Bone Journal Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: International Bone and Mineral Society, Elsevier

Journal description

Current impact factor: 4.46

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 4.461
2012 Impact Factor 3.823
2011 Impact Factor 4.023
2010 Impact Factor 4.601
2009 Impact Factor 4.089
2008 Impact Factor 4.145
2007 Impact Factor 3.966
2006 Impact Factor 3.829
2005 Impact Factor 3.939
2004 Impact Factor 3.53
2003 Impact Factor 3.572
2002 Impact Factor 3.755
2001 Impact Factor 3.247
2000 Impact Factor 3.998
1999 Impact Factor 3.961
1998 Impact Factor 3.272
1997 Impact Factor 2.93
1996 Impact Factor 2.083
1995 Impact Factor 2.134
1994 Impact Factor 2.051
1993 Impact Factor 2.896
1992 Impact Factor 2.405

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 4.25
Cited half-life 7.10
Immediacy index 0.77
Eigenfactor 0.04
Article influence 1.33
Other titles Bone (New York, N.Y.: Online), Bone
ISSN 1873-2763
OCLC 38871185
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details


  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Authors pre-print on any website, including arXiv and RePEC
    • Author's post-print on author's personal website immediately
    • Author's post-print on open access repository after an embargo period of between 12 months and 48 months
    • Permitted deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate, may be required to comply with embargo periods of 12 months to 48 months
    • Author's post-print may be used to update arXiv and RepEC
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Must link to publisher version with DOI
    • Author's post-print must be released with a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License
    • Publisher last reviewed on 03/06/2015
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although high serum uric acid (SUA) levels are associated with negative outcomes in older people, recent studies reported that hyperuricemia could help protect against the onset of bone fractures. We consequently examined whether baseline SUA levels were associated with risk of incident osteoporotic fractures in a representative group of elderly people with no fractures or other bone-modifying conditions or drugs at the baseline. Among 3099 people aged ≥65years initially involved in the PRO.V.A. study, 1586 participants with no prior diagnosis of osteoporotic fractures, and no conditions or medication affecting bone metabolism at the baseline were followed up for 4.4±1.2years. Baseline SUA levels were classified in gender-specific quintiles. Incident osteoporotic fractures were considered as any new fractures occurring at the usual sites of osteoporotic fractures. At the baseline, participants with higher SUA levels had significantly less osteoporosis and lower serum beta cross-laps levels, but higher serum parathormone concentrations irrespective of gender. Over a 4.4-year follow-up, 185 subjects were diagnosed with a new osteoporotic fracture, giving rise to an incidence of 25 events per 1000 person-years. Cox's regression analysis, adjusted for potential baseline and follow-up confounders, revealed no relationship between high SUA levels and incident fractures during the follow-up in the sample as a whole (p for trend=0.46) or by gender (p for trend=0.14 in males and 0.64 in females). Baseline SUA concentrations were not associated with the onset of new osteoporotic fractures over a 4.4-year follow-up in our sample of community-dwelling older men and women. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Bone 10/2015; 79. DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2015.06.005
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    ABSTRACT: Bisphosphonates are widely used to treat osteoporosis, but have been associated with atypical femoral fractures (AFFs) in the long term, which raises a critical health problem for the aging population. Several clinical studies have suggested that the occurrence of AFFs may be related to the bisphosphonate-induced changes of bone turnover, but large discrepancies in the results of these studies indicate that the salient mechanisms responsible for any loss in fracture resistance are still unclear. Here the role of bisphosphonates is examined in terms of the potential deterioration in fracture resistance resulting from both intrinsic (plasticity) and extrinsic (shielding) toughening mechanisms, which operate over a wide range of length-scales. Specifically, we compare the mechanical properties of two groups of humeri from healthy beagles, one control group comprising eight females (oral doses of saline vehicle, 1 mL/kg/day, 3 years) and one treated group comprising nine females (oral doses of alendronate used to treat osteoporosis, 0.2 mg/kg/day, 3 years). Our data demonstrate treatment-specific reorganization of bone tissue identified at multiple length-scales mainly through advanced synchrotron x-ray experiments. We confirm that bisphosphonate treatments can increase non-enzymatic collagen cross-linking at molecular scales, which critically restricts plasticity associated with fibrillar sliding, and hence intrinsic toughening, at nanoscales. We also observe changes in the intracortical architecture of treated bone at microscales, with partial filling of the Haversian canals and reduction of osteon number. We hypothesize that the reduced plasticity associated with BP treatments may induce an increase in microcrack accumulation and growth under cyclic daily loadings, and potentially increase the susceptibility of cortical bone to atypical (fatigue-like) fractures.
    Bone 10/2015; 81:352-363. DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2015.08.002
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    ABSTRACT: Some anti-diabetic therapies can have adverse effects on bone health and increase fracture risk.In this study, we tested the skeletal effects of chronic administration of two Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA), increasingly used for type 2 diabetes treatment, in a model of osteoporosis associated bone loss and examined the expression and activation of GLP-1R in bone cells. Mice were ovariectomised (OVX) to induce bone loss and four weeks later they were treated with Liraglutide (LIR) 0.3mg/kg/d, Exenatide (Ex-4) 10μg/kg/d or saline for four weeks. Mice were injected with calcein and alizarin red prior to euthanasia, to label bone-mineralising surfaces. Tibial micro-architecture was determined by micro-CT and bone formation and resorption parameters measured by histomorphometric analysis. Serum was collected to measure calcitonin and sclerostin levels, inhibitors of bone resorption and formation, respectively. GLP-1R mRNA and protein expression were evaluated in bone, bone marrow and bone cells using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Primary osteoclasts and osteoblasts were cultured to evaluate the effect of GLP-1RA on bone resorption and formation in vitro. GLP-1RA significantly increased trabecular bone mass, connectivity and structure parameters but had no effect on cortical bone. There was no effect of GLP-1RA on bone formation in vivo but an increase in osteoclast number and osteoclast surfaces was observed with Ex-4. GLP-1R was expressed in bone marrow cells, primary osteoclasts and osteoblasts and in late osteocytic cell line. Both Ex-4 and LIR stimulated osteoclastic differentiation in vitro but slightly reduced the area resorbed per osteoclast. They had no effect on bone nodule formation in vitro. Serum calcitonin levels were increased and sclerostin levels decreased by Ex-4 but not by LIR. Thus, GLP-1RA can have beneficial effects on bone and the expression of GLP-1R in bone cells may imply that these effects are exerted directly on the tissue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Bone 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2015.08.006
  • Bone 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2015.08.019
  • Bone 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2015.08.011
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    ABSTRACT: The mechanical integrity of the bone-implant system is maintained by the process of bone remodeling. Specifically, the interplay between bone resorption and bone formation is of paramount importance to fully understand the net changes in bone structure occurring in the peri-implant bone, which are eventually responsible for the mechanical stability of the bone-implant system. Using time-lapsed in vivo micro-computed tomography combined with new composite material implants, we were able to characterize the spatio-temporal changes of bone architecture and bone remodeling following implantation in living mice. After insertion, implant stability was attained by a quick and substantial thickening of the cortical shell which counteracted the observed loss of trabecular bone, probably due to the disruption of the trabecular network. Within the trabecular compartment, the rate of bone formation close to the implant was transiently higher than far from the implant mainly due to an increased mineral apposition rate which indicated a higher osteoblastic activity. Conversely, in cortical bone, the higher rate of bone formation close to the implant compared to far away was mostly related to the recruitment of new osteoblasts as indicated by a prevailing mineralizing surface. The behavior of bone resorption also showed dissimilarities between trabecular and cortical bone. In the former, the rate of bone resorption was higher in the peri-implant region and remained elevated during the entire monitoring period. In the latter, bone resorption rate had a bigger value away from the implant and decreased with time. Our approach may help to tune the development of smart implants that can attain a better long-term stability by a local and targeted manipulation of the remodeling process within the cortical and the trabecular compartments and, particularly, in bone of poor health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Bone 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2015.08.017
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    ABSTRACT: Human DMP1 mutations or Dmp1-null (KO) mice display hypophosphatemia rickets, suggesting a causative role of low phosphate (P) in development of osteomalacia. To address the direct contribution of P to the in vivo bone mineralization we analyzed the properties of femurs obtained from Dmp1 null mice and wild type (WT) mice under a normal or high phosphorous (HiP) diet using combined assays, including histological examination, micro computed tomography (μCT), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Histology and XANES indicate that WT mice have phosphate coordinated with Ca in the form of hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate, while the KO mice have poorly coordinated soluble phosphates in their structure in both the normal and HiP diets. Raman spectroscopy and XANES indicate a higher carbonate/phosphate ratio and a low mineral/matrix ratio in the osteoid clusters in the KO femurs, which was only partially improved by HiP diets. Thus, we conclude that the hypophosphatemia induced osteomalacia phenotype in Dmp1 KO mice is contributed by at least two factors: the low Pi level and the DMP1 local function in mineralization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Bone 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2015.08.018
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    ABSTRACT: Intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a potent anabolic therapy for bone, and several studies have implicated local insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling in mediating this effect. The IGF system is complex and includes ligands and receptors, as well as IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) and IGFBP proteases. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) is a metalloprotease expressed by osteoblasts in vitro that has been shown to enhance local IGF action through cleavage of inhibitory IGFBP-4. This study was set up to test two specific hypotheses: 1) Intermittent PTH treatment increases the expression of IGF-I, IGFBP-4 and PAPP-A in bone in vivo, thereby increasing local IGF activity. 2) In the absence of PAPP-A, local IGF activity and the anabolic effects of PTH on bone are reduced. Wild-type (WT) and PAPP-A knock-out (KO) mice were treated with 80μg/kg human PTH 1-34 or vehicle by subcutaneous injection five days per week for six weeks. IGF-I, IGFBP-4 and PAPP-A mRNA expression in bone were significantly increased in response to PTH treatment. PTH treatment of WT mice, but not PAPP-A KO mice, significantly increased expression of an IGF-responsive gene. Bone mineral density (BMD), as measured by DEXA, was significantly decreased in femurs of PAPP-A KO compared to WT mice with PTH treatment. Volumetric BMD, as measured by pQCT, was significantly decreased in femoral midshaft (primarily cortical bone), but not metaphysis (primarily trabecular bone), of PAPP-A KO compared to WT mice with PTH treatment. These data suggest that stimulation of PAPP-A expression by intermittent PTH treatment contributes to PTH bone anabolism in mice. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Bone 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2015.08.015
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    ABSTRACT: SI-591[N-[1-[[[(1S)-3-[[(3S)-hexahydro-2-oxo-1H-azepin-3-yl]amino]-1-(1-methylethyl)-2,3-dioxopropyl]amino]carbonyl]cyclohexyl]-2-furancarboxamide] is an orally bioavailable compound that was synthesized as one of several unique peptidomimetic compounds without a basic group. This compound was found to have the ability to inhibit cathepsin K, a lysosomal cysteine protease. Cathepsin K is known to be expressed in osteoclasts and involved in bone loss processes. In this study, SI-591 was shown to inhibit the activity of various purified cathepsin molecules at nanomolar concentrations but had high selectivity for cathepsin K over other subtypes including B and L. SI-591 also decreased the level of CTX-I, a bone resorption marker, which was released from osteoclasts in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. The mobilization of calcium from the bones to the blood stream is known to increase in rats fed with a low calcium diet; SI-591 inhibited this increase in serum calcium level at an oral dose of 3mg/kg. Furthermore, SI-591 significantly decreased the level of CTX-I and DPD, bone resorption markers, at oral doses of 10mg/kg or less in ovariectomized rats, while it did not affect the level of BGP, a bone formation marker. In addition, SI-591 prevented bone mineral density loss in the lumber vertebrae and femurs in ovariectomized rats. These results suggest that SI-591 inhibits bone resorption without affecting osteoblast maturation. Therefore, SI-591, a novel cathepsin K inhibitor, could be a promising agent for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Bone 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2015.08.016
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    ABSTRACT: We previously demonstrated that skeletal structure and strength phenotypes vary considerably in heterogeneous stock (HS) rats. These phenotypes were found to be strongly heritable, suggesting that the HS rat model represents a unique genetic resource for dissecting the complex genetic etiology underlying bone fragility. The purpose of this study was to identify and localize genes associated with bone structure and strength phenotypes using 1524 adult male and female HS rats between 17 to 20 weeks of age. Structure measures included femur length, neck width, head width; femur and lumbar spine (L3-5) areas obtained by DXA; and cross-sectional areas (CSA) at the midshaft, distal femur and femoral neck, and the 5th lumbar vertebra measured by CT. In addition, measures of strength of the whole femur and femoral neck were obtained. Approximately 70,000 polymorphic SNPs distributed throughout the rat genome were selected for genotyping, with a mean linkage disequilibrium coefficient between neighboring SNPs of 0.95. Haplotypes were estimated across the entire genome for each rat using a multipoint haplotype reconstruction method, which calculates the probability of descent at each locus from each of the 8 HS founder strains. The haplotypes were then tested for association with each structure and strength phenotype via a mixed model with covariate adjustment. We identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for structure phenotypes on chromosomes 3, 8, 10, 12, 17 and 20, and QTLs for strength phenotypes on chromosomes 5, 10 and 11 that met a conservative genome-wide empiric significance threshold (FDR=5%; P<3 X 10(-6)). Importantly, most QTLs were localized to very narrow genomic regions (as small as 0.3Mb and up to 3 Mb), each harboring a small set of candidate genes, both novel and previously shown to have roles in skeletal development and homeostasis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Bone 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2015.08.013
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    ABSTRACT: Periostin is preferentially expressed by the periosteum, which mainly covers the long bones. Therefore, the role of periostin in osteoporotic fracture (OF) may differ depending on bone type. We performed a case-control study to investigate whether periostin can serve as a predictor of OF risk, particularly after dividing OFs into non-vertebral and vertebral fractures. Among 532 consecutive postmenopausal women not taking any drug or without any disease that could affect bone metabolism, 133 cases with OF (i.e., non-vertebral and/or vertebral fractures) and 133 age- and body mass index-matched controls were enrolled. Non-vertebral (i.e., forearm, humerus, hip, and pelvis; n = 81) and morphological vertebral (n = 62) fractures were identified by an interviewer-assisted questionnaire and lateral thoracolumbar radiographs, respectively. Bone mineral density (BMD) and plasma periostin levels were also measured. Plasma periostin was markedly higher in subjects with non-vertebral fracture than their controls even after adjustment for BMD and potential confounders (P = 0.006). Each standard deviation increment of plasma periostin was associated with a multivariable-adjusted odds ratio of 1.59 for non-vertebral fracture. The odds for non-vertebral fracture were 2.48-fold higher in subjects in the highest periostin tertile compared with those in the lowest periostin tertile (95% confidence interval = 1.10-5.61). However, associations between plasma periostin and vertebral fracture were not observed, regardless of the adjustment model used. Consistently, plasma periostin levels were inversely associated with proximal femur BMD (P = 0.007 to 0.030) but not lumbar spine BMD. In subgroup analyses, plasma periostin had no correlation with the levels of classical bone turnover markers. Plasma periostin may be a potential biomarker of the risk of OF, especially in non-spinal skeletal sites, such as the limbs, rather than spine. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Bone 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2015.08.014
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the fact that the medications used to treat abnormal bone conditions often induce osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ), previous attempts to establish an animal model for ONJ have shown insufficient consideration for this important prerequisite for the development of the disease. The purpose of this study was to establish an animal model with the most common metabolic bone disease, osteoporosis. Ninty-six rats were randomly divided into ovariectomy (Ov) group (n=48) and sham-operated group (n=48). Six weeks after Ov or sham surgery, rats in each group were subdivided into bisphosphonate group (n=36 each) and control group (n=12 each) and injected with zoledronic acid and normal saline, respectively, once a week. After additional 6 weeks, surgical intervention was performed, and the injections were continued for 8 more weeks. The animals were then sacrificed for further macroscopic, histological, histomorphometric, radiological, and bone biomarker investigations. As histologically determined, the Ov group (77.8%) showed higher ONJ prevalence compared to the sham group (47.2%; P<0.05). Micro-structural and histomorphometric assessments revealed that rats with ONJ (ONJ group) presented with deteriorated bone architectures with higher necrotic bone fraction and lower number of osteoclasts (P<0.05). Compared to the sham-operated ONJ group, the Ov ONJ group showed significantly lower values of Tb.N, Tb.Sp, Conn.D, N.Oc/T.Ar, and TRACP 5b and CTX/TRACP (P<0.05). The ovariectomized rat model in this study successfully mimicked human ONJ lesions with an underlying bone disease and showed different bone characteristics than that of the previous ONJ model. Based on the differences, further researches for investigating pathophysiology of ONJ, including various pharmacological responses for deteriorated bone environment, are required. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Bone 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2015.08.012
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    ABSTRACT: Bisphosphonates are widely used in the treatment of osteoporosis and contribute to the reduction of bone fractures. Ibandronate (IBN) is a highly potent, nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, which is administered orally or intravenously at extended dosing intervals. Vitamin D or active vitamin D3 derivatives are also used in the treatment of osteoporosis, and are often used in combination with other drugs. In this study, we investigated the effect of treatment with the combination of once-monthly s.c.dosing of IBN plus once-daily oral eldecalcitol (ELD), an active vitamin D3 derivative, using aged ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Treatment was started the day after OVX, and analyses were performed 4, 8, and 12 weeks thereafter by determination of bone markers, bone mineral density, biomechanical properties, and histomorphometry. The combination treatment showed a synergistic effect in increasing both lumbar and femoral BMD, and resulted in a significant increase in bone ultimate load. The combination of IBN plus ELD acted synergistically to reduce bone resorption, whereas bone formation did not decrease any more than with monotherapy with either IBN or ELD. Bone formation independent of bone resorption (a process known as 'minimodeling') was not changed in vehicle treated OVX rats despite the increase in bone turnover. ELD upregulated minimodeling, which was however not diminished in the combination treatment. In conclusion, treatment with the combination of IBN plus ELD was beneficial in the treatment of osteoporosis in aged OVX rats. It exhibited a synergistic inhibitory effect on bone resorption and keeps bone formation at the level of sham controls. This uncoupling of bone resorption / bone formation was affected, to some extent, by minimodeling-based bone formation which is independent of bone resorption. This combination regimen which showed synergistic effect on BMD and bone ultimate load without inhibition of bone formation may be beneficial in long-term osteoporosis treatment to prevent bone fractures. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Bone 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2015.08.004
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    ABSTRACT: Bone metastasis remains incurable with treatment restricted to palliative care. Cabozantinib (CBZ) is targeted against multiple receptor tyrosine kinases involved in tumour pathobiology, including hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2). CBZ has demonstrated clinical activity in advanced prostate cancer with resolution of lesions visible on bone scans, implicating a potential role of the bone microenvironment as a mediator of CBZ effects. We characterised the effects of short-term administration of CBZ on bone in a range of in vivo models to determine how CBZ affects bone in the absence of tumour. Studies were performed in a variety of in vivo models including male and female BALB/c nude mice (age 6-17-weeks). Animals received CBZ (30mg/kg, 5× weekly) or sterile H2O control for 5 or 10days. Effects on bone integrity (μCT), bone cell activity (PINP, TRAP ELISA), osteoblast and osteoclast number/mm trabecular bone surface, area of epiphyseal growth plate cartilage, megakaryocyte numbers and bone marrow composition were assessed. Effects of longer-term treatment (15-day & 6-week administration) were assessed in male NOD/SCID and beige SCID mice. CBZ treatment had significant effects on the bone microenvironment, including reduced osteoclast and increased osteoblast numbers compared to control. Trabecular bone structure was altered after 8 administrations. A significant elongation of the epiphyseal growth plate, in particular the hypertrophic chondrocyte zone, was observed in all CBZ treated animals irrespective of administration schedule. Both male and female BALB/c nude mice had increased megakaryocyte numbers/mm(2) tissue after 10-day CBZ treatment, in addition to vascular ectasia, reduced bone marrow cellularity and extravasation of red blood cells into the extra-vascular bone marrow. All CBZ-induced effects were transient and rapidly lost following cessation of treatment. Short-term administration of CBZ induces rapid, reversible effects on the bone microenvironment in vivo highlighting a potential role in mediating treatment responses. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Bone 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2015.08.003
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    ABSTRACT: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a congenital disorder caused most often by dominant mutations in the COL1A1 or COL1A2 genes that encode the alpha chains of type I collagen. Severe forms of OI are associated with skeletal deformities and frequent fractures. Skeletal pain can occur acutely after fracture, but also arises chronically without preceding fractures. In this study we assessed OI-associated pain in the Col1a1Jrt/+ mouse, a recently developed model of severe dominant OI. Similar to severe OI in humans, this mouse has significant skeletal abnormalities and develops spontaneous fractures, joint dislocations and vertebral deformities. In this model, we investigated behavioural measures of pain and functional impairment. Significant hypersensitivity to mechanical, heat and cold stimuli, assessed by von Frey filaments, radiant heat paw withdrawal and the acetone tests, respectively, were observed in OI compared to control wildtype littermates. OI mice also displayed reduced motor activity in the running wheel and open field assays. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed no changes between OI and WT mice in innervation of the glabrous skin of the hindpaw or in expression of the pain-related neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related protein in sensory neurons. In contrast, increased sensitivity to mechanical and cold stimulation strongly correlated with the extent of skeletal deformities in OI mice. Thus, we demonstrated that the Col1a1Jrt/+ mouse model of severe OI has hypersensitivity to mechanical and thermal stimuli, consistent with a state of chronic pain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Bone 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2015.08.001
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of vitamin E on cardiovascular and bone health are conflicting with beneficial and detrimental findings reported. To investigate this further, we carried out a cross-sectional study to determine the relationship between circulating concentrations of the 2 vitamin E isomers, α- and γ-tocopherol (TP) with bone turnover and arterial stiffness. Two hundred and seventy eight post-menopausal women with mean age [SD] 60.9[6.0] years were studied. Fasting serum α-TP and γ-TP, bone turnover markers; procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP) and C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX), parathyroid hormone (PTH), total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) were measured. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) and central augmentation index (AI) as markers of arterial stiffness were also determined. A positive correlation was observed between α-TP and γ-TP (r= 0.14, p=0.022). A significant negative association between α-TP and P1NP only was seen in multiple linear regression analysis following adjustment for serum TC and TG (p=0.016). In a full multi-linear regression model, following correction for age, years since menopause, smoking habits, alcohol intake, use of calcium supplements, BMI, PTH, serum calcium, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), the association between α-TP and P1NP remained significant (p=0.011). We did not observe any significant association between γ-TP or α-TP/ γ-TP ratio with P1NP or CTX. P1NP was significantly lower in subjects with α-TP concentrations of > 30μmol/L (α-TP >30μmol/L; P1NP : 57.5[20.7], α-TP<30 μmol/L; P1NP : 65.7[24.9] μg/L, p=0.005). PWV was significantly associated with α-TP/ γ-TP ratio (p=0.04) but not with serum α-TP or γ-TP in a full multi-linear regression model adjusting for serum lipids, age, blood pressure. The data suggest that high serum concentrations of α-TP may have a negative effect on bone formation. The balance of α-TP and γ-TP may be important in maintaining arterial compliance. Longitudinal studies are needed to investigate the impact of the vitamin E isomers on bone and cardiovascular health. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Bone 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2015.08.010
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    ABSTRACT: α-calcitonin gene-related peptide (α-CGRP) plays a significant pathophysiological role in bone development, metabolism and remodeling around dental implants. However, the half-life of α-CGRP in plasma is only 10 minutes, which affects its long-time application and an alternative approach should be developed to deliver α-CGRP over long periods of time. The aim of this study is to investigate whether a lentiviral α-CGRP overexpression vector system can express this target-gene longer at peri-implant sites, thus enhancing osseointegration. Animals were divided to the following groups: α-CGRP(-/-), α-CGRP(-/-) with lentivirus transfection and α-CGRP(+/+) mice. IVIS Spectrum imaging observations identified the successful transfection of α-CGRP around experimental implants inserted in the femurs at 5 days after injection. Histomorphometrical analysis indicated an increase of bone-implant contact (BIC) at 1-month healing in the transfection group. Moreover, real-time RT-PCR and western blot results of bone-related markers Runx2, Osterix, and BSP levels elevated in lentivirus-transfected mice at 21 days, compared to the untreated α-CGRP(-/-) mice. There was no significant difference between the transfection group and α-CGRP(+/+) group. Further α-CGRP protein detection confirmed the persistent expression of this transgene at 21 days post-operatively. These results suggest that this lentiviral vector system expresses α-CGRP in an effective, appropriate and sustained manner, which might have a potential application in enhancing titanium implant osseointegration. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Bone 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2015.08.009
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    ABSTRACT: Although it is widely recognized that the osteoclast differentiation induced by RANKL is linked to the anti-proliferative activity of the cytokine, we report here that RANKL in the presence of M-CSF actually stimulates DNA synthesis and cell proliferation during the early proliferative phase (0-48 h) of osteoclastogenesis ex vivo, while the same cytokine exerts an anti-proliferative activity in the latter half (48-96 h). A tracing of the individual cells using Fucci cell cycle indicators showed that waves of active DNA synthesis in the S phase during the period 0-48 h are followed by cell-cycle arrest and cell fusion after 48 h. Inhibition of DNA synthesis with hydroxyurea (HU) during the first half almost completely inhibited osteoclastogenesis; however, the same HU-treated cells, when re-plated at 48 h at increasing cell densities, exhibited restored osteoclast formation, suggesting that a sufficient number of cells, rather than prior DNA synthesis, is the most critical requirement for osteoclast formation. In addition, varying either the number of bone marrow macrophages at the start of osteoclastogenic cultures or pre-osteoclasts halfway through the process had a substantial impact on the number of osteoclasts that finally formed, as well as the timing of the peak of osteoclast formation. Thus, caution should be exerted in the performance of any manipulative procedure, whether pharmacological or genetic, that affects the cell number prior to cell fusion. Such procedures can have a profound effect on the number of osteoclasts that form, the final outcome of "differentiation", leading to misinterpretation of the results. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Bone 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2015.08.008
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    ABSTRACT: Sclerostin antibody (Scl-Ab) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) are bone-forming agents that have different modes of action on bone, although a study directly comparing their effects has not been conducted. The present study investigated the comparative quantitative effects of these two bone-forming agents over time on bone at the organ, tissue, and cellular level; specifically, at the level of the osteoblast (Ob) lineage in adolescent male and female rats. Briefly, eight-week old male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were administered either vehicle, Scl-Ab (3 or 50 mg/kg/week subcutaneously), or human PTH (1-34) (75 μg/kg/day subcutaneously) for 4 or 26 weeks. The 50 mg/kg Scl-Ab and the PTH dose were those used in the respective rat lifetime pharmacology studies. Using robust stereological methods, we compared the effects of these agents specifically at the level of the Ob lineage in vertebrae from female rats. Using RUNX2 or nestin immunostaining, location, and morphology, the total number of osteoprogenitor subpopulations, Ob, and lining cells were estimated using the fractionator or proportionator estimators. Density estimates were also calculated referent to total bone surface, total Ob surface, or total marrow volume. Scl-Ab generally effected greater increases in cancellous and cortical bone mass than PTH, correlating with higher bone formation rates (BFR) at 4 weeks in the spine and mid-femur without corresponding increases in bone resorption indices. The increases in vertebral BFR/BS at 4 weeks attenuated with continued treatment to a greater extent with Scl-Ab than with PTH. At 4 weeks, both Scl-Ab and PTH effected equivalent increases in total Ob number (Ob.N). Ob density on the formative surfaces (Ob.N/Ob.S) remained similar across groups while mineral apposition rate (MAR) was significantly higher with Scl-Ab at week 4, reflecting an increase in individual Ob vigor relative to vehicle and PTH. After 26 weeks, Scl-Ab maintained BFR/BS with fewer Ob and lower Ob.N/Ob.S by increasing the Ob footprint (bone surface area occupied by an Ob) and increasing MAR, compared with PTH. The lower Ob.N and Ob.N/Ob.S with Scl-Ab at 26 weeks was associated with decreased osteoprogenitor numbers compared with both vehicle and PTH, an effect not evident at week 4. Osteoprogenitor numbers were generally positively correlated with Ob.N across groups and timepoints, suggesting dynamic coordination between the progenitor and Ob populations. The time-dependent reductions in subpopulations of the Ob lineage with Scl-Ab may be integral to the greater attenuation or self-regulation of bone formation observed at the vertebra, as PTH required more Ob at the formative site with correlative increased numbers of progenitors compared with Scl-Ab indicating potentially greater stimulus for progenitor pool proliferation or differentiation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Bone 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2015.08.007