Bone Journal Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: International Bone and Mineral Society, Elsevier

Journal description

Current impact factor: 4.46

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 4.461
2012 Impact Factor 3.823
2011 Impact Factor 4.023
2010 Impact Factor 4.601
2009 Impact Factor 4.089
2008 Impact Factor 4.145
2007 Impact Factor 3.966
2006 Impact Factor 3.829
2005 Impact Factor 3.939
2004 Impact Factor 3.53
2003 Impact Factor 3.572
2002 Impact Factor 3.755
2001 Impact Factor 3.247
2000 Impact Factor 3.998
1999 Impact Factor 3.961
1998 Impact Factor 3.272
1997 Impact Factor 2.93
1996 Impact Factor 2.083
1995 Impact Factor 2.134
1994 Impact Factor 2.051
1993 Impact Factor 2.896
1992 Impact Factor 2.405

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 4.25
Cited half-life 7.10
Immediacy index 0.77
Eigenfactor 0.04
Article influence 1.33
Other titles Bone (New York, N.Y.: Online), Bone
ISSN 1873-2763
OCLC 38871185
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details


  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Pre-print allowed on any website or open access repository
    • Voluntary deposit by author of authors post-print allowed on authors' personal website, or institutions open scholarly website including Institutional Repository, without embargo, where there is not a policy or mandate
    • Deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate only allowed where separate agreement between repository and the publisher exists.
    • Permitted deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate, may be required to comply with embargo periods of 12 months to 48 months .
    • Set statement to accompany deposit
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to journal home page or articles' DOI
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • NIH Authors articles will be submitted to PubMed Central after 12 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 18/10/2013
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis is the consequence of altered bone metabolism resulting in the systemic reduction of bone strength and increased risk of fragility fractures. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression on a post-transcriptional level and are known to take part in the control of bone formation and bone resorption. In addition, it is known that miRNAs are secreted by many cell types and can transfer "messages" to recipient cells. Thus, circulating miRNAs might not only be useful as surrogate biomarkers for the diagnosis or prognosis of pathological conditions, but could be actively modulating tissue physiology. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test whether circulating miRNAs that exhibit changes in recent osteoporotic fracture patients could be causally related to bone metabolism. In the first step we performed an explorative analysis of 175 miRNAs in serum samples obtained from 7 female patients with recent osteoporotic fractures at the femoral neck, and 7 age-matched female controls. Unsupervised cluster analysis revealed a high discriminatory power of the top 10 circulating miRNAs for patients with recent osteoporotic fractures. In total 6 miRNAs, miR-10a-5p, miR-10b-5p, miR-133b, miR-22-3p, miR-328-3p, and let-7g-5p exhibited significantly different serum levels in response to fracture (adjusted p-value < 0.05). These miRNAs were subsequently analyzed in a validation cohort of 23 patients (11 control, 12 fracture), which confirmed significant regulation for miR-22-3p, miR-328-3p, and let-7g-5p. A set of these and of other miRNAs known to change in the context of osteoporotic fractures were subsequently tested for their effects on osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro. The results show that 5 out of 7 tested miRNAs can modulate osteogenic differentiation of MSCs in vitro. Overall, these data suggest that levels of specific circulating miRNAs change in the context of recent osteoporotic fractures and that such perturbations of "normal" levels might affect bone metabolism or bone healing processes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Bone 05/2015; 24. DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2015.05.027
  • Steven R Goldring
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    ABSTRACT: A broad spectrum of inflammatory disorders have the capacity to target the skeleton and to de-regulate the processes of physiological bone remodeling. This review will focus on the systemic inflammatory rheumatologic disorders, which target articular and peri-articular bone tissues. Many of these disorders also affect extra-articular tissues and organs, and in addition, have the capacity to produce systemic bone loss and increased risk of osteoporotic fractures. Attention will focus on rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and the seronegative spondyloarthropathies (SpAs), which include ankylosing spondylitis (AS), reactive arthritis (formerly designated as Reiter's syndrome), the arthritis of inflammatory bowel disease, juvenile onset spondyloarthropathy and psoriatic arthritis. The discussion will principally focus on RA, which is a prototypical model of an inflammatory disorder that de-regulates bone remodeling, but also will review the other forms of inflammatory joint disease to highlight the differential effects of inflammation on bone remodeling in these conditions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Bone 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2015.05.024
  • Rebecca J Moon, Adelynn Lim, Megan Farmer, Avinash Segaran, Nicholas M P Clarke, Elaine M Dennison, Nicholas C Harvey, Cyrus Cooper, Justin H Davies
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    ABSTRACT: Although it has been suggested that overweight and obese children have an increased risk of fracture, recent studies in post-menopausal women have shown that the relationship between obesity and fracture risk varies by fracture site. We therefore assessed whether adiposity and overweight/obesity prevalence differed by upper limb fracture site in children. Height, weight, BMI, triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness (SFT) were measured in children aged 3-18 years with an acute upper limb fracture. Data was compared across three fracture sites (hand, forearm and upper arm/shoulder [UA]), and to published reference data. 401 children (67.1% male, median age 11.71 years (range 3.54-17.27 years) participated. 34.2%, 50.6% and 15.2% had fractures of the hand, forearm and UA, respectively. Children with forearm fractures had higher weight, BMI, subscapular SFT and fat percentage z-scores than those with UA fractures (p<0.05 for all). SFT and fat percentage z-scores were also higher in children with forearm fractures compared to hand fractures, but children with hand and UA fractures did not differ. Overweight and obesity prevalence was higher in children with forearm fractures (37.6%) than those with UA fractures (19.0%, p=0.009). This prevalence was also higher than the published United Kingdom population prevalence (27.9%, p=0.003), whereas that of children with either UA (p=0.13) or hand fractures (29.1%, p=0.76) did not differ. These differences in anthropometry and overweight/obesity prevalence by fracture site were evident in boys, but not present in girls. Measurements of adiposity and the prevalence of overweight/obesity differ by fracture site in children, and in particular boys, with upper limb fractures. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Bone 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2015.05.031
  • Tomohiro Shimizu, Masahiko Takahata, Yusuke Kameda, Tsutomu Endo, Hiroki Hamano, Shigeto Hiratsuka, Masahiro Ota, Norimasa Iwasaki
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Osteoclastogenesis requires immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif signaling. Multiple immunoreceptors associated with immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif adaptor proteins, including DNAX-activating protein 12kDa (DAP12) and Fc receptor common γ (FcRγ), have been identified in osteoclast lineage cells, and some are involved in arthritis-induced bone destruction. Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin 15 (Siglec-15) is an immunoreceptor that regulates osteoclast development and bone resorption in association with DAP12. Whether Siglec-15 is involved in arthritis-induced bone lesions, however, remains unknown. Here we used a murine antigen-induced arthritis model to examine the role of Siglec-15 in the development of bone lesions induced by joint inflammation. Arthritis was unilaterally induced in the knee joints of 8-week-old female wild-type (WT) and Siglec-15(-/-) mice, and the contralateral knees were used as a control. The degree of joint inflammation, and cartilage and subchondral bone destruction in Siglec-15(-/-) mice was comparable to that in WT mice, indicating that Siglec-15 is not involved in the development of arthritis, and concomitant cartilage and subchondral bone destruction. On the other hand, the degree of periarticular bone loss in the proximal tibia of the arthritic knee was significantly lower in Siglec-15(-/-) mice compared to WT mice. Although osteoclast formation in the metaphysis was enhanced in both WT and Siglec-15(-/-) mice after arthritis induction, mature multinucleated osteoclast formation was impaired in Siglec-15(-/-) mice, indicating impaired osteoclast bone resorptive function in the periarticular regions of the arthritic joint in Siglec-15(-/-) mice. Confirming this result, Siglec-15(-/-) primary unfractionated bone marrow cells harvested from arthritic femurs and tibiae failed to develop into mature multinuclear osteoclasts. Our findings suggest that Siglec-15 is a therapeutic target for periarticular bone loss, but not for joint destruction, in inflammatory arthritis, such as rheumatoid arthritis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Bone 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2015.05.029
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    ABSTRACT: The maintenance of bone homeostasis is largely dependent upon cellular communication between osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Microvesicles (MVs) have received a good deal of attention and are increasingly considered as mediators of intercellular communication due to their capacity to merge with and transfer a repertoire of bioactive molecular content (cargo) to recipient cells, triggering a variety of biologic responses. Here, we demonstrated that MVs shed from osteoblasts contain RANKL protein and can transfer it to osteoclast precursors through receptor ligand (RANKL-RANK), leading to stimulate RANKL-RANK signaling to facilitate ostoclasts formation. Such MVs-mediated intercellular communication between osteoblasts and osteoclasts may represent a novel mechanism of bone modeling and remodeling. It may be worthwhile to further explore MVs as tools to modify the biological responses of bone cells or develop an alternative drug to treat bone diseases. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Bone 05/2015; 423. DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2015.05.022
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    ABSTRACT: Osteoclasts are multinucleated, bone-resorbing cells formed via fusion of monocyte progenitors, a process triggered by prolonged stimulation with RANKL, the osteoclast master regulator cytokine. Monocyte fusion into osteoclasts has been shown to play a key role in bone remodeling and homeostasis; therefore, aberrant fusion may be involved in a variety of bone diseases. Indeed, research in the last decade has led to the discovery of genes regulating osteoclast fusion; yet the basic cellular regulatory mechanism underlying the fusion process is poorly understood. Here, we applied a novel approach for tracking the fusion processes, using live-cell imaging of RANKL-stimulated and non-stimulated progenitor monocytes differentially expressing dsRED or GFP, respectively. We show that osteoclast fusion is initiated by a small (~2.4%) subset of precursors, termed "fusion founders", capable of fusing either with other founders or with non-stimulated progenitors (fusion followers), which alone, are unable to initiate fusion. Careful examination indicates that the fusion between a founder and a follower cell consists of two distinct phases: an initial pairing of the two cells, typically lasting 5-35 minutes, during which the cells nevertheless maintain their initial morphology; and the fusion event itself. Interestingly, during the initial pre-fusion phase, a transfer of the fluorescent reporter proteins from nucleus to nucleus was noticed, suggesting crosstalk between the founder and follower progenitors via the cytoplasm that might directly affect the fusion process, as well as overall transcriptional regulation in the developing heterokaryon. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Bone 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2015.05.021
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    ABSTRACT: Impaired bone toughness is increasingly recognized as a contributor to fragility fractures. At the tissue level, toughness is related to the ability of bone tissue to resist the development of microscopic cracks or other tissue damage. While most of our understanding of microdamage is derived from studies of cortical bone, the majority of fragility fractures occur in regions of the skeleton dominated by cancellous bone. The development of tissue microdamage in cancellous bone may differ from that in cortical bone due to differences in microstructure and tissue ultrastructure. To gain insight into how microdamage accumulates in cancellous bone we determined the changes in number, size and location of microdamage sites following different amounts of cyclic compressive loading. Human vertebral cancellous bone specimens (n=32, 10 male donors, 6 female donors, age 76 ± 8.8, mean ± SD) were subjected to sub-failure cyclic compressive loading and microdamage was evaluated in three-dimensions. Only a few large microdamage sites (the largest 10%) accounted for 70% of all microdamage caused by cyclic loading. The number of large microdamage sites was a better predictor of reductions in Young's modulus caused by cyclic loading than overall damage volume fraction (DV/BV). The majority of microdamage volume (69.12 ± 7.04%) was located more than 30 μm (the average erosion depth) from trabecular surfaces, suggesting that microdamage occurs primarily within interstitial regions of cancellous bone. Additionally, microdamage was less likely to be near resorption cavities than other bone surfaces (p<0.05), challenging the idea that stress risers caused by resorption cavities influence fatigue failure of cancellous bone. Together, these findings suggest that reductions in apparent level mechanical performance during fatigue loading are the result of only a few large microdamage sites and that microdamage accumulation in fatigue is likely dominated by heterogeneity in tissue material properties rather than stress concentrations caused by micro-scale geometry. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Bone 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2015.05.020
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with low aBMD as measured by DXA and altered microstructure as assessed by bone histomorphometry and microcomputed tomography. Knowledge of bone matrix mineralization is lacking in COPD. Using quantitative backscatter electron imaging (qBEI), we assessed cancellous (Cn.) and cortical (Ct.) bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) in 19 postmenopausal women (62.1±7.3 years of age) with COPD. Eight had sustained fragility fractures, and 13 had received treatment with inhaled glucocorticoids. The BMDD outcomes from the patients were compared to healthy reference data and were correlated with previous clinical and histomorphometric findings. In general, the BMDD outcomes for the patients were not significantly different from the reference data. Neither the subgroups of with or without fragility fractures or of who did or did not receive inhaled glucocorticoid treatment, showed differences in BMDD. However, subgroup comparison according to severity revealed 10% decreased cancellous mineralization heterogeneity (Cn.CaWidth) for the most severely affected compared to less affected patients (p=0.042) and compared to healthy premenopausal controls (p=0.021). BMDD parameters were highly correlated with histomorphometric cancellous bone volume (BV/TV) and formation indices: mean degree of mineralization (Cn.CaMean) versus BV/TV (r=0.58, p=0.009), and Cn.CaMean and Ct.CaMean versus bone formation rate (BFR/BS) (r=-0.71, p<0.001). In particular, those with lower BV/TV (<50(th) percentile) had significantly lower Cn.CaMean (p=0.037) and higher Cn.CaLow (p=0.020) compared to those with higher (>50(th) percentile) BV/TV. The normality in most of the BMDD parameters and bone formation rates as well as the significant correlations between them suggest unaffected mineralization processes in COPD. Our findings also indicate no significant negative effect of treatment with inhaled glucocorticoids on the bone mineralization pattern. However, the observed concomitant occurrence of relatively lower bone volumes with lower bone matrix mineralization will both contribute to the reduced aBMD in some patients with COPD. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Bone 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2015.05.018
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    ABSTRACT: Osteocytes are proposed to be the mechanosensory cells that translate mechanical loading into biochemical signals during the process of bone adaptation. The lipid mediator sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) has been reported to play a role in the mechanotransduction process of blood vessels and also in the dynamic control of bone mineral homeostasis. Nevertheless, the potential role of S1P in bone mechanotransduction has yet to be elucidated. In this study, we hypothesized that a S1P cascade is involved in the activation of osteocytes in response to loading-induced oscillatory fluid flow (OFF) in bone. MLO-Y4 osteocyte-like cells express the necessary components of a functional S1P cascade. To examine the involvement of S1P signaling in osteocyte mechanotransduction, we applied OFF (1 Pa, 1 Hz) to osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells under conditions where the S1P signaling pathway was modulated. We found that decreased endogenous S1P levels significantly suppressed the OFF-induced intracellular calcium response. Addition of extracellular S1P to MLO-Y4 cells enhanced the synthesis and release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) under static cells and amplified OFF-induced PGE2 release. The stimulatory effect of OFF on the gene expression levels of osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator for nuclear factor κ B ligand (RANKL) was S1P dependent. Furthermore, the S1P2 receptor subtype was shown to be involved in OFF-induced PGE2 synthesis and release, as well as down-regulation of RANKL/OPG gene expression ratio. In summary, our data suggest that S1P cascade is involved in OFF-induced mechanotransduction in MLO-Y4 cells and that extracellular S1P exerts its effect partly through S1P2 receptors. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Bone 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2015.05.017
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    ABSTRACT: Trabecular bone score (TBS) is a recently-developed analytical tool that performs novel grey-level texture measurements on lumbar spine dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) images, and thereby captures information relating to trabecular microarchitecture. In order for TBS to usefully add to bone mineral density (BMD) and clinical risk factors in osteoporosis risk stratification, it must be independently associated with fracture risk, readily obtainable, and ideally, present a risk which is amenable to osteoporosis treatment. This paper summarizes a review of the scientific literature performed by a Working Group of the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis. Low TBS is consistently associated with an increase in both prevalent and incident fractures that is partly independent of both clinical risk factors and areal BMD (aBMD) at the lumbar spine and proximal femur. More recently, TBS has been shown to have predictive value for fracture independent of fracture probabilities using the FRAX® algorithm. Although TBS changes with osteoporosis treatment, the magnitude is less than that of aBMD of the spine, and it is not clear how change in TBS relates to fracture risk reduction. TBS may also have a role in the assessment of fracture risk in some causes of secondary osteoporosis (e.g. diabetes, hyperparathyroidism and glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis). In conclusion, there is a role for TBS in fracture risk assessment in combination with both aBMD and FRAX. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Bone 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2015.05.016
  • Bone 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2015.05.015
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    ABSTRACT: Numerous studies have documented that matrix vesicles are unique extracellular membrane-bound microparticles that serve as initial sites for mineral formation in the growth plate and most other vertebrate mineralizing tissues. Microparticle generation is not confined to hard tissues, as cells in soft tissues generate similar structures; numerous studies have shown that a common type of extracellular particle, termed an exosome, a product of the endosomal pathway, shares many characteristics of matrix vesicles. Indeed, analyses of size, morphology and lipid and protein content indicate that matrix vesicles and exosomes are homologous structures. Such a possibility impacts our understanding of the biogenesis, processing and function of matrix vesicles (exosomes) in vertebrate hard tissues and explains in part how cells control the earliest stages of mineral deposition. Moreover, since exosomes influence a spectrum of functions, including cell-cell communication, it is suggested that this type of microparticle may provide a mechanism for the transfer of signaling molecules between cells within the growth plate and thereby regulate endochondral bone development and formation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Bone 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2015.05.013
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    ABSTRACT: Age-related osteoporosis is associated with a reciprocal decrease in bone formation and an increase in adiposity in the bone marrow niche. We previously reported Transmembrane protein 64 (Tmem64) to be an important regulator of osteoclast function; however, its precise role in osteoblasts has not yet been established. Here, we showed that ablation of the Tmem64 gene in mice resulted in markedly increased osteoblast and reduced adipocyte differentiation from bone marrow-drived stromal cells (BMSCs). Conversely, Tmem64 overexpression inhibited osteogenesis and accelerated adipogenesis. Furthermore, BMSCs isolated from Tmem64 knockout mice formed a greater number of colony-forming unit-osteoblasts and a lower number of colony-forming unit-adipocytes than the wild type controls. Mechanistically, the expression level of β-catenin, the key Wnt signaling molecule, increased significantly, and its nuclear translocation was enhanced in Tmem64-deficient cells. Introduction of Tmem64 significantly suppressed β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activity in an in vitro co-transfection experiment as well as during an in vivo experiment involving BAT-Gal reporter mice. These results demonstrate that Tmem64 plays an important role in the regulation of mesenchymal lineage allocation by modulating Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Bone 05/2015; 78. DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2015.05.009
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies demonstrate associations of low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations with low bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures, motivating widespread use of vitamin D supplements for bone health. However, previous studies have been limited to predominantly White populations despite differences in the distribution and metabolism of 25(OH)D by race/ethnicity. We determined associations of serum 25(OH)D, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25(OH2)D3), and parathyroid hormone (PTH) with BMD among 1,773 adult participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) in a staggered cross-sectional study design. Vitamin D metabolites were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy and PTH using a 2-site immunoassay from serum collected in 2000-2002. Volumetric trabecular lumbar BMD was measured from computed tomography scans performed in 2002-2005 expressed as g/cm(3). We used linear regression and graphical methods to compare associations of vitamin D metabolite and PTH concentrations with BMD as the outcomes measure among White (n=714), Black (n=353), Chinese (n=249), and Hispanic (n=457) participants. Serum 25(OH)D and 24,25(OH2)D3 concentrations were highest among Whites and lowest among Blacks. BMD was greatest among Black participants. Higher serum 25(OH)D was only associated with higher BMD among Whites and Chinese participants (P-for interaction=0.054). Comparing the lowest category of 25(OH)D (<20 ng/ml) to the highest (≥30 ng/ml), the adjusted mean difference in BMD was -8.1 g/cm(3) (95% CI -14.8, -1.4) for Whites; -10.2 g/cm(3) (-20.4, 0.0) for Chinese vs. 8.8 g/cm(3) (-2.8, 20.5) for Black and -1.1 g/cm(3) (-8.3, 6.2) for Hispanic. Similar results were observed for serum 24,25(OH2)D3. Serum PTH was not associated with BMD. In a multi-ethnic population, associations of 25(OH)D with BMD were strongest among White and Chinese participants and null among Black and Hispanic participants. Further studies are needed to determine optimal biomarkers for bone health for multiple ethnic groups. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Bone 05/2015; 78. DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2015.05.008
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    ABSTRACT: Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a multifunctional extracellular matrix protein found in mineralized tissues, including bone, cartilage, tooth root cementum (both acellular and cellular types), and dentin. In order to define the role BSP plays in the process of biomineralization of these tissues, we analyzed cementogenesis, dentinogenesis, and osteogenesis (intramembranous and endochondral) in craniofacial bone in Bsp null mice and wild-type (WT) controls over a developmental period (1-60 days post natal; dpn) by histology, immunohistochemistry, undecalcified histochemistry, microcomputed tomography (microCT), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Regions of intramembranous ossification in the alveolus, mandible, and calvaria presented delayed mineralization and osteoid accumulation, assessed by von Kossa and Goldner's trichrome stains at 1 and 14 dpn. Moreover, Bsp(-/-) mice featured increased cranial suture size at the early time point, 1 dpn. Immunostaining and PCR demonstrated that osteoblast markers, osterix, alkaline phosphatase, and osteopontin were unchanged in Bsp null mandibles compared to WT. Bsp(-/-) mouse molars featured a lack of functional acellular cementum formation by histology, SEM, and TEM, and subsequent loss of Sharpey's collagen fiber insertion into the tooth root structure. Bsp(-/-) mouse alveolar and mandibular bone featured equivalent or fewer osteoclasts at early ages (1 and 14 dpn), however, increased RANKL immunostaining and mRNA, and significantly increased number of osteoclast-like cells (2-5 fold) were found at later ages (26 and 60 dpn), corresponding to periodontal breakdown and severe alveolar bone resorption observed following molar teeth entering occlusion. Dentin formation was unperturbed in Bsp(-/-) mouse molars, with no delay in mineralization, no alteration in dentin dimensions, and no differences in odontoblast markers analyzed. No defects were identified in endochondral ossification in the cranial base, and craniofacial morphology was unaffected in Bsp(-/-) mice. These analyses confirm a critical role for BSP in processes of cementogenesis and intramembranous ossification of craniofacial bone, whereas endochondral ossification in the cranial base was minimally affected and dentinogenesis was normal in Bsp(-/-) molar teeth. Dissimilar effects of loss of BSP on mineralization of dental and craniofacial tissues suggest local differences in the role of BSP and/or yet to be defined interactions with site-specific factors. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Bone 05/2015; 78. DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2015.05.007
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    ABSTRACT: Mechanical stress is a well-acknowledged positive regulatory factor for osteogenic differentiation of adipose- derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs). However, the molecular mechanisms associated with micro-RNAs (miRNAs) whereby ADSCs respond to mechanical stimuli remain elusive. We investigated the mechanism of mechanotransduction from the miRNA perspective in the osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs under tensile stress. Microarray analysis showed that miR-154-5p was remarkably downregulated when ADSCs were subjected to mechanical tension. Bioinformatics analysis with luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that Wnt11 3'UTR was a new direct target of miR-154-5p. Under tensile stress, lentivirus-mediated gain- or loss-of-function studies revealed that forced expression of miR-154-5p inhibited osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs, whereas inhibition of endogenous miR-154-5p with its antisense oligonucleotide (ASO-154-5p) obviously promoted osteogenic differentiation. Furthermore, miR-154-5p overexpression decreased activity of the non-canonical Wnt/PCP (RhoA-ROCK) pathway, as indicated by lower expression of Wnt11, active RhoA and ROCKII in miR-154-5p-treated ADSCs. By contrast, miR-154-5p inhibition activated the Wnt/PCP signals. Taken together, these results demonstrate that, under tensile stress, miR-154-5p negatively regulates ADSCs osteogenic differentiation through the Wnt/PCP pathway by directly targeting Wnt11. This novel regulatory pathway provides new insights into the molecular mechanism of mechanotransduction in osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Bone 05/2015; 78. DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2015.05.003
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    ABSTRACT: TLR-9 ligand CpG oligodeoxynucleotide type B (CpG ODN) induces a proinflammatory environment. We evaluated effects of a preoperative CpG ODN application in an implant-associated Staphylococcus aureus bone infection model by monitoring bacterial loads and cytokine and chemokine levels. A total of 95 rats were used in four different groups: CpG ODN group (group 1; n=25), non-CpG-ODN group (group 2; n=25); saline pretreatment (group 3; n=25), and one uninfected group (group 4; n=20). A single dose of CpG-ODN was administered to the left tibialis anterior muscle 3 days prior to surgery and the tibia midshaft was osteotomized, stabilized by an intramedullary implant and subsequently contaminated with 10(3) colony forming units (CFUs) of Staphylococcus aureus in group 1-3. The osteotomy gap in animals of group 4 was not contaminated with S. aureus and those animals did not receive any pretreatment. CpG ODN administration resulted in significant reduction of the bacterial load in tibia tissue homogenate and on the implant surface on day 1 post-infection compared to non-CpG-ODN pretreatment (p<0.05; p<0.05). Reductions in bacterial CFUs, compared to non-treated (saline) controls, were approximately 67% and 77 % for bone tissue homogenates and implants. No bacteria were detected in uninfected rats. Early reduction of bacterial CFUs in the tibia was accompanied by increased levels of proinflammatory mediators MIP-2, IL-1β and RANTES in bone tissue milieu of the CpG ODN treated group compared to controls. At day 42 post infection, bone marrow tissue of rats pretreated with CpG ODN had comparable high bacterial CFU numbers as the non CpG ODN or saline treated groups. Microbiological analysis of implants removed from CpG ODN treated rats showed high bacterial growth densities on their surfaces which were not different from those observed in controls. In histology, all animals of group 1-3 showed established infected non-unions. Additionally, inflammatory mediator profiles in bone marrow homogenates of CpG ODN treated rats resembled those seen in infected controls. In this rat model, prophylactic administration of a single dose of CpG ODN, resulted in marked reduction of S. aureus load in the infected tibia during the initial stage of infection but failed to prevent development of chronic infection over time. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Bone 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2015.04.030