Journal of hazardous materials

Publisher: Elsevier


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Publications in this journal

  • Journal of hazardous materials 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, a new colorimetric chemosensor based on TiO2/poly (acrylamide-comethylenbisacrylamide) nanocomposites was designed for determination of mercury and lead ions at trace levels in environmental samples. The removal and preconcentration of lead and mercury ions on the sorbent was achieved due to sharing an electron pair of N and O groups of polymer chains with the mentioned heavy metal ions. The hydrogel sensor were designed by surface modification of a synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles using methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilan (MAPTMS), which provided a reactive C=C bond that polymerized the acrylamide and methylenbisacrylamide. The sorbent was characterized using Xray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscope (SEM), EDS analysis and Fourier transform in frared (FT- IR) spectrometer. This nanostructured composite with polymer shell was developed as a sensitive and selective sorbent for adsorption of mercury and lead ions from aqueous solution at optimized condition. This method involves two-steps: (1) preconcentration of mercury and lead ions by the synthesized sorbent and (2) it’s selective monitoring of the target ions by complexation with dithizone (DZ). The color of the sorbent in the absence and presence of mercury and lead ions shift from white to violet and red, respectively. The detection limit of the synthesized nanochemosensor for mercury and lead ions was 1 and 10 μg L-1, respectively. The method was successfully applied for trace detection of mercury and lead ions in tap, river and sea water samples.
    Journal of hazardous materials 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The removal of 16 Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) were studied in a conventional activated sludge (CAS) unit and an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. Special attention was paid to each biomass conformation and activity as well as to operational conditions. Biodegradation was the main PPCP removal mechanism, being higher removals achieved under aerobic conditions, except in the case of sulfamethoxazole and trimetrophim. Under anaerobic conditions, PPCP biodegradation was correlated with the methanogenic rate, while in the aerobic reactor a relationship with nitrification was found. Sorption onto sludge was influenced by biomass conformation, being only significant for musk fragrances in the UASB reactor, in which an increase of the upward velocity and hydraulic retention time improved this removal. Additionally, PPCP sorption increased with time in the UASB reactor, due to the granular biomass structure which suggests the existence of intra-molecular diffusion.
    Journal of hazardous materials 08/2014; 278C:506-513.
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    ABSTRACT: This study provides a survey on potential Cr(VI) exposure attributed to drinking water in Greece. For this reason, a wide sampling and chemical analysis of tap waters from around 600 sites, supplied by groundwater resources, was conducted focusing on areas in which the geological substrate is predominated by ultramafic minerals. Results indicate that although violations of the current chromium regulation limit in tap water are very rare, 25% of cases showed Cr(VI) concentrations above 10μg/L, whereas Cr(VI) was detectable in 70% of the samples (>2μg/L). Mineralogy and conditions of groundwater reservoirs were correlated to suggest a possible Cr(VI) leaching mechanism. Higher Cr(VI) values are observed in aquifers in alluvial and neogene sediments of serpentine and amphibolite, originating from the erosion of ophiolithic and metamorphic rocks. In contrast, Cr(VI) concentration in samples from ophiolithic and metamorphic rocks was always below 10μg/L due to both low contact time and surface area, as verified by low conductivity and salt concentration values. These findings indicate that under specific conditions, pollution of water by Cr(VI) is favorable by a slow MnO2-catalyzed oxidation of soluble Cr(III) to Cr(VI) in which manganese products [Mn(III)/Mn(II)] are probably re-oxidized by oxygen.
    Journal of hazardous materials 07/2014; 281:2-11.
  • Journal of hazardous materials 07/2014; 279:389-391.
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    ABSTRACT: In this work, the capability of nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension in removing and/or immobilizingstable (133Cs) and radioactive cesium species (134Cs and137Cs) in contaminated fly ash was investi-gated. After a first methanol and second water washing yielded only 45% of133Cs removal. While, aftera first methanol washing, the second solvent with nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension yieldedsimultaneous enhanced removal and immobilization about 99% of133Cs. SEM-EDS analysis revealedthat the mass percent of detectable133Cs on the fly ash surface recorded a 100% decrease. When realradioactive cesium contaminated fly ash (containing an initial 14,040 Bq kg−1 134Cs and137Cs cumu-lated concentration) obtained from burning wastes from Fukushima were reduced to 3583 Bq kg−1aftertreatment with nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension. Elution test conducted on the treated fly ashgave 100 Bq L−1total134Cs and137Cs concentrations in eluted solution. Furthermore, both ash content and eluted solution concentrations of134Cs and137Cs were much lower than the Japanese Ministry of theEnvironment regulatory limit of 8000 Bq kg−1and 150 Bq L−1respectively. The results of this study suggestthat the nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension is a highly potential amendment for the remediationof radioactive cesium-contaminated fly ash.
    Journal of hazardous materials 07/2014; 279:52-59.
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    ABSTRACT: Drinking water treatment residue (WTR) is an inevitable by-product generated during the treatment of drinking water with coagulating agents. The beneficial reuse of WTR as an amendment for environmental remediation has attracted growing interest. In this work, we investigated the lability of Al, As, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sr, V and Zn in Fe/Al hydroxide-comprised WTR based on a 180-day anaerobic incubation test using fractionation, in vitro digestion and a toxicity characteristic leaching procedure. The results indicated that most metals in the WTR were stable during anaerobic incubation and that the WTR before and after incubation could be considered non-hazardous in terms of leachable metal contents according to US EPA Method 1311. However, the lability of certain metals in the WTR after incubation increased substantially, especially Mn, which may be due to the reduction effect. Therefore, although there is no evidence presented to restrict the use of WTR in the field, the lability of metals (especially Mn) in WTR requires further assessment prior to field application. In addition, fractionation (e.g., BCR) is recommended for use to determine the potential lability of metals under various conditions.
    Journal of hazardous materials 05/2014; 274C:342-348.
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    ABSTRACT: The removal of pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) were investigated in freshwater sediments with amendment of seven different organic matters including cyanobacteria-derived organic matter (COM), plant-derived organic matter (POM), and humic substances (HS). During the 210 days of experiments, the amendment of COM or HS enhanced significantly the removal of pyrene and BaP in sediments, especially with fresh COM (FCOM) treatment much superior to HS. On the contrary, degradation of these polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was not significantly improved and even inhibited in POM-amended sediments. The first-order rate constants of pyrene and BaP degradation in the FCOM-amended sediments reached 0.00540 ± 0.00017 d−1 and 0.00517 ± 0.00057 d−1, respectively, and were about three and five folds of those in the control treatment. The enhanced PAHs degradation in FCOM-amended sediments was related to higher PAH-degrading bacteria number and bioavailability with a result of biostimulation and priming effect by labile carbon and high-value nutrition in FCOM. Thus, this study improved our understanding about effects of settled biomass from cyanobacterial blooms, which occurred frequently in eutrophic aquatic ecosystems, on the natural attenuation of PAHs in sediments. Furthermore, this study would also help develop a new promising approach to remediate PAH-contaminated sediments through utilization of cyanobacterial bloom biomass.
    Journal of hazardous materials 05/2014; 272:66–74.
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    ABSTRACT: Cellulose nitrate (or nitrocellulose) has received considerable interest due to its uses in various applications, such as paints, photographic films and propellants. However, it is considered as one of the primary pollutants in the energetic material industries because it can be degraded to form polluting chemical species. In this work, the UV light degradation of cellulose nitrate films was studied under conditions of artificially accelerated photooxidation. To eliminate the reactivity of nitro groups, the degradation of ethylcellulose was also investigated. Infrared spectroscopy analyses of the chemical modifications caused by the photooxidation of cellulose nitrate films and the resulting formation of volatile products revealed the occurrence of de-nitration and the formation of oxidation photoproducts exhibiting lactone and anhydride functions. The impact of these chemical modifications on the mechanical and thermal properties of cellulose nitrate films includes embrittlement and lower temperatures of ignition when used as a propellant.
    Journal of hazardous materials 05/2014; 272:137–147.
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    ABSTRACT: The toxicity of sodium fluoride (NaF) to female fertility is currently recognized; however, the mechanisms are unclear. Previously, we reported a reduction in successful pregnancy rates, ovarian atrophy and dysfunction following exposure to NaF. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (10 rats/group) received 100 or 200 mg/L NaF in their drinking water for 6 months or were assigned to an untreated control group. Apoptotic indices and oxidative stress indicators in blood and ovarian tissue were analyzed following sacrifice. The results confirmed the NaF-induced ovarian apoptosis, with concomitant activation of oxidative stress. Further investigations in ovarian granular cells showed that exposure to NaF activated extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK) and c-Jun NH2 kinase (JNK), disrupting the ERK and JNK signaling pathways, while p38 and PI3K remained unchanged. These data demonstrated that oxidative stress may play a key role in NaF-induced ovarian dysfunction by activating the apoptotic ERK and JNK signaling pathways.
    Journal of hazardous materials 05/2014; 272:75–82.