European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics: official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V

Publisher: Elsevier

Description

  • Impact factor
    3.15
  • 5-year impact
    0.00
  • Cited half-life
    5.00
  • Immediacy index
    0.87
  • Eigenfactor
    0.02
  • Article influence
    0.87
  • ISSN
    1873-3441

Publisher details

Elsevier

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Voluntary deposit by author of pre-print allowed on Institutions open scholarly website and pre-print servers
    • Voluntary deposit by author of authors post-print allowed on institutions open scholarly website including Institutional Repository
    • Deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental mandate only allowed where separate agreement between repository and publisher exists
    • Set statement to accompany deposit
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to journal home page or articles' DOI
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • NIH Authors articles will be submitted to PMC after 12 months
    • Authors who are required to deposit in subject repositories may also use Sponsorship Option
    • Pre-print can not be deposited for The Lancet
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Native cellulose nanocrystal (CNC), oxidized CNC (CNC-OX) and chitosan oligosaccharide grafted CNC (CNC-CSOS) were evaluated as potential drug delivery carriers for two model drug compounds, procaine hydrochloride (PrHy) and imipramine hydrochloride (IMI). The loading of PrHy and IMI was performed at pH 8 and 7, respectively. IMI displayed higher binding to CNC derivatives than PrHy. Drug selective membranes were prepared for each model drug and a drug selective electrode system was used to measure the drug concentration in the filtrate and release medium. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) was used to elucidate the types of interactions between model drugs and CNC and its derivatives. The complexation between model drugs and CNC derivatives was confirmed by zeta potential and transmittance measurements. The binding and release of these drugs correlated with the nature and types of interactions that exist between the CNC and drug molecules.
    European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics: official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V 05/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study was designed to investigate the feasibility of silk fibroin nanoparticles (SFNs) for sustained drug delivery in transscleral ultrasound. Fluorescein isothiocynate labeled bovine serum albumin (FITC-BSA, MW 66.45 kDa) was chosen as a model macromolecular protein drug and SFNs were used as nano-carrier systems suitable for ocular drug delivery. Drug loaded nanoparticles (FITC-BSA-SFNs) were first prepared and characterized. In vitro transscleral study under ultrasound exposure (1 MHz, 0.5 W/cm(2), 5 min continuous wave) using isolated sclera of rabbit was performed. The posterior eye segment of rabbit was examined for adverse effect by slit-lamp and histology. It was found that FITC-BSA-SFNs possessed sustained release, bioadhesive, and co-permeation characteristics. The ultrasound application significantly improved the penetration efficiency of FITC-BSA-SFNs as compared with passive delivery, meanwhile caused no damages to the ocular tissue and particles themselves. The distribution profile of SFNs revealed rapid and lasting adhesion on the outer scleral tissues, followed by migration into the interior up to one week after treatment. This research suggested a novel non-invasive transscleral administration of macromolecular protein drugs using SFN carriers combining with ultrasound technology.
    European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics: official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V 05/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Novel in-situ forming implants are presented showing a promising potential to overcome one of the major practical hurdles associated with local periodontitis treatment: limited adhesion to the surrounding tissue, resulting in accidental expulsion of at least parts of the implants from the patients' pockets. This leads to high uncertainties in the systems' residence times at the site of action and in the resulting drug exposure. In the present study, the addition of different types and amounts of plasticizers (acetyltributyl citrate and dibutylsebacate) as well as of adhesive polymers (e.g., cellulose derivatives such as hydroxypropyl methylcellulose) is shown to allow for a significant increase in the stickiness of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-based implants. The systems are formed in-situ from N-methyl pyrrolidone-based liquid formulations. Importantly, at the same time, good plastic deformability of the implants can be provided and desired drug release patterns can be fine-tuned using several formulation tools. The antimicrobial activity of this new type of in-situ forming implants, loaded with doxycycline hyclate, was demonstrated using the agar well diffusion method and multiple Streptococcus strains isolated from the oral microflora of patients suffering from periodontitis.
    European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics: official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V 05/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Central nervous system disorders are already prevalent and steadily increasing among populations worldwide. However, most of the pharmaceuticals present on world markets are ineffective in treating cerebral diseases, because they cannot effectively cross the blood brain barrier (BBB). Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) are nanospheres made from biocompatible solid lipids, with unique advantages among drug carriers: they can be used as vehicles to cross the BBB. This review examines the main aspects surrounding brain delivery with SLN, and illustrates the principal mechanisms used to enhance brain uptake of the delivered drug.
    European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics: official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V 05/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this work is to evaluate the application of through-vial impedance spectroscopy in the measurement of eutectic crystallization during the freezing stage of the lyophilisation cycle. Impedance measurements of various sugar solutions (mannitol 5, 10 and 15% w/v, sucrose 5%w/v and mannitol 5% w/v, sucrose 5% w/v solutions) were taken during a freeze-thaw cycle, over a frequency range 10-106 Hz with a scan interval of 1.5 min, using measurement vials with externally attached electrodes connected to a high resolution impedance analyser. Estimates for the electrical resistance of the mannitol solutions record the exothermic crystallization of mannitol at a temperature of -24°C during the temperature ramp down stage of the freezing cycle, which is in close agreement with the off-line DSC measurement of -22 °C. The freezing profile of a 5% mannitol solution with 5% sucrose (a component that does not crystallize in the frozen solution) demonstrated the inhibition of mannitol crystallization (with the implication that the product will then require sub-Tg’ freezing and drying). The works suggests a role for through-vial impedance spectroscopy in the concurrent development of the product formulation and freeze drying cycle without the uncertainty introduced when using off-line date to define the critical process parameters.
    European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics: official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V 05/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Intracellular nature and diversified locations of infectious and parasitic diseases such as leishmaniasis, trypanosomiasis, tuberculosis, hepatitis B and C, etc. pose a significant global burden and challenge to scientists working in the area of drug discovery and drug delivery. The macrophages and hepatocytes are considered as potential target sites as they together play an important role in various infectious diseases. The present study scrutinizes the applicability of a natural biopolymer-based chemical vectors, capable of targeting both macrophages and hepatocytes, that can form a complex with plasmid and administer it into cells to produce a desired protein. The investigations were made to develop a novel series of gene carriers by conjugating depolymerized galactomannan (guar gum), a biocompatible polysaccharide with low molecular weight branched PEI (LMWP). A series of conjugates were developed and characterized using physicochemical techniques. All the GP/pDNA complexes showed significantly higher transfection efficiency with GP-3/pDNA, one of the best formulations, showed ∼2.0-7.7 folds higher transfection efficacy when compared with the standard transfection reagents. Further, GP-3/pDNA displayed significantly higher target specific transfection efficiency under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. The data demonstrate the potential of GP vectors to deliver nucleic acids simultaneously to macrophages and hepatocytes in gene delivery applications.
    European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics: official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V 05/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this work was to study the applicability of antigen-coated pH-sensitive microneedle arrays for effective vaccination strategies. Therefore, a model antigen (ovalbumin) was coated onto pH-sensitive (pyridine-modified) microneedle arrays to test pH-triggered antigen release by applying the coated arrays onto ex vivo human skin, and by conducting a dermal immunization study in mice. The release of antigen into ex vivo human skin from the coated microneedles was determined by using radioactively labeled ovalbumin. To investigate the induction of antigen-specific IgG, and CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses, BALB/c mice were immunized with antigen coated pH-sensitive microneedles by the 'coat and poke' approach. These responses were compared to responses induced by the 'poke and patch' approach, and subcutaneous and intradermal vaccination with classic hypodermic needles. The pH-sensitive microneedle arrays were efficiently coated with ovalbumin (95% coating efficiency) and upon application of six microneedle arrays 4.27 of 7 μg ovalbumin was delivered into the skin, showing a release efficiency of 70%. In contrast, the 'poke and patch' approach led to a delivery of only 6.91 of 100 μg ovalbumin (7% delivery efficiency). Immunization by means of ovalbumin-coated microneedles resulted in robust CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses comparable to those obtained after subcutaneous or intradermal immunization with conventional needles. Moreover, it effectively induced IgG responses, however, it required prime-boost immunizations before antibodies were produced. In conclusion, antigen delivery into ex vivo human skin by antigen-coated pH-sensitive microneedle arrays is more efficient than the 'poke-and-patch' approach and in vivo vaccination studies show the applicability of pH-sensitive microneedles for the induction of both T cell and B cell responses.
    European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics: official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V 05/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Colon cancer is the third most leading causes of death due to cancer worldwide and the chemo drug 5-fluorouracil's (5-FU) applicability is limited due to its non-specificity, low bioavailability and overdose. The efficacy of 5-FU in colon cancer chemo treatment could be improved by nanoencapsulation and combinatorial approach. In the present study curcumin (CUR), a known anticancer phytochemical, was used in combination with 5-FU and the work focuses on the development of a combinatorial nanomedicine based on 5-FU and CUR in N, O- carboxymethyl chitosan nanoparticles (N, O-CMC NPs). The developed 5-FU-N, O-CMC NPs and CUR-N, O-CMC NPs were found to be blood compatible. The in vitro drug release profile in pH 4.5 and 7.4 showed a sustained release profile over a period of 4 days. The combined exposure of the nanoformulations in colon cancer cells (HT 29) proved the enhanced anticancer effects. In addition, the in vivo pharmacokinetic data in mouse model revealed improved plasma concentrations of 5-FU and CUR which prolonged up to 72 hours unlike the bare drugs. In conclusion, the 5-FU and CUR released from the N, O-CMC NPs produced enhanced anticancer effects in vitro and improved plasma concentrations under in vivo conditions.
    European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics: official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V 05/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to develop lipid nanoparticles to deliver genistein (GEN) to deeper skin layers. To do so, the impact of lipid dynamic behavior (nanoparticle flexibility) on stability, release and skin permeation studies was verified. GEN-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) were obtained and characterization was undertaken. Freshly prepared nanoparticles were produced with similar features (i.e., drug loading). However, a higher level of crystallization in GEN-SLN formulation was observed in differential scanning calorimetry experiments. Electron paramagnetic resonance measurements showed a lower mobility of the spin labels in the SLN, which would indicate that NLC could be more flexible than SLN. Despite the fact that NLC demonstrated more fluidity, GEN was released more slowly from NLC than from SLN. Skin permeation studies demonstrated that lipid nanoparticles increased GEN skin retention. More flexible particles (NLC) also favored drug penetration into deeper skin layers. GEN-NLC would seem to be a promising formulation for GEN topical delivery.
    European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics: official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V 05/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is an appealing alternative drug for the cancers that have failed the conventional chemotherapy and become chemo-resistant and more tumorigenic. In this study, we specifically addressed two issues commonly associated with ATRA nanotherapeutics: (1) insufficient, unstable entrapment and uncontrolled release of the highly lipophilic ATRA; (2) lack of studies in therapeutically relevant chemo-resistant cancer cell models. A polymer-oil nanostructured carrier (PONC) composed of oil and PLGA was designed and studied in an ovarian cancer cell subline SKOV-3PR that could withstand up to 300 nM paclitaxel and expressed high levels of multidrug resistance transporter ABCB1 and tumorigenic marker CD133. Differential scanning calorimetry of PONC revealed superior polymer amorphosity and dispersion of the entrapped ATRA in a manner comparable to nanostructured lipid carriers. With this design, the ATRA encapsulation efficiency was increased up to 8.5-fold and a 5-day controlled release profile was obtained. ATRA-PONC was able to induce extensive apoptotic cell death and exert substantially higher long-term anti-tumorigenic effects (IC50 of ATRA-PONC: 2 μg/ml versus free ATRA: 17.5 μg/ml; p<0.05) in SKOV-3PR cells. Mechanistic studies indicated that these enhanced anticancer effects were likely attributable to higher cell permeation by the well-dispersed drug/oil steadily released from PONC. To conclude, a nanostructured, oil-in-polymer hybrid carrier design has been developed for efficient ATRA delivery and treatment of the chemo-exposed, chemo-resistant sub-population of ovarian cancer, exemplifying a convenient strategy to vastly improve the pharmaceutical and therapeutic properties of tough-to-deliver lipophilic, poorly water-soluble anticancer compounds.
    European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics: official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V 05/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this work was to study the penetration of cytochrome c, a positively charged model protein (MW 12.4 kDa, charge at pH 8.2: +9), across different ocular tissues, and to evaluate the potential of iontophoresis to enhance and control the transscleral transport. The passive transport of cytochrome c across the sclera and across the bilayer choroid-Bruch's membrane was evaluated using franz diffusion cells and porcine tissues. The affinity of cytochrome c for melanin was measured by means of in vitro binding experiments. The iontophoretic (anodal) permeation was studied as a function of donor concentration (from 5 to 70 mg/ml) and current intensity (from 0.9 to 3.5 mA; density from 1.5 to 5.8 mA/cm(2)), and the contribution of electroosmosis on cytochrome c transport was evaluated by using a high molecular weight fluorescent dextran (FD-150, 149 kDa) as neutral marker. Finally, the possibility of tuning cytochrome c permeation rate was investigated on a 70 mg/ml cytochrome c solution, by alternating passive permeation and iontophoresis at different intensities. Cytochrome c permeated the sclera with a passive permeability coefficient of about 2.5∗10(-6) cm/s, comparable to molecules of similar molecular radius. The choroid-Bruch's layer was an important barrier to penetration, since its presence reduced 5-7 times the amount permeated after 5 hours, also because of the presence of melanin that bind cytochrome. Iontophoresis (2.9 mA/cm(2)) enhanced cytochrome c penetration across the sclera at all the concentrations tested, increasing about ten times the amount permeated after 2 hours. The effect was proportional to current density: the enhancement factor (measured on a 10 mg/ml solution), resulted 6.0±4.3 (i= 0.9mA; density=1.5mA/cm(2)), 10.6±4.1 (i=1.75mA; density=2.9mA/cm(2)), 33.2±8.3 (i=1.75mA; density=5.8mA/cm(2)). Iontophoretic (density=2.9 mA/cm(2)) experiments performed with FD-150, an electroosmotic flow (EO) marker, demonstrated that cytochrome c, at concentration higher that 1 mg/ml, dramatically reduced the EO flow and that, despite the high MW, the main mechanism for cytochrome c iontophoretic permeation is electrorepulsion. Finally, by alternating in the same experiment passive permeation and iontophoresis at different current intensities, a precise modulation of cytochrome c release was obtained, thus indicating the possibility of tuning the release as a function of specific therapeutic needs.
    European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics: official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V 05/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third most common cause of cancer death worldwide. Epirubicin (EPI), an anthracycline derivative, is one of the main line treatments for HCC. However, serious side effects including cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure limit its long term administration. Our main goal is to develop a delivery strategy that ensures improved efficacy of the chemotherapeutic agent together with reduced cardiotoxicity. In this context, EPI was loaded in chitosan-PLGA nanoparticles linked with asialofetuin (EPI-NPs) selectively targeting hepatocytes. In an attempt to reduce cardiotoxicity, targeted EPI-NPs were coadministered with tocotrienols. EPI-NPs significantly enhanced the antiproliferative effect compared to free EPI as studied on Hep G2 cell line. Nanoencapsulated EPI injected in HCC mouse model revealed higher p53-mediated apoptosis and reduced angiogenesis in the tumor. Combined therapy of EPI-NPs with tocotrienols further enhanced apoptosis and reduced VEGF level in a dose dependent manner. Assessment of cardiotoxicity indicated that EPI-NPs diminished the high level of proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) as well as oxidative stress-induced cardiotoxicity as manifested by reduced level of lipid peroxidation products (TBARS) and nitric oxide (NO). EPI-NPs additionally restored the diminished level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in the heart. Interestingly, tocotrienols provided both antitumour activity and higher protection against oxidative stress and inflammation induced by EPI in the heart. This hepatocyte-targeted biodegradable nanoparticle / tocotrienol combined therapy represents intriguing therapeutic strategy for EPI providing not only superior efficacy but also higher safety levels.
    European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics: official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V 05/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We developed novel gene vectors composed of dendrigraft poly-L-lysine (DGL). The transgene expression efficiency of the pDNA/DGL complexes (DGL complexes) was markedly higher than that of the control pDNA/poly-L-lysine complex. However, the DGL complexes caused cytotoxicity and erythrocyte agglutination at high doses. Therefore, γ-polyglutamic acid (γ-PGA), which is a biodegradable anionic polymer, was added to the DGL complexes to decrease their toxicity. The resultant ternary complexes (DGL/γ-PGA complexes) were shown to be stable nanoparticles, and those with γ-PGA to pDNA charge ratios of >8 had anionic surface charges. The transgene expression efficiency of the DGL/γ-PGA complexes was similar to that of the DGL complexes; however, they exhibited lower cytotoxicity and did not induce erythrocyte agglutination at high doses. After being intravenously administered to mice, the DGL6 complex demonstrated high transfection efficiency in the liver, lungs, and spleen, whereas the DGL6/γ-PGA8 complex only displayed high transfection efficiency in the spleen. Future studies should examine the utility of DGL and DGL/γ-PGA complexes for clinical gene therapy.
    European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics: official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V 05/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In vitro drug release testing is an appropriate approach to identify critical parameters helping to predict drug release from drug-eluting stents (DES) prior studying drug release behavior under in vivo conditions. Drug release and distribution from DES coated with a fluorescent model substance were studied in vitro using the vessel-simulating flow-through cell equipped with different long-term stable hydrogel compartments composed of agarose, polyacrylamide or poly(vinyl alcohol). The obtained experimental results were compared with the results of finite-element modeling obtained using experimentally determined diffusion coefficients and partition coefficients. In spite of differences regarding these parameters, experimental and mathematical data yielded only minor differences between the different gels regarding the release and distribution behavior and reasonable agreement between the modeling and the experiment was obtained. In an attempt to further elucidate the dosage form behavior, the diffusion coefficients in the gel as well as in the stent coating were systematically varied in the finite-element model. Changes in the diffusivity in the stent coating mainly impacted on the initial concentrations. Slower diffusion inside the hydrogel yielded a retarded elution from the stent coating and a higher model substance accumulation in the gel compartment at late time points.
    European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics: official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V 05/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Adenosine is an indirect stimulus to assess bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR(2)) in asthma. Bronchial challenge tests are usually performed with nebulised solutions of adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP(3)). The nebulised AMP test has several disadvantages, like long administration times and a restrictive maximum concentration that does not result in BHR in all patients. In this study, we investigated the applicability of dry powder adenosine for assessment of BHR in comparison to nebulised AMP. Dry powder adenosine was prepared in doubling doses (0.01-80 mg) derived from the nebulised AMP test with addition of two higher doses. Five asthmatic subjects performed two bronchial challenge tests, one with nebulised AMP following the 2-minute tidal breathing method; the second with dry powder adenosine administered with an investigational inhaler and single slow inhalations (inspiratory flow rate 30-40 L/min). All subjects reached a 20% fall in FEV1(4) with the new adenosine test (PD20(5)) compared to four subjects with the AMP test (PC20(6)). Dry powder adenosine was well tolerated by all subjects and better appreciated than nebulised AMP. In conclusion, this new bronchial challenge test appears to be a safe and convenient alternative to the nebulised AMP test to assess BHR in asthmatic subjects.
    European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics: official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V 04/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Resveratrol and curcumin are natural antioxidants found in the human diet that have been used in the prevention and treatment of different diseases associated with oxidative stress. Aiming to improve the antioxidant effects of resveratrol and curcumin, lipid-core nanocapsules containing the combination of both polyphenols were developed. Physicochemical characteristics were evaluated and compared to the formulations containing each polyphenol individually. Co-encapsulation did not influence nanotechnological characteristics, and all formulations presented mean diameter around 200 nm, low polydispersity index, and encapsulation efficiency close to 100%. Nanoencapsulation increases the photostability of resveratrol and curcumin, and co-encapsulation improves resveratrol photostability. The in vitro antioxidant activity of polyphenols against HO(•) radicals was enhanced by nanoencapsulation, and a better effect was observed after their co-nanoencapsulation. Also, nanocapsules exhibited controlled release profile, for both polyphenols. The results showed that the strategy to co-encapsulate resveratrol and curcumin is a promising approach to improve the performance of medicines used to prevent and treat diseases associated with oxidative stress.
    European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics: official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V 04/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To develop convenient, effective cold chain-free subunit vaccines, a mannose-PEG-cholesterol conjugate (MPC) was synthesized as a lectin binding molecule and anchored onto liposomes which entrapped lipid A and model antigen to form a vaccine adjuvant-delivery system targeting antigen presenting cells. With MPC, soy phosphatidylcholine, stearylamine and monophosphoryl lipid A as emulsifiers dissolved in oil phase (O), and sucrose and BSA in water phase (W), the O/W emulsions were prepared and subsequently lyophilized. The lyophilized product was stable enough to be stored at room temperature and, upon rehydration, formed MPC-/lipid A-liposomes (MLLs) with a size under 300 nm and antigen association rates of around 36%. The MLLs given to mice via oral mucosal (o.m.) administration showed no side effects but induced potent immune responses as evidenced by the high levels of IgG in the sera and IgA in the salivary, intestinal and vaginal secretions of mice. High levels of IgG2a and IFN-γ in treated mice revealed that MLLs via o.m. vaccination induced a mixed Th1/Th2 response against antigens, establishing both humoral and cellular immunity. Thus, the MLLs may be a potent cold chain-free oral mucosal vaccine adjuvant-delivery system.
    European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics: official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V 04/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Twin-screw granulation is a promising continuous alternative for traditional batch high shear wet granulation (HSWG). The extent of HSWG in a twin screw granulator (TSG) is greatly governed by the residence time of the granulation materials in the TSG and degree of mixing. In order to determine the residence time distribution (RTD) and mixing in TSG, mostly visual observation and particle tracking methods are used, which are either inaccurate and difficult for short RTD, or provide an RTD only for a finite number of preferential tracer paths. In this study, near infrared chemical imaging, which is more accurate and provides a complete RTD, was used. The impact of changes in material throughput (10-17 kg/h), screw speed (500-900 rpm), number of kneading discs (2-12) and stagger angle (30-90°) on the RTD and axial mixing of the material was characterised. The experimental RTD curves were used to calculate the mean residence time, mean centred variance and the Péclet number to determine the axial mixing and predominance of convective over dispersive transport. The results showed that screw speed is the most influential parameter in terms of RTD and axial mixing in the TSG and established a significant interaction between screw design parameters (number and stagger angle of kneading discs) and the process parameters (material throughput and number of kneading discs). The results of the study will allow the development and validation of a transport model capable of predicting the RTD and macro-mixing in the TSG. These can later be coupled with a population balance model in order to predict granulation yields in a TSG more accurately.
    European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics: official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V 04/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Many upcoming drug candidates are pH-dependent poorly soluble weak bases in the pH range of the gastrointestinal tract. This often leads to a high in vivo variability and bioavailability issues. Aiming to overcome these limitations, the design of solid dispersions for site specific dissolution improvement or maintenance of a potent supersaturation over the entire gastro-intestinal pH-range, is proposed to assure a reliable drug therapy. Solid dispersions containing different ratios of Dipyridamole (DPD) or Griseofulvin (GRI) and the enteric polymer hydroxypropylmethylcellulose-acetate succinate (HPMC-AS) and the water soluble low-viscosity hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC-SSL) were prepared by hot melt extrusion (HME). The solid dispersions were evaluated for their solid state, dissolution characteristics applying a three pH-step dissolution method following an acidic to neutral pH transition and stability. The use of HPMC-AS in binary mixtures with DPD and GRI facilitated increased solubility and supersaturation at pH-controlled release of the preserved amorphous state of the dispersed drug, which even inverted the pH-dependent solubility profile of the weakly basic model drug (dipyridamole). I.e. a potent site specific delivery system was created. With ternary solid dispersions of API, HPMC-AS and HPC-SSL, tailored release profiles with superior supersaturation over the applied pH-range could be obtained. At the same time, binary and ternary mixtures showed favorable stability properties at a temperature difference between glass transition temperature and the applied storage temperature of down to 16°C.
    European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics: official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V 04/2014;

Related Journals