Journal of ethnopharmacology Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: Elsevier

Current impact factor: 3.00

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 2.998
2013 Impact Factor 2.939
2012 Impact Factor 2.755
2011 Impact Factor 3.014
2010 Impact Factor 2.466
2009 Impact Factor 2.322
2008 Impact Factor 2.26
2007 Impact Factor 2.049
2006 Impact Factor 1.625
2005 Impact Factor 1.554
2004 Impact Factor 1.42
2003 Impact Factor 1.269
2002 Impact Factor 1.188
2001 Impact Factor 0.78
2000 Impact Factor 0.575
1999 Impact Factor 0.687
1998 Impact Factor 0.522
1997 Impact Factor 0.578
1996 Impact Factor 0.562
1995 Impact Factor 0.366
1994 Impact Factor 0.5
1993 Impact Factor 0.507
1992 Impact Factor 0.272

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 3.26
Cited half-life 7.20
Immediacy index 0.50
Eigenfactor 0.03
Article influence 0.58
ISSN 1872-7573

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    • Publisher last reviewed on 03/06/2015
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ethnopharmacological relevance: The modified-Chungsimyeolda-tang (DG) is an important traditional Korean herbal formula used in traditional oriental medicine for treatment of cerebrovascular disorders, including stroke. The formula is based on the book "Dongui Sasang Shinpyun". Aim of the study: In the previous studies, the neuroprotective effect of DG is demonstrated in an in vitro Parkinson's disease (PD) model, and in this study, the 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) animal model of PD is used to evaluate the behavioral effect of DG and possible mechanism through anti-apoptosis of DG. 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) also is used to evaluate the anti-apoptosis effect of DG in SH-SY5Y cells. Materials and methods: MPTP was used to evaluate the behavioral damage and neurotoxicity in mice. The bradykinesia symptom was measured by a Pole test and a Rota-rod test in mice. Also the loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons induced by MPTP was examined by an immunohistochemical assay. The DG-mediated anti-apoptosis effect was measured using an immunoblotting assay with apoptosis-related markers such as Bax and cleaved caspase-3. DG and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) were co-treated with primary dopaminergic neurons to evaluate the protective effect of DG. The expression of caspase-3 and PARP was measured to detect the protective effect of DG from the damage by 6-OHDA. Results and conclusions: The treatment with DG resulted in prophylactic effects on MPTP-induced Parkinsonian bradykinesia and the immunohistochemical analysis showed that DG provided the neuroprotection against the MPP(+)-induced dopaminergic neurons loss through the anti-apoptosis effect. The present results suggested that it might be possible to use DG for the prevention of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) degeneration induced by exposure to the toxic substances, such as MPTP/MPP(+), in PD mouse model.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 12/2015; 176:336-344. DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.11.013
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    ABSTRACT: Ethnopharmacological relevance: The endemic succulent South African plant, Sceletium tortuosum (L.) N.E. Br. (synonym Mesembryanthemum tortuosum L.), of the family Mesembryathemaceae, has an ancient oral tradition history of use by San and Khoikhoi people as an integral part of the indigenous culture and materia medica. A special standardized extract of Sceletium tortuosum (Zembrin(®)) has been developed and tested pre-clinically in rats, and clinically in healthy subjects. Aim of the study: The present investigation aimed at the construction of electropharmacograms of Zembrin(®) in the presence of three dosages (2.5, 5.0 and 10.0mg/kg), and comparative electropharmacograms and discriminatory analyses for other herbal extracts, citicoline and rolipram. Material and methods: Seventeen adult Fischer rats were each implanted with a set consisting of four bipolar concentric steel electrodes fixed by dental cement and three screws driven into the scalp. After two weeks of recovery from surgery the animals were adapted to oral administration by gavage and to experimental conditions (45min pre-drug period and 5 hours of recording after a rest of 5 minutes for calming down). Data were transmitted wirelessly and processed using a Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT). Spectral power was evaluated for 8 frequency ranges, namely delta, theta, alpha1, alpha2, beta1a, beta1b, beta2 and gamma power. Results: Zembrin(®) dose dependently attenuated all frequency ranges, to varying degrees. The most prominent was the statistically significant reduction in alpha2 and beta1a waves, correlated with activation of the dopaminergic and glutamatergic transmitter systems respectively. This feature is common to all synthetic and herbal stimulants tested to date. The second strongest effects were reduction in both the delta and the theta frequency ranges, correlated with changes in the cholinergic and norepinephrine systems respectively, a pattern seen in preparations prescribed for neurodegenerative diseases. Theta wave reduction in common with the delta, alpha2 and beta1 attenuation has been noted for analgesic drugs. Attenuation of alpha1 waves emerged during the highest dosage in all brain areas, a feature seen in all antidepressants. Discussion: The electropharmacogram of Zembrin(®) was compared to the electropharmacograms of herbal extracts archived in our database. Extracts of Oenothera biennis and Cimicifuga racemosa gave a very similar electropharmacograms to that of Zembrin(®), and extracts of Ginkgo biloba and Rhodiola rosea gave rather similar electropharmacograms to Zembrin(®). Linear discriminant analysis confirmed these similarities and demonstrated that all three dosages of Zembrin(®) plotted in close neighbourhood to each other. Citocoline, a synthetic compound originally developed for cognitive enhancement, had a similar electropharmacogram to Zembrin(®). Similarity to the electropharmacograms of the synthetic phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor, rolipram, suggests Zembrin(®) has antidepressant and cognitive function enhancing potentential. Conclusion: The combined results from the electropharmacograms and comparative discriminatory analyses suggest that Zembrin(®) has dose dependent activity, with potential applications as a cognitive function enhancer, as an antidepressant, and as an analgesic.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 11/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.11.036
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    ABSTRACT: Ethnopharmacological relevance: Despite laudable advances in conventional medicine, respiratory tract diseases (RTD) induced morbidity and mortality continue to inflict a substantial burden on healthcare systems worldwide. Similarly, in the tropical island of Mauritius, 13,320 hospital admissions and 8.2% mortality rates were attributed to RTD solely in the year 2013. Consequently, the therapeutic benefits and relief experienced with traditional medicine (TM) against RTD by the local inhabitants cannot be underestimated. The present study aims to report and quantitatively determine the extent of utilization of plant based therapies and other miscellaneous TM preparations concocted against RTD over the island. Additionally, a similarity index was generated which is indicative of the extent of harmonisation of individual plant species against RTD when the uses mentioned in the study are compared to previous ethnobotanical studies. Materials and methods: Data was compiled using a semi-structured questionnaire via face-to-face interviews with TM users and practitioners (n=384). Three quantitative ethnopharmacological indices (the use value (UV), informant consensus factor (ICF), and ethnobotanicity index (EI)) were calculated. We also calculated the similarity ratio, similarity percentage, new uses for each plant species and percentage of new use against RTD to compare primary data collected in the present study. Results: Fifty five plants were documented to be in use against 18 RTD. The most used plant species belonged to the following taxa; Lamiaceae (9%), Fabaceae (7%) and Rutaceae (7%). Thirty two plants recorded in this study have been reported to be used against RTD in previous ethnobotanical studies, of which 22 of these plants have been attributed new uses against RTD based on the results of the present study. The remaining 23 plants species have been recorded for the first time to be used traditionally against RTD. Altogether, 81 different recipes were concocted from the medicinal plants and the most common route of administration was oral intake. Common methods of obtaining medicinal plants were from the wild, cultivation and as imported herbal products. Cough was the most common RTD managed by plant species. The largest proportion of plants were employed against cold. The preference ranking both for UV placed Curcuma longa L, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Citrus × limonia Osbeck and Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf as the most useful plant species. Only a small proportion of the indigenous plants (7.73%) proved to be useful in TM. Conclusion: This study provides empirical primary ethnopharmacological data on the use of TM to manage and/or treat RTD and can contribute in preserving indigenous knowledge in Mauritius. It is anticipated that these primary data will open new avenues to identify novel drugs that can help to alleviate sufferings.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 11/2015; 177. DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.11.029
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    ABSTRACT: Ethnopharmacological relevance: Diao Xin Xue Kang (DXXK) is the active pharmaceutical ingredient of the traditional Chinese medicinal product DXXK capsules, which have been approved for the treatment of cardiovascular disease and have been widely used clinically in China for many years with distinct curative effects. In March 2012, DXXK capsules were approved in the Netherlands, making them the first traditional herbal medicinal product (THMP) made outside of Europe. Aim: To assess the anti-inflammatory effects of DXXK and the underlying mechanisms at the cellular and molecular levels. Materials and methods: In this study, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used to induce inflammation in RAW 264.7 cells. The sulphorhodamine B (SRB) assay was used to study the effect of DXXK on the proliferation of RAW 264.7 cells. Gene expression levels of cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1), COX-2, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), IL-1β and IL-6 were assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), while COX-2 protein levels were evaluated using western blotting. The levels of PGE2 in the culture media were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 levels were detected using a Milliplex Map Mouse Cytokine Panel system. The activation and nuclear translocation of nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB) were studied using western blotting. In vivo studies in mice were carried out using the carrageenan-air pouch models of inflammation. In exudates, leukocytes were counted, total protein was determined using the Bradford assay, nitric oxide(NO) levels were assessed using the Griess reagent, and PGE2 and TNF-α levels were quantified by ELISA. Results: The SRB assay showed that at the doses used in this study (10, 20 and 40μg/mL), DXXK did not affect the proliferation of RAW 264.7 cells. DXXK (10, 20 and 40μg/mL) inhibited LPS-induced PGE2 production by down-regulating the expression of COX-2, without influencing COX-1 expression. We also demonstrated that DXXK reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6, at both the gene and protein levels. Furthermore, DXXK inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB activation and nuclear translocation by suppressing the phosphorylation of IκB. Consistent with the in vitro results, the in vivo studies demonstrated that DXXK reduced leukocyte counts as well as total protein, NO, PGE2 and TNF-αlevels in the exudates of mice with carrageenan-air pouch inflammation. Conclusions: The current study revealed that DXXK has a significant anti-inflammatory effect that may be attributed to its inhibitory effect on the NF-κB/COX-2 pathway and associated inflammatory mediators, including PGE2, NO, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. The current study provides additional evidence of the effects of DXXK in inflammation. Based on the combination of our results and previously reported data, we propose that DXXK has multiple pharmacological effects that could be harnessed to treat systemic diseases.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 11/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.11.016
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    ABSTRACT: Ethnopharmacological relevance: Lithraea molleoides (Vell.) Engl. (Anacardiaceae) is a medicinal plant traditionally used in South America to treat various ailments, including diseases of the digestive system. Aim of the study: To evaluate the in vivo antiulcer and antimicrobial activities against Helicobacter pylori of L. molleoides and its isolated compounds. Materials and methods: Methanolic extract 250 and 500mg/kg, (LmE 250 and LmE 500, respectively) and infusions, 10g and 20g en 100mL (LmI 10 and LmI 20, respectively) of L. molleoides was evaluated for antiulcer activity against 0.6N HCl, 0.2N NaOH, 200mg/kg acetilsalicilic acid and absolute ethanol- induced gastric ulcers in rats. The degree of erosion in the glandular part of the stomach was assessed from a scoring system. Acute toxicity in mice was also evaluated. The antiulcer effect of the isolated compounds (catechol, mannitol, rutin, gallic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid, 100mg/kg) was evaluated against absolute ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats. The anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of L. molleoides and isolated compounds was performed using broth dilution methods. Results: The LmE 250, LmE 500, LmI 10 and LmI 20 produced significant inhibition on the ulcer index in 0.6N HCl, 0.2N NaOH, 200mg/kg acetilsalicilic acid and absolute ethanol- induced gastric ulcers in rats. The isolated compounds, catechol, mannitol, rutin, ferulic acid and caffeic acid were active in absolute ethanol- induced gastric ulcers in rats. L. molleoides and different compounds showed antimicrobial activity in all strains tested. The lowest MIC value (0. 5μg/mL) was obtained with catechol in six of eleven strains assayed. No signs of toxicity were observed with doses up to 2g/kg in an acute toxicity assay. Conclusion: These findings indicate that L. molleoides displays potential antiulcerogenic and antimicrobial activities and the identification of active principles could support the use of this plant for the treatment of digestive affections.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 11/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.11.009
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    ABSTRACT: Ethnopharmacological relevance: Mongolian medicine is an important constituent of traditional Chinese medicine. Its representative prescription, Li-Gan-Shi-Liu-Ba-Wei-San (LGSLBWS), is widely used for long-term treatment of chronic liver disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Aim of the study: This study explored the effects and mechanism of LGSLBWS on NAFLD. Materials and methods: NAFLD rat model was established with high-fat diet. The effects of LGSLBWS on lipid metabolism, liver function, and hepatic morphology were observed in NAFLD rats. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in the liver, as well as the expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α, PPARβ, inhibitor of nuclear factor κB α(IκBα), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were all detected. Finally, the effects of LGSLBWS on fatty acid oxidation, PPARα, PPARβ, IκBα, and iNOS were determined in HepG2 cells. Results: LGSLBWS significantly reduced the fat deposition in the liver and the serum aspartate aminotransferase levels in NAFLD rats. Serum triglyceride and free fatty acid levels were reduced by LGSLBWS. Total cholesterol and triglyceride contents in the liver were also downregulated. SOD and MDA levels were increased and decreased by LGSLBWS, respectively. LGSLBWS can significantly promote fatty acid oxidation of HepG2 cells. Upregulation of PPARα, PPARβ, and IκBα and downregulation of iNOS by LGSLBWS were both observed in the NAFLD model and HepG2 cells. Conclusions: LGSLBWS can significantly improve NAFLD by enhancing fatty acid oxidation and alleviating oxidative stress.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 11/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.11.019
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    ABSTRACT: Ethnopharmacological relevance: Many traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) have been used for hundreds of years for hair blackening and hair nourishing, and now many of them are commonly used in Chinese herbal shampoo to nourish the hair and promote hair growth. Aims of the study: The present study was performed to screen 5α-reductase (5αR) inhibiters from traditional Chinese medicines, evaluate its hair growth promoting activity in vivo, and further investigate its effects on androgen metabolism and the expression of 5αR II in hair follicles. Materials and methods: Nine TCM which were dried, ground and extracted by maceration with 75% ethanol or distilled water were used for screening 5αR inhibiters, and enzymes were extracted from the rat epididymis. The leaves of Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco was used to evaluate the in vivo anti-androgenic activity. Skin color was observed daily and the hair re-growth was assessed by assigning the hair growth score. The longitudinal sections of hair follicles were used for observing follicle morphology, classifying of distinct stages of hair follicle morphogenesis and calculate the average score. The transverse sections were used for determination of hair follicle counts. Testosterone (T), Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and Estradiol (E2) levels in serum and skin tissue were detected by ELISA kits. The immunofluorescence assay was used to detect the influence of CP-ext on 5αR expression in dorsal skin. Results: We found the extract of Ganoderma Lucidum(GL-ext), Polygonum Multiflori(PM-ext), Cacumen Platycladi(CP-ext) and Cynomorium songaricum(CS-ext) showed stronger 5αR inhibitory activity.CP-ext (5mg and 2mg/mouse/day) could significantly shorten the time of the dorsal skin darkening and got longhaired (P<0.01), and showed high hair re-growth promoting activity. Furthermore the histological data of hair follicles in each group showed that CP-ext could promote the growth of hair follicle and slowed down hair follicles enter the telogen. What's more CP-ext significantly reduced DHT levels and down-regulated the expression of 5αRⅡin skin (P<0.01). Conclusions: GL-ext, PM-ext, CP-ext and CS-ext showed strong 5αR inhibitory activity. CP-ext possesses high hair growth promoting activity in the in vivo androgen-sensitive mouse model via inhibiting the 5αR activity, decreasing the DHT levels and in turn suppressing the expression of 5αR. Our study may contribute to the development of a new generation of herbal supplements with clearer material basis of pharmacodynamic for treating androgenic alopecia (AGA).
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 11/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.11.012
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    ABSTRACT: Ethnopharmacological relevance: Several Ganoderma fungi are well-known for their medical uses to treat cancer, insomnia and kidney disease in East Asia. Triperpenoids and polysaccharides have been considered for a long time to be the major active components of the genus Ganoderma. The present study is to examine the effects of lingzhilactones from G. lingzhi on adriamycin-induced nephropathy in mice. Materials and methods: A combination of various chromatography led to the isolation of lingzhilactones A-C, their structures were identified by spectroscopic and computational methods. The intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected with the carboxymethyl-H2-dichlorofluorescein diacetate fluoroprobe. The fibrotic markers were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analyses. Detection of SEAP was conducted with the chemiluminescent. Urine albumin was measured using an ELISA assay. Histology and immunohistochemical staining was used to assess fibrotic lesions in mice. Results: Three new lingzhilactones A-C (1-3) containing a fused lactone moiety were isolated from G. lingzhi. We found that 2 could inhibit ROS generation in a dose-dependent manner, inhibit mRNA expression of collagen IV, fibronectin, IL-6 and increase expression of Nrf2 in rat tubular epithelial cells. Furthermore, we found that 2 could reduce urinary albumin levels, abrogate myofibroblastic activation and inhibit the phosphorylation of Smad3 in adriamycin-induced mice. Conclusions: The in vitro and in vivo results suggested that lingzhilactone B could protect against renal injuries by increasing the activities of antioxidants and inhibiting inflammation. The inhibition of Smad3 phosphorylation suggested that this substance displays in vivo antifibrotic activity by a mechanism that is dependent on disruption of Smad3. These results promote understanding of the traditional usage of G. lingzhi and provide promising findings which may be beneficial for anti-kidney disease drug design.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 11/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.11.024
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    ABSTRACT: Ethnopharmacological relevance: Gnaphalium affine D. Don (GA) has been traditionally used as a medicinal herb in China for the treatment of many ailments including rheumatoid arthritis. However, the anti-arthritic mechanism of GA has still not been demonstrated. This study aims to reveal the anti-inflammatory activity and anti-arthritic mechanism of ethanol extract of Gnaphalium affine D. Don. Materials and methods: Anti-inflammatory potential of GA was analyzed in vivo in carrageenan induced mice paw edema (acute study). Also, in vivo study was applied in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rats. In vitro experiments for analyzing the anti-inflammatory potential of GA were performed on rat alveolar macrophages cell line (NR8383). Analysis of nitric oxide release in NR8383 cells was done by Griess reaction. RT-PCR and western blotting experiment was performed to analyze the expression of phosphorylated p65 and IκBα/β-actin in NF-κB pathway. The production of TNF-α, IL-1β, and COX-2 in NR8383cells were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The chemical profile of GA was analyzed by HPLC-VWD. Results: GA significantly reduced the paw volume in carrageenan induced rat paw edema rat at different doses (300 and 600mg/kg), compared with the standard indomethacin treatment. In CIA, GA can obviously ameliorate the inflammatory symptom, including cytokine, histological symptom and paw swelling. In the vitro study, GA was able to reduce the nitric oxide (NO) levels in NR8383 cells that had been stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The level of TNF-α, IL-1β, and COX-2 was also decreased with GA treatment in NR8383 cells that had been stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Interestingly, GA was found to decrease the level of phosphorylated p65 and IκBα in NR8383 cells. Fifteen compounds were identified by HPLC-VWD with the reference substances and verified by LC - MS. Conclusions: The results of the experiment scientifically validated its traditional use in inflammatory conditions.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 11/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.11.010
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    ABSTRACT: Ethnopharmacological relevance: Xanthii fructus (XF) has long been used to treat a variety of inflammatory conditions in Korean traditional medicine, but the underlying mechanisms that could explain the anti-inflammatory actions of XF remain largely unknown. Aim of the study: This study aimed to elucidate the anti-inflammatory effects of Xanthii fructus (XF) and to examine its underlying molecular mechanisms in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Materials and methods: The effect of XF on LPS-induced mRNA and protein expressions of inflammatory mediators and cytokines were determined. Moreover, the activation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways and the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were explored to elucidate the anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Results: XF significantly inhibited LPS-induced production of inflammatory mediators, interleukin-6 (IL-6), nitric oxide (NO), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), without any cytotoxicity. However, it did not affect tissue necrosis factor (TNF)-α or IL-1β production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA and protein were inhibited dose-dependently by XF in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, but there were no changes in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA and protein. XF significantly attenuated LPS-induced phosphorylation and degradation of inhibitory kappa Bα (IκBα) and consequently reduced the nuclear translocation of p65 NF-κB. Pretreatment with XF also strongly inhibited the LPS-induced phosphorylation of p38 kinase and JNK, whereas the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was not affected. In addition, XF led to an increase in HO-1 expression. Conclusion: Taken together, our findings support that XF inhibits LPS-induced inflammatory responses by blocking NF-κB activation, inhibiting JNK/p38 MAPK phosphorylation, and enhancing HO-1 expression in macrophages, suggesting that it could be an attractive therapeutic candidate for various inflammatory diseases.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 11/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.11.020
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    ABSTRACT: Ethnopharmacological relevance: Peptic ulcer disease is a common digestive disease. There is a lack of large-scale survey on the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of peptic ulcer disease. This study aimed to investigate the utilization of TCM for the treatment of peptic ulcer disease in Taiwan. Materials and methods: We analyzed a random sample comprised of one million individuals with newly diagnosed peptic ulcer disease between 2001 to 2010 from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. Demographic characteristics and TCM usage, including Chinese herbal formulas and the single herbs prescribed for patients with peptic ulcer disease, were analyzed. Results: A total of 96,624 newly diagnosed subjects with peptic ulcer disease were included. 14,983 (15.5%) patients were TCM users. People residing in highly urbanized areas, younger people and female (compared with male) were more likely to use TCM. With regard to the comorbidities, TCM users had a lower prevalence of coronary artery disease, chronic obstructive lung disease, diabetes mellitus and liver cirrhosis and stroke. The average time between onset of peptic ulcer disease and the first visit to a TCM clinic was 4.7 months. Majority of the patients (n=14,449; 96.4%) received only Chinese herbal remedies. The most frequently prescribed Chinese herbal formula and single herb was Ban-Xia-Xie-Xin-Tang (Pinelliae Decoction to Drain the Epigastrium) and Hai-Piao-Xiao (Os Sepiae), respectivley. The core pattern analysis showed that combination of Ban-Xia-Xie-Xin-Tang, Hai-Piao-Xiao (Os Sepiae), Yan-Hu-Suo (Rhizoma Corydalis), Bei-Mu (Bulbus Fritillariae Thunbergii) and Chuan-Lian-Zi (Fructus Toosendan) was most frequently used for peptic ulcer disease. Conclusions: Our study identified the core prescription patterns of TCM for patients with peptic ulcer disease in Taiwan. Further basic and clinical studies are necessary to elucidate the efficacy and mechanisms.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 11/2015; 176. DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.11.002
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    ABSTRACT: Ethnopharmacological relevance: Wounds are normally resolved in a few days, but chronic wounds represent a major burden because of economic and social factors. Thereby, the search for new agents is ongoing and natural products become a great target. Also, Brazil as a consumer of herbal medicines with rich social diversity is promising for ethnopharmacological studies. Aims of the study: The study aims to find the plants popularly used for wound healing purposes in Rio Grande do Sul state, and test the traditional knowledge through an in vitro screening. Materials and methods: Ethnobotanical studies from state of Rio Grande do Sul were analyzed to find the most used plants to treat wounds. The selected species were collected, identified and ethanolic and aqueous extracts were prepared. After, proliferative capacity was accessed by MTT assay in a keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT). Results: The survey comprehended almost all state regions and led to 117 plant species from 85 genera, from which 14 were selected for in vitro testing. Aqueous extracts from Achyrocline satureioides DC Lam., Matricaria recutita L., Melia azedarach L. and Mirabilis jalapa L. demonstrated the ability to stimulate keratinocyte growth up to 120% in concentrations of 25µg/mL and 50µg/mL. The ethanolic extract of A. satureioides was able to stimulate keratinocyte and fibroblast proliferation on the lower concentration tested, 1µg/mL, being the most promising species. Conclusions: The traditional knowledge collected from the ethnobotanical studies was accessed by in vitro investigation and extracts from Achyrocline satureioides, Matricaria recutita, Melia azedarach and Mirabilis jalapa can influence positively cell proliferation.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 11/2015; 176. DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.11.001
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    ABSTRACT: Ethnopharmacological relevance: Grasshopper, belonging to Chorthippus sp., is a widespread insect inhabiting Polish territory. According to folk knowledge and folk tales, the grasshopper abdominal secretion was used by villagers of Central and South-West Poland as a natural drug accelerating the wound healing process. Aim of the study: In the reported study the hypothesis about beneficial properties of grasshopper abdominal secretion on hard to heal wounds was verified. Materials and methods: The study was carried out with the use of a murine model (mice C57BL/6). In order to verify the beneficial properties of grasshopper abdominal secretion, the wounds of 8mm in diameter were formed on one side of each tested mouse. The influence of ethanolic extract of insects' secretion on healing process was evaluated in comparison to ethanolic solution of allantoin and 30% aqueous solution of ethanol (medium). The observation was carried out over a 14 day period. Finally the statistical analysis (ANOVA) was carried out to highlight the differences in wound healing rate between applied preparations. Moreover, qualitative composition of grasshoppers' secretion was studied with the use of GC/MS technique. Results: During the first three days of observation, wounds treated with allantoin were healed with higher efficiency in comparison to ethanol and insect secretion preparations. The trend of healing changed from the 4(th) day of observation. Wounds treated with grasshoppers' abdominal secretion were closuring faster than wounds treated with allantoin or ethanol. In this part of observation, in the case of allantoin and ethanol application, the wound healing efficiency was similar. Since the 9(th) day of experiment the measurement of wounds size was problematic, due to crust formation. Finally at the 14(th) day of the study, wounds were totally healed. Morphological study enabled to observe all the phases of healing. In the 5(th) and 8(th) day, the infiltration of neutrophils and mononuclear cells in dermis was observed, which is characteristic for inflammatory phase of wound healing. On the 8(th) day of experiments, granulation of the tissue was clearly observed in the tested groups. Reepithelialisation phase was observed from the 5(th) to 14(th) day, when the wound was totally healed. The analytical approach enabled to identify 38 compounds of hydrophobic or hydrophilic character. Among them, 6 amino acids, 14 organic acids and their derivatives, one sterol, 4 hydrocarbons, 5 carbohydrates, 2 inorganic acids, 4 alcohols, one diamine and one nucleoside were identified. Conclusion: The obtained results enabled to recognize the composition of grasshopper abdominal secretion. Some of the identified compounds possess therapeutic properties described in the literature. The performed in vivo study proved that application of insects secretion accelerates the healing process. The obtained results positively verified the scientific hypothesis based on ethnopharmacological premises about the beneficial properties of grasshopper abdominal secretion on wound healing process.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 11/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.11.004
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    ABSTRACT: Ethnopharmacological relevance: Wounds of various types including injuries, cuts, pressure, burns, diabetic, gastric and duodenal ulcers continue to have severe socio-economic impact on the cost of health care to patients, family and health care institutions in both developing and developed countries. However, most people in the developing countries, especially Africa, depend on herbal remedies for effective treatment of wounds. Various in vitro and in vivo parameters are used for the evaluation of the functional activity of medicinal plants by using extracts, fractions and isolated compounds. The aim of the review is to identify African medicinal plants with wound healing properties within the last two decades. Materials and methods: Electronic databases such as PubMed, Scifinder(®) and Google Scholar were used to search and filter for African medicinal plants with wound healing activity. The methods employed in the evaluation of wound healing activity of these African medicinal plants comprise both in vivo and in vitro models. In vivo wound models such as excision, incision, dead space and burn wound model are commonly employed in assessing the rate of wound closure (contraction), tensile strength or breaking strength determination, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, hydroxyproline content assay and histological investigations including epithelialisation, collagen synthesis, and granulation tissue formation. In in vitro studies, single cell systems are mostly used to study proliferation and differentiation of dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes by monitoring typical differentiation markers like collagen and keratin. Results: In this study, 61 plants belonging to 36 families with scientifically demonstrated or reported wound healing properties were reviewed. Various plant parts including leaves, fruits, stem bark and root extracts of the plants are used in the evaluation of plants for wound healing activities. Conclusion: Although, a variety of medicinal plants for wound healing can be found in literature, there is a need for the isolation and characterization of the bioactive compounds responsible for the wound healing properties. Also, cytotoxicity studies should be performed on the promising agents or bioactive fractions or extracts.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 11/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.11.008