemiluminescence detection remains largely unexplored. In this work, we describe a novel fluidic protocol and two distinct strategies for photon collection that enable chemiluminescence detection using µSI-LOV for the first time. To illustrate this proof of concept, we selected the reaction between Fe(II) and luminol and developed a preliminary protocol for Fe(II) determinations in acidified seawater. The optimized fluidic strategy consists of holding 100µL of the luminol reagent in a confined zone of the LOV and then displacing it with 50µL of sample while monitoring the chemiluminescent product. Detection is achieved using two strategies: one based on a bifurcated optical fiber and the other based on a customized detection window created by mounting a photomultiplier tube atop of the LOV device. We show that detection is possible using both strategies but that the window strategy yields significantly enhanced sensitivity (355×) due to the larger detection area. In our final experimental conditions and using window detection, it was possible to achieve a limit of detection (LOD) of 1nmolL(-1) and to quantify Fe(II) in acidified seawater samples up to 20.00nmolL(-1) with high precision (RSD<6%). These analytical features combined with the long-term stability of luminol solution and the full automation and low reagent consumption make this approach a promising analytical tool for shipboard analysis of Fe(II). The intrinsic capacity of the LOV to operate at a low microliter level and to handle solid phases also opens up a new avenue for chemiluminescence applications. Moreover, this contribution shows that LOV can be a universal platform for optical detection, capable of absorbance, fluorescence and luminescence measurements in a single instrument setup. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Talanta 02/2015; 133:107-11.
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    ABSTRACT: A flow injection manifold incorporating a solid phase chelating resin (Toyopearl AF-Chelate-650) is reported for the preconcentration of dissolved metals from seawater, with a focus on investigating the effect of the loading pH, wash solution composition and wash time. Cobalt, iron, lead and vanadium have been used as target analytes with contrasting oceanographic behaviour. Quadrupole ICP-MS has been used for detection to make the approach accessible to most laboratories and a collision/reaction cell has been incorporated to minimise polyatomic interferences. Results for the seawater CRM NASS-6 and two GEOTRACES reference materials were in good agreement with the certified/consensus values, demonstrating the suitability of the approach for the determination of trace metals in seawater. The experimental design used allowed a thorough investigation of the uncertainty contribution from each method parameter to the overall expanded uncertainty of the measurement. The results showed that the parameters making the largest contributions were the precision of the peak area measurement and the uncertainty associated with the slope of the calibration curve. Therefore, these are the critical parameters that should be targeted in order to reduce the overall measurement uncertainty. For iron, the wash blank also gave a measureable contribution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Talanta 02/2015; 133:162-9.
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, a fast and simple approach to directly determinate lead in water samples by a low power dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) excitation source was developed using tungsten coil electro-thermal vaporization (WC ETV) for liquid microsample introduction. A 20μL sample was dropped onto the WC, and then the sample went through the drying, pyrolysis, subsequently the analyte was vaporized and swept directly into the dielectric barrier discharge micro-plasma for emission, and the whole process took only 3min. The effects of operating parameters such as plasma gas flow rate, plasma input voltage, pyrolysis current, vaporization current and interferences from concomitant elements were investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the limit of detection (LODs, 3σ) was calculated to be 7.7μgL(-1). Repeatability, expressed as the relative standard deviation of the spectral peak height, was 4.6% (n=11) for 0.1mgL(-1) lead standard solution. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determinations of Pb in water samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Talanta 01/2015; 132:106–111.
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    ABSTRACT: A sensitive, portable cost-effective smart-phone-based Pb2+ sensor platform was developed by a laser pointer, a smart-phone, and gallic acid-capped gold nanoparticles.
    Talanta 01/2015; 132:44–51.
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    ABSTRACT: The fabrication of a capacitive interdigitated immunosensor (CID) based on a mixed self-assembled monolayer (mSAM) film for the direct detection of heart fatty-acid binding protein (h-FABP) without any labeling is described. The capacitance changes of mSAMs vs. homogenous ordered self-assembled monolayers (hSAMs) on gold work electrodes/covalently bonded antibodies/buffered medium are utilized for monitoring the specific antibody-antigen interaction. Capacitance measurements in the absence and presence of Faradaic currents were performed. The electrochemical properties of mixed monolayers were compared with those of a pure monolayer of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) self-assembled on gold surfaces. Taking into account the stability of the studied monolayers during the electrochemical experiments with the Faradaic process, the best SAM functionalization method was used for developing a sensitive capacitive immunosensor with a non-Faradaic process for direct immune detection of human h-FABP. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed mixed self-assembled monolayer (mSAM1) on gold electrode exhibited good insulating properties such as a capacitive behavior when detecting h-FABP from human serum in the range of 98pgml(-1)-100ngml(-1), with a detection limit of 0.836ngml(-1) comparative with a homogenous self-assembled monolayer (hSAM). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Talanta 01/2015; 132:37–43.
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    ABSTRACT: A π-conjugated cyanostilbene derivative of (Z)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)-3-(4-(vinyloxy)phenyl)acrylonitrile (CN-vinyl) had been designed, synthesized and confirmed by the standard spectroscopic analyses. CN-vinyl possesses an unusual high emissive aggregation-induced emission (AIE) feature in a tetrahydrofuran/water mixture (2:8, v/v). The fluorescence intensity of CN-vinyl can be quenched linearly with the addition of Hg(2+) in a range of 0-50μM with a correlation coefficient of R(2)=0.9957. The detection limit of Hg(2+) is 37nM. The mechanism for Hg(2+)-mediated optical properties of CN-vinyl is due to the selective cleavage of vinyl group by Hg(2+). Accuracy of the proposed methodology was evaluated by means of the recovery study in real samples and the analyzing certified reference material of the standard solution of Hg(2+). By this novel strategy, CN-vinyl can be used for quantitative detection of Hg(2+) as well as the presence of other physiological relevant metal ions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Talanta 01/2015; 132:864-70.
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    ABSTRACT: A novel electrochemical-sensing platform based on imprinted bimetallic Fe/Pd (BI-Fe/Pd) nanoparticle has been fabricated for point-of-care diagnostics of oxidative stress marker (3-nitrotyrosine) in biological fluids. Herein, BI-Fe/Pd nanoparticles are used as a platform on which 3-nitrotyrosine imprinted cavities are created using acrylamide as monomer and N-N'-methylene bisacrylamide as cross-linker. The performance of the obtained imprinted sensor is investigated by cyclic, differential pulse, and square wave voltammetry in stripping mode. The imprinted sensor exhibits high recognition ability and affinity for 3-nitrotyrosine in comparison with the non-imprinted one. In addition, the proposed sensor is capable of measuring 3-nitrotyrosine in aqueous as well as in human blood serum, plasma, and urine samples within the range of 4.90-867.57µgL(-1) and 9.90-867.57µgL(-1) with detection limit of 1.20µgL(-1) and 3.25µgL(-1) by square wave and differential pulse stripping voltammetry, respectively. Imprinted BI-Fe/Pd nanoparticle modified sensor shows high affinity and no interference from blood or urine components. Modified sensor was stored for 45 days at room temperature without any detrimental effects to their binding properties. The high affinity of proposed sensor and the lack of requirement for cold chain logistics make them an attractive alternative to the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Talanta 01/2015; 132:406-15.
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    ABSTRACT: A new direct laser photo-induced fluorescence high performance liquid chromatography (DL-PIF-HPLC) method is developed for the simultaneous determination of three anilide pesticides, namely carboxin, monalide and propanil. DL-PIF-HPLC uses a tunable Nd:YAG-OPO laser to obtain fluorescent photoproduct(s) and to simultaneously analyze their fluorescence in a short acquisition time with an intensified CCD camera, which improves the selectivity (by choosing the suitable excitation wavelength), increases the sensitivity (due to the high energy of the laser beam) and reduces the time of analysis, relative to the classical PIF methods. However, one of the main drawbacks of PIF methods is the presence of interferences with other compounds, such as other pesticides from the same group yielding similar fluorescent photoproducts, which reduces their selectivity. The analytical interest of DL-PIF-HPLC to avoid these interferences is demonstrated. The DL-PIF spectra, chromatographic conditions and analytical performances of DL-PIF-HPLC are presented for the simultaneous determination of three anilide pesticides. The calibration curves are linear over one order of magnitude and the limits of detection are in the ngmL(-1) range. The new DL-PIF-HPLC system has the advantage to combine the performances of both techniques, DL-PIF and liquid chromatography, and to improve the analysis selectivity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Talanta 01/2015; 132:909-14.
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    ABSTRACT: Eight selected isomeric amines were ionized using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization and atmospheric pressure photoionization producing a protonated molecule [M+H]+ for each amine. The mobility of these ions was measured by ion mobility spectrometry. The amine compound class was shown to have an important role in mobility separation of the amines. 2,4,6-collidine, N,N-dimethylaniline and N-methyl-o-toluidine with highest observed mobilities have a N-heterocyclic aromatic ring, or are tertiary or secondary amines, respectively, whereas the rest of the compounds with lower mobilities were primary amines. It is suggested that the protonated –NH2 group (–NH3+) interacts more with the drift gas, and therefore the primary amines have lower mobilities. The effect of the drift gas was tested by mixing argon or helium with the nitrogen drift gas. The presence of argon shifted the mobilities towards lower values, while with helium the mobility shifted towards higher values. However, in neither case did this result in better separation of the unresolved compounds.
    Talanta 01/2015; Talanta(132):889.
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    ABSTRACT: A novel magnetic graphene oxide nanocomposite was synthesized by one-step coprecipitation method and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer. The nanocomposite beard many intriguing properties, including chemical stability, high adsorption capacity, and superparamagnetic. These properties evoked great interest and desire of its exploration in magnetic solid-phase extraction of heavy metal ions from complex samples. Several parameters effecting the analytical performance, such as the sample pH, amounts of adsorbent, sample volumes, elution volumes, and coexisting ions, had been investigated in detail. The adsorbed metal ions were easy eluted by controlling the pH condition and the materials could be reused more than 20 times. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection were 0.016, 0.046, 0.395, 0.038, 0.157μgL(-1) for Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Cd(2+), and Pb(2+), respectively. The intra-day relative standard deviations (n=5) were in the range of 1.8-5.5% at 10μgL(-1). The proposed method was successfully applied to biological sample analysis and got excellent recoveries in the range of 81-113% even the matrix was complex. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Talanta 01/2015; 132:557-63.
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    ABSTRACT: Osteocalcin (bone gamma-carboxyglutamate protein; BGLAP) is a highly conserved molecule associated with mineralization of bone matrix. It regulates the dynamics of new bone formation and bone resorption. The synthesis of osteocalcin by osteoblasts is regulated by the active form of vitamin D. In this paper, we report the use of two fluorescent-based assays, one bead-based and a second involving an amino-silane surface pre-treatment, to obtain binding constants of 3.53×10(6)M(-1) and 3.19×10(6)M(-1), respectively, for the binding of BGLAP to fluorescently labeled monoclonal-anti BGLAP-clone 2D5. These simple microfluidic techniques demonstrate the feasibility of developing microsphere-based and surface electrostatically-attached binding assays to study peptide-antibody interactions. Both techniques utilize sub-microliter volumes of material an important consideration when studying bone turnover markers (BTMs) like BGLAP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Talanta 01/2015; 132:676-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Green analytical chemistry is an aspect of green chemistry which introduced in the late nineties. The main objectives of green analytical chemistry are to obtain new analytical technologies or to modify an old method to incorporate procedures that use less hazardous chemicals. There are several approaches to achieve this goal such as using environmentally benign solvents and reagents, reducing the chromatographic separation times and miniaturization of analytical devices. Traditional methods used for the analysis of pharmaceutically active compounds require large volumes of organic solvents and generate large amounts of waste. Most of them are volatile and harmful to the environment. With the awareness about the environment, the development of green technologies has been receiving increasing attention aiming at eliminating or reducing the amount of organic solvents consumed everyday worldwide without loss in chromatographic performance. This review provides the state of the art of green analytical methodologies for environmental analysis of pharmaceutically active compounds in the aquatic environment with special emphasis on strategies for greening liquid chromatography (LC). The current trends of fast LC applied to environmental analysis, including elevated mobile phase temperature, as well as different column technologies such as monolithic columns, fully porous sub-2μm and superficially porous particles are presented. In addition, green aspects of gas chromatography (GC) and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) will be discussed. We pay special attention to new green approaches such as automation, miniaturization, direct analysis and the possibility of locating the chromatograph on-line or at-line as a step forward in reducing the environmental impact of chromatographic analyses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Talanta 01/2015; 132C:739-752.
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    ABSTRACT: During the past decade, the number of terrorism acts has increased and the need for efficient explosive detectors has become an urgent worldwide necessity. A prototype, Nebulex™, was recently developed in our laboratory. Basically, it couples the solubilization of an analyte from the atmosphere by a nebulization process and in-situ detection. This article presents the development and integration of an electrochemical sensor for the detection of nitromethane, a common chemical product that can be used to make an improvised explosive device. A gold screen-printed electrode was used in a flow-cell and a detection limit of 4.5µM was achieved by square wave voltammetry. The detection method was also determined to be selective toward nitromethane over a large panel of interfering compounds. Detection tests with the Nebulex™ were thus carried out using a custom-made calibrated nitromethane vapor generator. Detection times of less than one minute were obtained for nitromethane contents of 8 and 90ppmv. Further measurements were performed in a room-measurement configuration leading to detection times in the range of 1-2min, clearly demonstrating the system׳s efficiency under quasi-real conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Talanta 01/2015; 132:334–338.
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    ABSTRACT: In this work, a fluorescence turn-on method for copper(II) detection is reported. A molecular beacon (MB) was designed as a template. Cu(2+) was reduced to Cu(+) in the presence of a reductant (ascorbic acid). Two short single-stranded oligonucleotides one was labeled with a 5'-alkyne and the other with 3'-azide group, proceeded a template-dependent chemical ligation through the Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition. The newly generated click-ligated long chain oligonucleotide, which was complementary to the MB, opened the MB hairpin structure and resulted in a turn on fluorescence. The increase in fluorescence intensity is directly proportional to the amount of Cu(2+) added to the assay solution. The present assay is quite sensitive and allows the detection of 2nM Cu(2+). The described assay also exhibits high selectivity over other metal ions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Talanta 01/2015; 132:72–76.