Animal reproduction science

Publisher: Elsevier

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  • Impact factor
    1.56
  • 5-year impact
    2.11
  • Cited half-life
    6.30
  • Immediacy index
    0.32
  • Eigenfactor
    0.01
  • Article influence
    0.51
  • ISSN
    1873-2232

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Elsevier

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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim in the present study was to gain an improved understanding of the relationships between body weight (BW), body condition (BCS), and metabolic homeostasis, and the attainment of puberty in Brahman heifers in a subtropical environment. Brahman heifers (200 ± 3 kg BW; 2.00 ± 0.0 BCS) were assigned to a moderate nutrition (MN, n = 11) or improved nutrition (IN, n = 11) treatment from 11 to 23 months-of-age. The heifers were monitored at regular intervals for circulating concentrations of GH, IGF-1, insulin, glucose and leptin, and ovarian follicular activity was recorded until the first ovulation. From approximately 16 months of age, heifers on IN had a greater (P < 0.01) BW and greater (P < 0.01) BCS than heifers on MN. Heifers on IN also had a generally improved metabolic homeostasis than heifers on MN which was reflected in greater circulating concentrations of insulin, leptin, IGF-1 and glucose in the former heifers. Heifers on IN attained puberty between 21 and 23 months of age and only one heifer on MN had reached puberty by 23 months. This study has shown that Brahman heifers on IN had a metabolic homeostasis that was supportive of reproductive maturation and puberty.
    Animal reproduction science 05/2014; 146:134-142.
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    ABSTRACT: In captivity, male Asian elephants often yield poor quality semen after transrectal manually assisted semen collection; however, the reasons for the disappointing semen quality are not clear. Here we test the hypothesis that accumulation of senescent spermatozoa is a contributory factor, and that semen quality can therefore be improved by more frequent ejaculation. To this end we investigated the effect of collecting semen five times on alternate days, after a long period of sexual rest, on semen quality in Asian elephants known to deliver poor semen during infrequent single collections. All eight bulls initially displayed a high incidence of detached sperm heads and low percentages of motile (close to 0%) spermatozoa. After semen collection on alternate days, the percentages of detached sperm heads, and head and mid-piece abnormalities, were reduced significantly (p<0.05). In particular, one bull showed markedly improved sperm motility (increased from 0% to 60%) and membrane integrity (increased from 5% to 75%). In addition, advancing age significantly (p<0.01) correlated with lower percentages of sperm with intact membranes and a higher frequency of detached sperm heads. In contrast to sperm accumulation problems in other species, a small ampullary diameter correlated significantly (p<0.05) with reduced semen quality.
    Animal reproduction science 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Although alginate was reported to play an important role as free radical scavengers in vitro and could be used as sources of natural antioxidants, there was no study about the cryoprotective effects of alginate on boar spermatozoa freezing. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of alginate added to the freezing extenders on boar spermatozoa motility, plasma membrane integrity, acrosomal integrity, mitochondrial activities, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative enzymes activities (SOD and GSH-Px) after thawing. Alginate was added to the TCG extender to yield six different final concentrations: 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0mg/mL. The semen extender supplemented with various doses of alginate increased (P<0.05) total motility. The spermatozoa plasma membrane integrity and mitochondrial activity were improved at four different concentrations: 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0mg/mL. The addition of alginate also provided significantly positive effect on post-thaw boar spermatozoa acrosomal integrity at concentrations of 0.6, 0.8, 1.0mg/mL, compared with that of the control (P<0.05). The freezing extenders with the presence of alginate led to higher SOD and GSH-Px activities and lower MDA levels, in comparison to the control (P<0.05). In summary, alginate exhibited a dose-related response on frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa motility, functional integrity and antioxidative capacity at appropriate concentrations. Therefore alginate could be employed as an effective cryoprotectant in boar spermatozoa cryopreservation.
    Animal reproduction science 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Environmental temperatures may influence the temperature inside commercial transport boxes during semen shipment and thereby storage conditions of diluted dog semen. To evaluate the temperature changes inside boxes and their influence on sperm quality, split semen samples (n=8) were placed in Neopor boxes(®) exposed for 48h to room temperature (RT) (Box 1), 40°C for 6h and then kept at RT (Box 2) or 40°C (Box 3). A fourth subsample was kept at 4-5°C in a refrigerator (control). Inside Box 1 temperature initially decreased to <3°C before it stabilized at 7-8°C, while in Box 2 no decrease occurred and temperature was at 7-8°C for 48h. Temperature inside Box 3 was at 14-15°C for 24h and, thereafter, increased to 36.1°C. Analysis of sperm motility (CASA) and viability (PI and FITC-PNA) after 24 and 48h revealed marked sensitivity of dog spermatozoa to temperature fluctuations (Box 1). A constant storage temperature of 7-8°C (Box 2) provided the most desirable semen quality in terms of motility, viability, as well as osmotic resistance when samples were stored for 48h. Furthermore, results indicate that during 24h preservation a storage temperature of 14-16°C may provide optimum conditions for maintenance of sperm viability and function. An increase of the inside temperature to >30°C (Box 3) resulted in an almost complete loss in sperm integrity. In conclusion, results suggest a revision of current recommendations for storage temperature of diluted dog semen. Boxes for semen transport should be prepared depending on the expected environmental temperatures.
    Animal reproduction science 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Sixteen fertile rams were randomly allotted to four groups and fed either of the four diets for 14 weeks: (1) control diet (COD) without fish oil (FO) and vitamin C (VC), (2) diet containing 2.5% FO (FOD), (3) diet containing 300mg/kg DM VC (VCD), and (4) diet containing 2.5% FO and 300mg/kg DM VC (FCD). Semen was collected at 14-d intervals from 1 April to 10 July (out of the physiologic breeding season in Iran). Semen volume and percentages of motile and progressively motile sperm were increased by FO and VC feeding. A significant interaction was also found between FOD and VCD on motility and progressive motility percentage (P<0.05). HOS-test and percentage of sperm with normal acrosome improved significantly by FO and VC. Rams fed FCD had better HOS-test and higher proportion of sperm with normal acrosome than rams in other groups (82.4 and 93.6%, respectively). Diets containing FO and FO and VC increased the proportion of docosahexaenoic acid in sperm (P<0.05). The activity of lactate dehydrogenase in the seminal fluid was significantly affected by VC and the interaction between FO and VC (P<0.05). Blood metabolites, except glucose, were affected positively by FO. The results showed that dietary supplementation with FO and VC improved seminal quality and may have beneficial effects on fertility in Moghani rams.
    Animal reproduction science 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Selection for large body size in mink (Neovison vison) can result in obesity, which is associated with poor reproduction and metabolic disorders. Caloric restriction is effective in diminishing oxidative stress and delaying aging-related diseases. This study investigated the effects of moderate diet restriction on body condition, health, and reproductive success of mink breeder females. One-hundred control females were fed according to conventional feeding practice, while the feed allowance of their 100 sister-pair females was restricted in order to maintain an ideal body condition during the fall and eliminate the need for drastic slimming prior to breeding. Repeated measures analyses revealed that body weight gain during the fall and weight loss prior to breeding was significantly less for the restricted females. The restricted females had significantly larger live litters (5.88 kits) than the control dams (4.62 kits; P<0.05). They were also able to maintain their body weight and condition during early lactation and were able to regain weight and condition post-lactation, unlike their control sisters. Based on their comet scores (restricted: 88; control: 116), the restricted primiparous females experienced less DNA damage (P<0.05), while no significant differences were apparent for the multiparous females (restricted: 170; control: 153). No changes in telomere length were observed among the dams. Moderate diet restriction of mink breeder females during the fall eliminated extreme fluctuations in body weight and condition throughout the seasonal production cycle and improved their litter size, and in primiparous females, lessened DNA damage.
    Animal reproduction science 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Retained placenta remains therapeutic challenge in cattle. Certain traditional medicines are believed to be able to alleviate retained placenta condition and improve overall fertility in cows. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of an herbal tincture for treatment of retained placenta. The herbal tincture was extracted from a combination of Herba Leonuri, Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Flos Carthami, Myrrha and Rhizoma Cyperi by percolation with 70% ethanol to a concentration of 0.5g crude herb/ml. Cows diagnosed with retained placenta (n=48) were randomly divided into one of two treatment groups (A and B), with animals in group A (n=26) receiving herbal tincture orally, and cows in group B (n=22) receiving oxytetracycline infusion into the uterus. Eighty six cows with no clinically visible pathological conditions, given birth alone and with no retained placenta diagnosis were included into control group (C). Retained placenta was expelled within 72h following initial treatment in 19 cows in group A, yet no cows in group B were recorded to expel placenta in the same time. The median number of days to first service (70.0 vs. 102.5 days; P<0.05) and median number of days open (76.0 vs. 134.0 days; P<0.01) were lower in group A than in group B. Percentage of cows pregnant within 100 days postpartum was the highest for animals in group A compared to controls (61.5% vs. 39.5%, P<0.05), and for animals in group B (61.5% vs. 22.7%; P<0.01). Herbal tincture used in the present study might facilitate expulsion of retained placenta and improve subsequent fertility, thus could present effective treatment option for retained placenta in cows.
    Animal reproduction science 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the role of the processed autophagy marker light chain 3 (LC3B) protein in sperm survival in stallion semen processing during cooled storage, split ejaculates were diluted in two different extenders, KMT and INRA 96, and LC3B processing and sperm quality evaluated during incubation at 5°C for five days. After 3 days of incubation there was a drop in total motility in both extenders, although the percentage of progressive motile sperm was greater (P<0.05) in samples extended in INRA96. On Day 5 of cooled storage all sperm parameters decreased significantly independent of the extender, however, samples extended in INRA 96 maintained motility values while those extended in KMT had a further decrease in motility compared with data collected on Day 3 of incubation. The percentage of live sperm decreased over the time of incubation, but only in samples incubated in KMT. The extender had a marked effect in LC3B processing during cooled storage. Spermatozoa maintained in KMT extender did not exhibit LC3B processing, while in spermatozoa incubated in INRA96 there was an increase (P<0.01) in LC3B processing after 5 days of cooled storage. Stallion spermatozoa experience LC3B turnover during cooled storage, however, the extent depends on the extender used. Apparently LC3B turnover is associated with enhanced survival.
    Animal reproduction science 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of estradiol cypionate (ECP) and amount of progesterone in the intravaginal device (PID) on synchronization of estrus and ovulation, follicular dynamics, luteal dynamics and function and on pregnancy rate in beef cows treated with fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) based protocols. In Experiment 1, we evaluated the synchronization of ovulation using 1mg of ECP at PID removal (day 8 after PID insertion) or 1mg of estradiol benzoate (EB) 24h later, in cows treated with 0.558 or 1g of progesterone (P4). The final subgroups were: 0.558g+ECP: n=10; 0.558g+EB: n=11; 1g+ECP: n=10; 1g+EB: n=10. Ovarian ultrasonic examinations were performed to detect the dominant follicle and ovulation. There was no effect of treatments on the diameter of dominant follicle at any time, and on the mean interval to estrus and to ovulation (P>0.05); however, ECP treated cows had scattered distribution of estrus (P<0.03) and ovulation (P<0.03). In Experiment 2, cows received the following treatments: 0.558gP4+ECP: n=52; 0.558gP4+EB: n=52; 1gP4+ECP: n=50; 1gP4+EB: n=52; and FTAI. Pregnancy rate did not differ (P>0.05) between progesterone content (0.558g: 52.9%, 55/104; 1g: 56.9%, 58/102) but differed between estradiol esters (P<0.05; ECP: 48.9%, 49/102; EB: 61.5%, 64/104). In Experiment 3, cows received: 0.558gP4+ECP: n=55; 0.558gP4+EB: n=53; 1gP4+ECP: n=54; 1gP4+EB: n=53; and FTAI. Pregnancy rate did not differ (P>0.05) between progesterone content (0.558g: 48.1%, 52/108; 1g: 53.3%, 57/107) and estradiol esters (ECP: 47.7%, 52/109; EB: 53.8%, 57/106). In conclusion, ECP administration at device removal and progesterone content of PID has no influence on the synchronization of estrus, follicular dynamics, luteal dynamics and function. However, ECP administration affected the synchronization of ovulation and pregnancy rate in non-suckling beef cows, but did not affected pregnancy rate in suckling beef cows. Future studies should evaluate the distribution of ovulations in suckling Bos taurus beef cows.
    Animal reproduction science 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The resumption of ovarian activity, uterine health, severity of the negative energy balance and the synthesis of inflammatory mediators during the transition period in dairy cows are interrelated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the resumption of postpartum ovarian activity and the percentage of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells in endometrial cytology, lipid mobilization and the secretion of acute phase proteins. For this study, 20 multiparous Holstein cows were used. Blood samples that were collected from 21d before calving to 44d in milk (DIM) were analyzed for serum glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), insulin, haptoglobin, albumin, paraoxonase and progesterone. Endometrial cytology was performed at 37±2DIM to evaluate the percentage of PMN cells in the uterine flushing. Cows were divided into two groups: (1) ovulatory cows (n=12), which returned to ovarian activity by 44±2DIM; and (2) anovulatory cows (n=8), which did not resume ovarian activity during this period. Ovulatory cows had a lower (P=0.05) percentage of PMN cells in endometrial cytology than anovulatory cows (26.3±8.3% vs. 53.4±16.9%, respectively). Ovulatory cows had higher serum albumin during the pre- (P=0.03) and postpartum periods (P=0.01), and tended to have lower haptoglobin concentrations in the prepartum period (P=0.07) and higher paraoxonase activity in the postpartum period (P=0.09). In conclusion, cows that resumed ovarian activity early in the postpartum period had higher albumin concentrations in the peripartum period, which were associated with a lower percentage of uterine PMN cells.
    Animal reproduction science 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The objectives of the study were to assess: (1) preovulatory serum LH concentrations and (2) synchrony of ovulation after im or iu administration of GnRH with or without the addition of glycerol. Cows were presynchronized with 2 injections of PGF2α given 14d apart (starting at 26±3DIM) followed by Ovsynch (OV; GnRH-7d-PGF2α-48h-GnRH) 12d later. At the time of the second GnRH of OV (GnRH2), cows were blocked by parity and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 treatments: (1) control (CON; n=8) received 2mL of sterile water im; (2) im (IM; n=8) received 100μg of GnRH im; (3) cows were infused with 200μg GnRH into the uterus (IU; n=9); and (4) iu administration of 200μg GnRH plus glycerol 7% v/v (IUG; n=8). Serum circulating progesterone concentrations at hour 0 did not differ (P>0.05) among groups. Concentrations of LH were greater (P<0.05) in IM than IU, IUG, and CON cows at hours 1, 1.5, 2, and 3. All cows ovulated within 48h in the IM (8/8) group followed by IU (6/9) and IUG (4/8) groups, and only two out of eight cows ovulated in the CON group. Although iu administration of GnRH in the IU and IUG groups resulted in lower serum concentrations of LH than IM cows, IU or IUG cows were able to ovulate within 48h after GnRH2 administration.
    Animal reproduction science 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The goals of this study are to provide a technical foundation for the production of the red head goby Elacatinus puncticulatus by evaluating its reproductive behavior and its embryonic and early larval development. Five pairs were kept under controlled conditions for thirty days. Courtship behavior, spawning period and the number of eggs produced were recorded. For the evaluation of embryo development, eggs were sampled at 12, 18, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144 and 168h post-fertilization(HPF). To test the influence of the incubation period on larval total length and height, eggs with six days (6D) of incubation and with seven days of incubation (7D) were subjected to flashlight illumination for 30min to induce larval hatching. Another experiment evaluated the difference in larval survival with three different diets: Euplotes sp. (EU); rotifers Brachionus rotundiformis and Brachionus plicatilis and Paramecium sp. (BP); plankton collected from the wild (WP). The males displayed a gray head and pale yellow and black body coloration. Females exhibited strong red and black colors until three days before spawning, which occurred at intervals of 7 to 10 days. The hatching rate was 98-99%. The larvae total mean lengths and heights were 3.05 and 2.95mm (p>0.05) and 0.37 and 0.48mm (p<0.05) for treatments 6D and 7D, respectively. However, both groups exhibited high mortality at 5 days post-hatch (DPH). No larvae from the EU group survived after 5 DPH. At 8 DPH, 4% survivorship was found in treatment BP and 2% in treatment WP.
    Animal reproduction science 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The spotted paca is the second largest rodent in Brazil, where it is of great economic interest in impoverished regions in view of its prominence as a low-cost source of protein. Little is known about the morphology of the accessory genital glands of this species. Thus, we studied the position and morphology of the genitals in ten adult male spotted pacas. The animals were divided into two groups, five animals were used for fixing of samples in 10% aqueous formaldehyde for macroscopic studies and the other five animals were designated for microscopic analysis. These were arranged in pairs and had the vesicular, prostate, coagulating and bulbourethral glands identified, being structured as mucous glands, which lead into the pelvic urethra. It was concluded that the accessory genital glands found in the paca are the same as those found in most rodents, showing similar histological aspects.
    Animal reproduction science 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), an indole hormone, regulates a variety of important central and peripheral actions related to circadian rhythms and reproduction through its specific receptor subtypes (Mel-1a, Mel-1b and Mel-1c). However, the expression profile of melatonin receptor genes (MTNR1A, MTNR1B and MTNR1C) in ovarian hierarchical follicles of geese remains to be clarified. In this study, the expression level of melatonin receptors in small white follicle (SWF), small yellow follicle (SYF), the largest follicle (F1), second largest (F2), third largest (F3), fourth largest (F4), fifth largest (F5), and postovulatory follicle (POF) in the Sichuan white goose were examined using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The results showed that the expression levels of MTNR1A, MTNR1B and MTNR1C initially increased and later decreased. The highest levels of gene expression of these receptor subtypes were observed in F5 or F4 in all examined follicles. Furthermore, the expression of MTNR1A and MTNR1B mRNA was significantly greater in SYF compared with SWF (P<0.05), but MTNR1C was absent in SWF. The expression of MTNR1A, MTNR1B and MTNR1C mRNA was significantly greater in F5 compared with SYF (P<0.05), and the expression of MTNR1A and MTNR1C mRNA was higher in F1 compared with POF (P<0.05). In addition, the oestrogen concentration in SWF, SYF, F4, F3, F2, F1 and POF was measured using ELISA. The oestrogen concentration and melatonin receptor expression both were initially observed to increase and subsequently decrease. The oestrogen concentration in F4 and F3 was highest in all examined samples and was 1318.2pg/g and 1318.1pg/g, respectively. These results suggest that the melatonin receptor may be involved in the activation of the SWF and SYF to allow the SWF and SYF to develop into the subsequent follicles. Furthermore, follicles and the expression of the melatonin receptors may be regulated by the secretion of the oestrogen.
    Animal reproduction science 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Morphology of gametes is used to understand the physiological processes in reproduction among domestic and wild animals. These gametes are used in assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and conservation programs. In the case of Artibeus jamaicensis and Sturnira lilium, few studies have been conducted related to these issues. The aim of this study was to describe the structure of spermatozoa, semen characteristics and also the morphology and quality of cumulus oocyte complexes (COC) of A. jamaicensis and S. lilium. Semen characteristics were: A. jamaicensis had a sperm concentration of 4.26 × 106 sperm/ml, progressive motility of 34.55%; viability of 73.23%; head, tail and mid-piece abnormalities of 12.50%. Head length was 6.26 μm, mid-piece 18.61 μm and tail 70.92 μm. S. Lilium, had a sperm concentration of 5.15 × 106 sperm/ml, progressive motility of 60.00%, viability of 83.82%; abnormalities in head, tail and mid-piece of 13.77%. Head length was 7.01 μm, mid-piece 20.33 μm and tail 70.50 μm. On average 12.8 of right ovarian oocytes and 9.9 of left ovarian oocytes of A. jamaicensis were recovered. For S. lilium on average 10.7 oocytes from the right ovary and 10.9 oocytes from the left ovary were recovered, ranging in quality from excellent to poor. Sperm morphology and quality of COC were similar to those for other domestic and wild animals. Bat gametes can be used for the study of reproductive biology, in conservation programs and assisted reproductive technology (ART) among domestic and wild animals
    Animal reproduction science 01/2014;

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