Journal of hazardous materials

Publisher: Elsevier


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Publications in this journal

  • Journal of hazardous materials 10/2014;
  • Journal of hazardous materials 07/2014; 279:389-391.
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    ABSTRACT: Drinking water treatment residue (WTR) is an inevitable by-product generated during the treatment of drinking water with coagulating agents. The beneficial reuse of WTR as an amendment for environmental remediation has attracted growing interest. In this work, we investigated the lability of Al, As, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sr, V and Zn in Fe/Al hydroxide-comprised WTR based on a 180-day anaerobic incubation test using fractionation, in vitro digestion and a toxicity characteristic leaching procedure. The results indicated that most metals in the WTR were stable during anaerobic incubation and that the WTR before and after incubation could be considered non-hazardous in terms of leachable metal contents according to US EPA Method 1311. However, the lability of certain metals in the WTR after incubation increased substantially, especially Mn, which may be due to the reduction effect. Therefore, although there is no evidence presented to restrict the use of WTR in the field, the lability of metals (especially Mn) in WTR requires further assessment prior to field application. In addition, fractionation (e.g., BCR) is recommended for use to determine the potential lability of metals under various conditions.
    Journal of hazardous materials 05/2014; 274C:342-348.
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    ABSTRACT: Minimum ignition temperature (MIT) of micro Ti powder increased gradually with increases in nano-sized TiO2 employed as an inertant. Solid TiO2 inertant significantly reduced ignition hazard of micro Ti powder in contact with hot surfaces. The MIT of nano Ti powder remained low (583K), however, even with 90% TiO2. The MIT of micro Ti powder, when mixed with nano Ti powder at concentrations as low as 10%, decreased so dramatically that its application as a solid fuel may be possible. A simple MIT model was proposed for aggregate particle size estimation and better understanding of the inerting effect of nano TiO2 on MIT. Estimated particle size was 1.46-1.51μm larger than that in the 20-L sphere due to poor dispersion in the BAM oven. Calculated MITs were lower than corresponding empirically determined values for micro Ti powder because nano-sized TiO2 coated the micro Ti powder, thereby decreasing its reaction kinetics. In the case of nano Ti powder, nano-sized TiO2 facilitated dispersion of nano Ti powder which resulted in a calculated MIT that was greater than the experimentally determined value.
    Journal of hazardous materials 04/2014; 275C:1-9.
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    ABSTRACT: The biodegradation of CH4 and toluene in landfill cover soil (LCS) and waste biocover soil (WBS) was investigated with a serial toluene concentration in the headspace of landfill cover microcosms in this study. Compared with the LCS sample, the higher CH4 oxidation activity and toluene-degrading capacity occurred in the WBS sample. The co-existence of toluene in landfill gas would positively or negatively affect CH4 oxidation, mainly depending on the toluene concentrations and exposure time. The nearly complete inhibition of toluene on CH4 oxidation was observed in the WBS sample at the toluene concentration of ∼80,000mgm(-3), which was about 10 times higher than that in the LCS sample. The toluene degradation rates in both landfill covers fitted well with the Michaelis-Menten model. These findings showed that WBS was a good alternative landfill cover material to simultaneously mitigate emissions of CH4 and toluene from landfills to the atmosphere.
    Journal of hazardous materials 04/2014; 274C:367-375.
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    ABSTRACT: Batch adsorption study was utilized in evaluating the potential suitability of chitosan-coated bentonite (CCB) as an adsorbent in the removal of indium ions from aqueous solution. The percentage (%) removal and adsorption capacity of indium(III) were examined as a function of solution pH, initial concentration, adsorbent dosage and temperature. The experimental data were fitted with several isotherm models, where the equilibrium data was best described by Langmuir isotherm. The mean energy (E) value was found in the range of 1-8kJ/mol, indicating that the governing type of adsorption of indium(III) onto CCB is essentially physical. Thermodynamic parameters, including Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy indicated that the indium(III) ions adsorption onto CCB was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in the temperature range of 278-318K. The kinetics was evaluated utilizing the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order model. The adsorption kinetics of indium(III) best fits the pseudo-second order (R(2)>0.99), which implies that chemical sorption as the rate-limiting step.
    Journal of hazardous materials 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess metal mobility/availability in coastal surface (oxic) sediment samples from the Bahía Blanca estuary. Particularly, two sequential extraction procedures able to discriminate metals associated to amorphous Fe and Mn oxides and those associated with crystalline oxides of Fe were applied. Sequential procedures differ in the number of steps, type of reagents used, and in the order in which metals associated to organic matter are extracted. The studied metals were Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn because of their hazardous potential and relative abundance in the estuary. Tucker4 model with three factors describes appropriately the data sets (explained variance of 64.05%). This model made it possible to visualize and explain the information underlying in the data set. From the multivariate analysis, it was possible to evaluate the metal behaviour and their availability. In this way, Cd and Zn are associated to the more available fractions whereas Ni, Cr, Cu and Pb are mainly associated to the unavailable fractions. On the other hand, Zn and Cu are associated to organic matter fraction. Despite the fact that the two-fractionation schemes are quite different, the results obtained with both schemes are comparable.
    Journal of hazardous materials 04/2014; 274C:455-464.
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    ABSTRACT: When hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is added to a TiO2 photocatalytic reaction, the decolorization and mineralization efficiencies of azo dyes Acid Orange 7 (AO7) are enhanced even though the mechanism is unclear. This study used 5,5-dimethyl-l-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) as the scavenger and the analysis of Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) to investigate this enhancement effect by observing the hydroxyl radical (OH) generation of the Cr(VI)/TiO2 system under UV and visible light (Vis) irradiation. With Cr(VI), the decolorization efficiencies were approximately 95% and 62% under UV and Vis, and those efficiencies were 25% less in the absence of Cr(VI). The phenomena of the DMPO-OH signals during the ESR analysis under Vis 405 and 550nm irradiation were obviously the enhancement effects of Cr(VI) in aerobic conditions. In anoxic conditions, the catalytic effects of Cr(VI) could not be achieved due to the lack of a redox reaction between Cr(VI) and the adsorbed oxygen at the oxygen vacancy sites on the TiO2 surfaces. The results suggest that by introducing the agents of redox reactions such as chromate ions, we could lower the photoenergy of TiO2 needed and allow Vis irradiation to activate photocatalysis.
    Journal of hazardous materials 04/2014; 274C:420-427.
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    ABSTRACT: A concept of electrochemically switched ion exchange (ESIX) hybrid film system with piston-like proton pumping effect for the removal of heavy metal ions was proposed. Based on this concept, a novel ESIX hybrid film composed of layered alpha zirconium phosphate (α-Zr(HPO4)2; α-ZrP) nanosheets intercalated with a potential-responsive conducting polyaniline (PANI) was developed for the removal of Ni(2+) ions from wastewater. It is expected that the space between α-ZrP nanosheets acts as the reservoir for the functional ions while the intercalated PANI works as the potential-sensitive function element for piston-like proton pumping in such ESIX hybrid films. The prepared ESIX hybrid film showed an excellent property of rapid removal of Ni(2+) ions from wastewater with a high selectivity. The used film was simply regenerated by only altering the applied potential. The ion pumping effect for the ESIX of Ni(2+) ions using this kind of film was proved via XPS analysis. The proposed ESIX hybrid film should have high potential for the removal of Ni(2+) ions and/or other heavy metal ions from wastewater in various industrial processes.
    Journal of hazardous materials 04/2014; 274C:436-442.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this work was to study the biological removal of pharmaceutical compounds in rotating biological contactors (RBCs) under continuous operation. A two-stage RBC was used, providing a total surface area of 1.41m(2). Four pharmaceuticals of different therapeutic classes; caffeine, sulfamethoxazole, ranitidine and carbamazepine, were studied. Six experimental scenarios were applied to the RBC-system by varying substrates' loadings (12-54gCOD/d), volumetric flow rate (2-5L/d), and pharmaceuticals' concentration (20-50μg/L). The different conditions resulted to different solid retention times (SRT: 7-21d) in each scenario. The increase of SRT due to variations of the operating conditions seemed to have a positive effect on pharmaceuticals' removal. Likewise, a negative correlation was observed between substrates' loading and pharmaceuticals' removal. An increase of initial pharmaceuticals' concentration resulted to decrease of SRT and pharmaceuticals' removal, suggesting a toxic effect to the biofilm. The maximum removals achieved were greater than 85% for all pharmaceuticals. Finally, a mathematical model which includes biofilm growth, substrates' utilization and pharmaceuticals' elimination was developed. The model predicts the contribution of sorption and biodegradation on pharmaceuticals' elimination taking into account the diffusion of pharmaceuticals inside biofilm.
    Journal of hazardous materials 04/2014; 274C:473-482.
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing industrialization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) would inevitably lead to their release into the environment and combination with heavy metals. However, studies concerning the combined effects of MWCNTs and heavy metals on agricultural crops are limited. Herein, effects and mechanisms of carboxylated MWCNTs (MWCNTs-COOH) (2.5, 5 and 10mg/L) and their combination with 20μM Pb and 5μM Cd (shortened as Pb+Cd) on Vicia faba L. seedlings were investigated. The results showed that the MWCNTs-COOH disturbed the imbalance of nutrient elements, and caused oxidative stress and damages in the leaves. Additionally, the combination of MWCNTs-COOH with Pb+Cd resulted in enrichment of Pb and Cd, and deterioration of oxidative damages compared with the treatments of MWCNTs-COOH or Pb+Cd alone in the leaves. As the results, the concentrations of MWCNTs-COOH not only caused oxidative stress, but also exacerbated the biochemical and subcellular damages due to the treatment of Pb+Cd in the leaves. It also suggests that persistent release of MWCNTs-COOH into the environment may cause phytotoxicity and aggravate ecological risks due to combination of heavy metals.
    Journal of hazardous materials 04/2014; 274C:404-412.
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    ABSTRACT: Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have drawn great attention recently due to their wide distribution in aquatic environments and potential toxic to animals and human beings. Adsorption not only is an effective technology to remove PFCs from water or wastewater, but also affects PFC distribution at solid-liquid interfaces and their fate in aquatic environments. This article reviews the adsorption behavior of different PFCs (mainly perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoate) on various adsorptive materials. Some effective adsorbents are introduced in detail in terms of their preparation, characteristics, effects of solution chemistry and PFC properties on adsorption. Adsorption mechanisms of PFCs on different adsorbents are summarized, and various interactions including electrostatic interaction, hydrophobic interaction, ligand exchange, and hydrogen bond are fully reviewed. The adsorbents with amine groups generally have high adsorption capacity for PFCs, and formation of micelles/hemi-micelles plays an important role in achieving high adsorption capacity of perfluorinated surfactants on some porous adsorbents. Hydrophobic interaction is mainly responsible for PFC adsorption, but the difference between PFCs and traditional hydrocarbons has not clearly clarified. This review paper would be helpful for the preparation of effective adsorbents for PFC removal and understanding interfacial process of PFCs during their transport and fate in aquatic environments.
    Journal of hazardous materials 04/2014; 274C:443-454.