International journal of psychophysiology: official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology

Publisher: Elsevier

Description

  • Impact factor
    3.05
  • 5-year impact
    0.00
  • Cited half-life
    6.80
  • Immediacy index
    0.49
  • Eigenfactor
    0.01
  • Article influence
    0.94
  • ISSN
    1872-7697

Publisher details

Elsevier

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    • Publisher last contacted on 18/10/2013
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We examined whether the utility of a recently developed auditory probe technique for indexing cognitive workload was dependent on the stimulus properties of the probes. EEG was recorded while participants played a videogame under various levels of cognitive workload. At each level of workload, participants were probed with one of four different types of auditory stimuli: novel complex, repeated complex, novel simple, or repeated simple sounds. Probe efficacy at indexing cognitive workload was assessed by determining which probes elicited ERP components that decreased monotonically as a function of workload. Results suggest complex auditory stimuli were significantly more effective in indexing cognitive workload than simple stimuli. The efficacy of complex stimuli was due to their ability to elicit a robust orienting response, indexed by the early P3a component of the ERP, which decreased monotonically as a function of cognitive workload. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    International journal of psychophysiology: official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology 12/2014;
  • Article: Editorial.
    International journal of psychophysiology: official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Serotonin facilitates fear learning in animals. We therefore predicted that individual differences in the capacity to regulate serotonergic transmission in the human neural fear circuit would be inversely related to fear conditioning. The capacity to regulate serotonergic transmission was indexed by serotonin transporter availability measured with [(11)C]-DASB positron emission tomography. Results indicate that lower serotonin transporter availability in the amygdala, insula and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex predicts enhanced conditioned autonomic fear responses. Our finding support serotonergic modulation of fear conditioning in humans and may aid in understanding susceptibility for developing anxiety conditions such as post-traumatic stress disorder. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    International journal of psychophysiology: official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The great Sichuan earthquake in China on May 12th, 2008 was a traumatic event to many who live near the earthquake area. However, at present, there are few studies that explore the long-term impact of the adolescent trauma exposure on adult's brain function. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the brain activation evoked by masked trauma-related stimuli (earthquake versus neutral images) in 14 adults who lived near the epicenter of the great Sichuan earthquake when they were adolescents (trauma-exposed group) and 14 adults who lived farther from the epicenter of the earthquake when they were adolescents (control group). Compared with the control group, the trauma-exposed group showed significant elevation of activation in the right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) in response to masked earthquake-related images. In the trauma-exposed group, the right ACC activation was negatively correlated with the frequency of symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). These findings differ markedly from the long-term effects of trauma exposure in adults. This suggests that trauma exposure during adolescence may have a unique long-term impact on ACC/MPFC function, top-down modulation of trauma-related information, and subsequent symptoms of PTSD. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    International journal of psychophysiology: official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A marked signature of fear extinction is its vulnerability for relapse. Here, we departed from the standard extinction principle and examined the ability of habituation to reduce conditioned fear reactions and prevent relapse. In a human fear conditioning paradigm, we first established one visual stimulus as a signal for an impending aversive electrical stimulation, while another visual stimulus was never followed by this stimulation. Next, the screen color changed and participants were either exposed to the visual stimuli without electrical stimulation (extinction treatment) or to the electrical stimulation without the visual stimuli (habituation treatment). Finally, the screen color changed back and the two visual stimuli were tested. Verbal ratings showed a return of conditioned shock-expectancy in the two groups, while skin conductance reactivity showed conditioned discrimination following exposures to the visual stimuli, but not following exposures to the electrical stimulation. We conclude that an habituation treatment outperforms an extinction treatment, and that shock-expectancy and skin conductance can dissociate under some conditions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    International journal of psychophysiology: official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We briefly review comments submitted in response to the target article in this series (Palmatier & Rovner, 2015a) arguing that a scientifically defensible construct for the instrumental assessment of credibility (i.e. polygraph) may be found in Barry's Preliminary Process Theory (PPT). Our review of the relevant scientific literature discovered a growing body of converging evidence, particularly from the neurosciences that focus not only on deception, but more broadly on memory, emotion, and the orienting response (OR), leading to this conclusion. After reviewing the submitted comments, we are further convinced, especially as applied scientists, that at this time the most viable direction forward is in the context of the PPT. Concurrently, we candidly acknowledge that research must be conducted to address not only commentator concerns but, if warranted, modification of existing theory. Although disagreement continues to exist regarding the order in which questions are asked, the most significant finding, is perhaps that not a single commentator argues against this growing, and vital applied science (i.e., the instrumental assessment of credibility - Polygraph). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    International journal of psychophysiology: official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Previous research on alcohol dependent patients has shown that variations in eyeblink startle response can be used as an indicator of their emotional responses to alcohol-related stimuli. Postulating that reactions on substance associated stimuli are controlled by either a negative or a positive affective processing system, we expect that abstinent alcoholics react differently (within-group) in the emotional evaluation of alcohol cues. Furthermore, we assumed the startle response to covary with medication response to acamprosate and naltrexone. We measured 74 detoxified inpatients' acoustic startle responses while they were being presented with alcohol-related images as well as affectively negative, neutral, and positive pictures before they were randomized to pharmacotherapy. Group-mean startle peak amplitudes were lowest for alcohol-related cues. The relative startle response (alcohol cues set in relation to the other stimulus categories) did not correlate with craving for alcohol (OCDS) or alcohol cue induced self-ratings of arousal, valence and craving. Patients with a lower percentage of abstinent days in the 90days prior to the last drinking day showed a lower ("more appetitive") startle response to alcohol cues. A survival analysis using the time to first heavy drinking day as the survival criterion revealed a significant interaction between alcohol-cue startle responses and medication type. The results indicate that the psycho-physiological measure of emotional evaluation of alcohol cues includes unconscious processing not reflected by conscious self-ratings. Furthermore, our result of a differential medication effect may encourage further studies to use biological characteristics to stratify patients as a step towards individualized treatment for alcohol dependence.
    International journal of psychophysiology: official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology 12/2014; 94(3):263-71.
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    ABSTRACT: When two coherent sounds with nearly similar frequencies are presented to each ear respectively with stereo headphones, the brain integrates the two signals and produces a sensation of a third sound called binaural beat (BB). Although earlier studies showed that BB could influence behavior and cognition, common agreement on the mechanism of BB has not been reached yet. In this work, we employed Relative Power (RP), Phase Locking Value (PLV) and Cross-Mutual Information (CMI) to track EEG changes during BB stimulations. EEG signals were acquired from 13 healthy subjects. Five-minute BBs with four different frequencies were tested: delta band (1Hz), theta band (5Hz), alpha band (10Hz) and beta band (20Hz). We observed RP increase in theta and alpha bands and decrease in beta band during delta and alpha BB stimulations. RP decreased in beta band during theta BB, while RP decreased in theta band during beta BB. However, no clear brainwave entrainment effect was identified. Connectivity changes were detected following the variation of RP during BB stimulations. Our observation supports the hypothesis that BBs could affect functional brain connectivity, suggesting that the mechanism of BB-brain interaction is worth further study. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    International journal of psychophysiology: official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology 10/2014; 94(3):399-406.
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this paper is to compare the effects of different spatial transformations applied to the same scalp-recorded EEG data. The spatial transformations applied are two referencing schemes (average and linked earlobes), the surface Laplacian, and beamforming (a distributed source localization procedure). EEG data were collected during a speeded reaction time task that provided a comparison of activity between error vs. correct responses. Analyses focused on time-frequency power, frequency band-specific inter-electrode connectivity, and within-subject cross-trial correlations between EEG activity and reaction time. Time-frequency power analyses showed similar patterns of midfrontal delta-theta power for errors compared to correct responses across all spatial transformations. Beamforming additionally revealed error-related anterior and lateral prefrontal beta-band activity. Within-subject brain-behavior correlations showed similar patterns of results across the spatial transformations, with the correlations being the weakest after beamforming. The most striking difference among the spatial transformations was seen in connectivity analyses: linked earlobe reference produced weak inter-site connectivity that was attributable to volume conduction (zero phase lag), while the average reference and Laplacian produced more interpretable connectivity results. Beamforming did not reveal any significant condition modulations of connectivity. Overall, these analyses show that some findings are robust to spatial transformations, while other findings, particularly those involving cross-trial analyses or connectivity, are more sensitive and may depend on the use of appropriate spatial transformations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    International journal of psychophysiology: official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Uncertainty increases individuals' anxiety and fear. Identifying its neural processing may contribute to understanding the detrimental effects of uncertainty on well-being and psychological symptoms. Using high temporal resolution ERPs (Event-Related Potentials), employing the classical paradigm in which neutral signs were used as certain and uncertain cues and anticipating arousal-balanced positive and negative pictures, the present study aimed to further investigate the temporal dynamics of brain activation by uncertainty about future emotional events. ERPs were recorded while participants observed uncertain cues and certain cues about future positive and negative pictures. Results showed that the uncertain cues produced larger N2 than did the certain cues about both future positive and negative pictures, and uncertain cues produced smaller early Contingent Negative Variation (CNV) than did the certain cues about future negative pictures. The results provide evidence that the specific processing of uncertainty about future emotional events occurs at different cognitive stages.
    International journal of psychophysiology: official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the first quantitative characterization of electrodermal activity (EDA) patterns on the wrists of healthy adults during sleep using dry electrodes. We compare the new results on the wrist to prior findings on palmar or finger EDA by characterizing data measured from 80 nights of sleep consisting of 9 nights of wrist and palm EDA from 9 healthy adults sleeping at home, 56 nights of wrist and palm EDA from one healthy adult sleeping at home, and 15 nights of wrist EDA from 15 healthy adults in a sleep laboratory, with the latter compared to concurrent polysomnography. While high frequency patterns of EDA called "storms" were identified by eye in the 1960's, we systematically compare thresholds for automatically detecting EDA peaks and establish criteria for EDA storms. We found that more than 80% of EDA peaks occurred in non-REM sleep, specifically during slow-wave sleep (SWS) and non-REM stage 2 sleep (NREM2). Also, EDA amplitude is higher in SWS than in other sleep stages. Longer EDA storms were more likely in the first two quarters of sleep and during SWS and NREM2. We also found from the home studies (65 nights) that EDA levels were higher and the skin conductance peaks were larger and more frequent when measured on the wrist than when measured on the palm. These EDA high frequency peaks and high amplitude were sometimes associated with higher skin temperature, but more work is needed looking at neurological and other EDA elicitors in order to elucidate their complete behavior.
    International journal of psychophysiology: official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to examine the features and changes of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) with severe and less severe symptoms over the course of inpatient treatment. Our study included n=20 AN patients who received treatment at the University Hospital, Heidelberg. N=11 patients were admitted at a psychosomatic and internal-medicine ward that specialised in the treatment of AN patients with a very low BMI (patient group with high symptom severity, HSS). The mean BMI of these patients was 13.2 kg/m(2) (SD=1.4) at the beginning of the study and 16.9 kg/m(2) (SD=1.7) at the end. N=9 patients were treated at a psychotherapeutic ward where AN patients with less severe symptoms are admitted (patient group with low symptom severity, LSS). The mean BMI of these latter patients was 16.3 kg/m(2) (SD=0.89) at the beginning of the study and 17.1 kg/m(2) (SD=0.65) at the end. Salivary cortisol was measured on two consecutive days respectively, both at the beginning and the end of the study. At the beginning of the study, patients with HSS had a significantly lower mean CAR compared to patients from the LSS group (3.4 nmol/l vs. 11.4 nmol/l). At the end of the study, the mean CAR of patients from the HSS group was still significantly lower compared to the mean CAR of patients with LSS (2.0 nmol/l vs. 9.2 nmol/l). Results indicate that AN patients with severe symptoms exhibit a lower CAR compared to AN patients with less severe symptoms.
    International journal of psychophysiology: official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Palmatier and Rovner (2014) made an important attempt to bridge the gap between the accumulated practical experience in field polygraphy, including the increased body of scientific work done by scientists and practitioners within the field and the academic attitude towards Polygraph Testing. They say that the two main polygraph methods, the Concealed Information Test (CIT) and the Comparison Question Test (CQT) though using different protocols, in the end deal with lying and can be explained under the same theoretical concept. They proposed that the Preliminary Process Theory (PPT) developed by Barry R.J. in a totally different context, should be adopted for the construct validity of psychophysiological detection of deception (polygraph). The current commentary argues that even if in the end, the examinee lies (or tells the truth) in both types of test, it does not mean that lying has been measured directly. Instead, the tests represent the efforts to deduce about veracity in the absence of any specific physiological feature representing deception. Moreover; the two methods are not just two different protocols rather; their underlying rationales are different and cannot be reduced to a comprehensive common construct. With regard to PPT, it is pointed out that the explanation of the most important element in CQT, namely, the differential relative significance that truthful and deceptive examinees are expected to attribute to relevant vs. comparison questions, is out of its scope and therefore, unlike the authors' suggestion its place as a cornerstone in the construct validity of polygraph testing is questionable.
    International journal of psychophysiology: official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The Chinese WenChuan earthquake, which happened on 28th May in 2008, may leave deep invisible scars in individuals. China has a large number of children and adolescents, who tend to be most vulnerable because they are in an early stage of human development and possible post-traumatic psychological distress may have a life-long consequence. Trauma survivors without post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have received little attention in previous studies, especially in event-related potentials (ERPs) studies. We compared the attention bias to threat stimuli between the earthquake-exposed group and the control group in a masked version of the dot probe task. The target probe presented at the same space location consistent with earthquake-related words was the congruent trial, while in the space location of neutral words was the incongruent trial. Thirteen earthquake-exposed middle school students without PTSD and 13 matched controls were included in this investigation. The earthquake-exposed group showed significantly faster RTs to congruent trials than to incongruent trials. The earthquake-exposed group produced significantly shorter C1 and P1 latencies and larger C1, P1 and P2 amplitudes than the control group. In particular, enhanced P1 amplitude to threat stimuli was observed in the earthquake-exposed group. These findings are in agreement with the prediction that earthquake-exposed survivors have an attention bias to threat stimuli. The traumatic event had a much greater effect on earthquake-exposed survivors even if they showed no PTSD symptoms than individuals in the controls. These results will provide neurobiological evidences for effective intervention and prevention to post-traumatic mental problems.
    International journal of psychophysiology: official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Palmatier and Rovner (2014) should be applauded for their efforts to examine whether CQT and CIT polygraph testing methods can be reconciled by common theory. They (understandably) focus on liars in their article, however, liars are only part of the equation. Lie detection tests also involve truth tellers, and the ways in which truth tellers are protected against a false accusation is where the CQT and CIT differ. This important point is not addressed by Palmatier and Rovner (2014), but the concern expressed by CQT opponents that innocent suspects are not well protected in a CQT test needs to be addressed head on by CQT supporters.
    International journal of psychophysiology: official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Variability in both frontal and parietal spontaneous EEG activity, using α and β band power and θ/β and δ/β ratios, was explored in a sample of 96 healthy volunteers as a potential correlate of individual differences in spontaneous emotion regulation (SER). Following a baseline EEG recording, participants were asked to continuously rate their discomfort while looking at affective pictures, as well as for a period of time after exposure. Greater spontaneous β band power in parietal locations, lower frontal and parietal δ/β ratios, and lower parietal θ/β ratio were associated with lower ratings of discomfort after the offset of unpleasant pictures. Moreover, lower parietal δ/β ratio was also related to less time needed to recover from discomfort after exposure to aversive pictures, while only a greater frontal and parietal α band power appeared to be associated with faster recovery from discomfort induced by normative-neutral pictures. However, parietal δ/β ratio was the only predictor of both minimum discomfort ratings and time needed to downregulate following exposure to unpleasant pictures, and frontal α band power the only spontaneous EEG index that predicted variability in spontaneous downregulation after the exposure to normative-neutral pictures. Results are discussed focusing on the utility of diverse spontaneous EEG measures in several cortical regions when capturing trait-like individual differences in emotion regulation capabilities and processes.
    International journal of psychophysiology: official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of the current analysis was to examine the maturation of cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) from three months of age to eight years of age. The superior frontal positive-negative-positive sequence (P1, N2, P2) and the temporal site, negative-positive-negative sequence (possibly, Na, Ta, Tb of the T-complex) were examined. Event-related potentials were recorded from 63 scalp sites to a 250- ms vowel. Amplitude and latency of peaks were measured at left and right frontal sites (near Fz) and at left and right temporal sites (T7 and T8). In addition the largest peak (typically corresponding to P1) was selected from global field power (GFP). The results revealed a large positive peak (P1) easily identified at frontal sites across all ages. The N2 emerged after 6months of age and the following P2 between 8 and 30months of age. The latencies of these peaks decreased exponentially with the most rapid decrease observed for P1. For amplitude, only P1 showed a clear relationship with age, becoming more positive in a somewhat linear fashion. At the temporal sites only a negative peak, which might be Na, was clearly observed at both left and right sites in children older than 14months and peaking between 100 and 200ms. P1 measures at frontal sites and Na peak latencies were moderately correlated. The temporal negative peak latency showed a different maturational timecourse (linear in nature) than the P1 peak, suggesting at least partial independence. Distinct Ta (positive) and Tb (negative) peaks, following Na and peaking between 120 and 220ms were not consistently found in most age groups of children, except Ta which was present in 7year olds. Future research, which includes manipulation of stimulus factors, and use of modeling techniques will be needed to explain the apparent, protracted maturation of the temporal site measures in the current study.
    International journal of psychophysiology: official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology 09/2014;