Journal of ethnopharmacology

Publisher: Elsevier

Description

  • Impact factor
    2.32
  • 5-year impact
    2.99
  • Cited half-life
    6.50
  • Immediacy index
    0.28
  • Eigenfactor
    0.02
  • Article influence
    0.50
  • ISSN
    1872-7573

Publisher details

Elsevier

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Pre-print allowed on any website or open access repository
    • Voluntary deposit by author of authors post-print allowed on authors' personal website, arXiv.org or institutions open scholarly website including Institutional Repository, without embargo, where there is not a policy or mandate
    • Deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate only allowed where separate agreement between repository and the publisher exists.
    • Permitted deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate, may be required to comply with embargo periods of 12 months to 48 months .
    • Set statement to accompany deposit
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to journal home page or articles' DOI
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • NIH Authors articles will be submitted to PubMed Central after 12 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 18/10/2013
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ethnopharmacological relevance: The emergence of drug resistant-tuberculosis and other pathogenic diseases over the past decades, constitutes a serious threat to human health worldwide. According to a 2012 report by the World Health Organization(WHO), South Africa, China, India and Russia are the countries with the highest prevalence of Multi-Drug Resistant tuberculosis (MDR-tuberculosis) as they represented 60% of the total. Several reports have documented antimycobacterial properties of Terminalia species but only a few species from this genus have been explored for their antimycobacterial constituents. The crude extracts of Terminalia phanerophlebia showed good antimicrobial activities in our previous study against two Mycobacterium as well as two other bacterial strains responsible for opportunistic infections related to respiratory ailments. This paper studies the isolation of compounds responsible for such activities and to isolate compounds responsible for antimicrobial activities from the crude extracts of Terminalia phanerophlebia leaves. Materials and methods:Terminalia phanerophlebia crude extracts obtained from 80% methanol was successively extracted with hexane, dichloromethane(DCM), ethyl acetate(EtOAc) and n-butanol. The fractions obtained and isolated compounds were tested for their antibacterial activities against Mycobacterium aurum, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Bioguided fractionation of the EtOAc fraction afforded two bioactive compounds.Structureelucidation was carried out using NMR(1D an d2D) spectroscopic methods. Results: EtOAc fraction exhibited highest antimicrobial activities and its fractionation afforded methyl gallate (methyl-3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate)(1) and a phenyl propanoid glucoside,1,6-di-O-coumaroyl glucopyranoside (2) These compounds are reported from Terminalia phanerophlebia for the first time. Both compounds showed good antimicrobial activity against all bacterial strains tested with minimum inhibitory concentration(MIC) values ranging from 63 to 250 ug/mL. Inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by 1,6-di-O-coumaroyl glucopyranoside(2) at a MIC value of 63 ug/mL was noteworthy, as this bacterial strain is reported to be the leading cause of tuberculosis worldwide. Conclusions: Good antimicrobial activities exhibited by the compounds isolated from Terminalia phanerophlebia authenticate the traditional use of this plant in treating tuberculosis and its related symptoms. Compound(2),1,6-di-O-coumaroyl glucopyranoside could serve as a lead compound for tuberculosis drug discovery.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 09/2014; 156:228-234.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ethnopharmacological relevance The present paper documents the utilization of medicinal plants for the treatment of various human ailments in two village development committees in the Rasuwa district of central Nepal. It also evaluates the ethnopharmacological significance of the documented use reports and identifies species of high indigenous priority in local therapeutics. Materials and methods The ethnobotanical information was collected by interviews and group discussions using standard ethnobotanical procedures. The homogeneity of informant's knowledge was validated by Informant consensus factor (FIC) and the relative importance of a plant species used as medicine in the study area was calculated with the help of use value (UV). Results The present study identified a total of 46 medicinal plants belonging to 26 families used for the treatment of 38 human ailments. Besides medicinal uses, the study has also documented the culinary and cultural use of 13 species of medicinal plants. The most commonly used part was root constituting about 42% of the total utilized plants. The most common used forms of preparation were paste (31.91%). We found new usage reports for 9 medicinal plants. The FIC value in the present study ranged from 0.66 to 1 with 84.6% values greater than 0.8 indicating high consensus among the informants. The most preferred species was Neopicrorhiza scrophulariflora (UV=0.96) and the lowest use value was found for Lyonia ovatifolia (UV=0.32). Conclusions People of Rasuwa possess rich traditional knowledge in medicinal plants utilization with strong consensus among local people on the utilization of species evident by higher FIC values in different ailment categories. Strong pharmacological evidence for a majority of species being currently used as medicines shows that the plants used in local therapeutics are likely to be more effective in treating different medical ailments. The bioactive compounds extracted from these medicinal plants could subsequently be used in the creation of novel drugs to treat life threatening human diseases. The species with high use values are the ones likely to be more vulnerable because of high demand and high collection pressure. Therefore, it is imperative to prioritize such species for cultivation and sustainable management in order to ensure their long term availability.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 07/2014; 155(2):1204-1213.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: By studying the Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM) Pharmacopoeia, we have collected information about medicinal plants which had been used to manage cancer-like disorders over eight hundred years, from medieval to the early modern era. Exploring the ITM herbal knowledge, the selected species have been subjected to MTT assay for examining their in vitro cyototoxic activity.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 06/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Fufang Xueshuantong (FXST) Capsule is developed on a traditional Chinese medicine remedy, with a four-herb formula of Panax notoginseng, Radix astragali, Salvia miltiorrhizae and Radix scrophulariaceae. It has been used for treatment of the clinic cardiovascular disease for many years. Due to its complexity of compositions and polypharmacological effects, it often complicates understanding of the mechanisms of action. In the present work, we have constructed an integrated model of system pharmacology to investigate the polypharmacological mechanisms of FXST formulation for treatment of thrombosis disease. The predicted results showed that 22 ingredients in FXST were closely associated with 41 protein targets related to blood coagulation, fibrinolysis and platelet aggregation. Through analysis of the compound-protein target association, significant cross-targets between each herb indicated the multiple active chemical ingredients might interact with the same target simultaneously and thus explained the synergistic mechanisms of the principle of Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) as "Jun (emperor) - Chen (minister) - Zuo (adjuvant) - Shi (courier)". To validate the polypharmacological effects predicted by our network pharmacology (NetPharm) analysis, we have carried out experimental investigation the effects of FXST on the disorders of the blood coagulation system in a lipopolysaccharide-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) rat model. The results showed that FXST could significantly ameliorate the activation of coagulation system, which is congruent with the cross-target prediction by NetPharm approach. The combined investigations provide more insight into better understanding of the pharmacological mechanisms of FXST, and may also offer an alternative avenue to further explore the chemical and pharmacological basis of TCMs.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 05/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although the increased usage of herbal medicine leading to herb-drug interactions is well reported, the mechanism of such interactions between herbal medicines with conventionally prescribed drugs such as warfarin is not yet fully understood. Our previous rat in vivo study demonstrated that co-administration of Danshen-Gegen Formula (DGF), a Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen) and Radix Puerariae lobatae (Gegen) containing Chinese medicine formula recently developed for the treatment of cardiovascular disease, with warfarin could cause significant herb-drug interactions. The current study aims to explore the pharmacokinetics-based mechanism of the DGF-warfarin interactions during absorption, distribution and metabolism processes. Caco-2 cell monolayer model and rat in situ intestinal perfusion model were used to study the DGF-warfarin interactions during the intestinal absorption processes. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered warfarin in presence and absence of DGF for consecutive 5 days. The microsomal activity and expression of the liver CYP isozymes were determined and compared among different treatment groups. Blood from the rats administered DGF was employed to evaluate effects of DGF on the plasma protein binding of warfarin. Absorption studies demonstrated that DGF could potentially increase the intestinal absorption of warfarin (32% and 75% increase of warfarin Papp in Caco-2 and intestinal perfusion models, respectively) via altering the regional pH environment in GI tract. DGF administration could lead to significant increase in liver microsomal activity and mRNA expression of CYP1A1 and CYP2B1, indicating the potential induction on the liver metabolism of warfarin by DGF. Moreover, it has been proven by ex vivo study that the single-dose administration of DGF could decrease the protein binding of warfarin in plasma by at least 11.6%. Collectively, current study demonstrated that DGF could significantly induce the liver phase I metabolism of warfarin, and to a less extent, potentially increase the intestinal absorption and decrease the plasma protein binding of warfarin. The inductive effects of DGF on the liver phase I metabolism of warfarin may be dominantly responsible for the DGF-warfarin pharmacokinetics interactions.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 05/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Paeonia anomala L. is used in Mongolian traditional medicine to treat various diseases including indigestion, abdominal pain, kidney disorders, inflammation, and female diseases. In this study we examined the effects of Paeonia anomala extract (PAE) and compounds derived from Paeonia anomala on immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated type I hypersensitivity responses in vitro. Degranulation assay, reverse transcription PCR, Enzyme-lined immunosorbent assays, western blot analyses were performed to measure allergic and proinflammatory mediators in IgE-stimulated rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-2H3 mast cells treated with or without PAE or gnetin H. Seventeen compounds were isolated, and β-hexosaminidase release from IgE-stimulated RBL-2H3 mast cells was measured. Of the seventeen isolated compounds, gnetin H, a resveratrol derivative, significantly inhibited β-hexosaminidase release from RBL-2H3 cells with an IC50 value of 0.3μM. Notably, Gnetin H reduced β-hexosaminidase release at lower concentrations than resveratrol. Furthermore, PAE and gnetin H inhibited histamine secretion, decreased the production and mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-4 and suppressed translocation of nuclear factor κB. PAE and gnetin H also reduced the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and production of prostaglandin E2. PAE and gnetin H suppressed the phosphorylation of Syk, protein kinase C (PKC)μ, phospholipase Cγ, and the mitogen-activated protein kinases, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, p38, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase. These results suggest that PAE and its active compound gnetin H could be promising therapeutic agents for allergic disorders.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 05/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There is currently a dearth of documentation on the use of animal-based therapies (ABT) in Mauritius. This study was therefore designed to gather primary folk knowledge on the different ABT used by Mauritians. Failure to document such knowledge can results in losses in both the use of such remedies and in the scientific documentation of the cultural traditions of animals used in the treatment and/or management of human diseases. To collect, analyse, document and disseminate ABT from the tropical island of Mauritius used against common human ailments. Data was collected following interviews from key informants (n=126) and reported diseases and health complications were classified in 14 categories. Eight quantitative indexes such as informant consensus factor (FIC), fidelity level (FL), relative frequency of citation (RFC), relative importance (RI), cultural importance index (CII), index of agreement on remedies (IAR), cultural agreement index (CAI) and ethnofaunistic index (EFI) were used to analyse the reported animal species. A total of 31 animal species belonging to 12 taxonomic groups were documented to be used in traditional medicine by Mauritians. ABT were prepared from whole animals or their body parts or products extracted from them such as: butter, meat, milk, bones, horn, musk, skin, fin, honey, mucus, eggs and legs. The most encountered taxonomic group was Actinopterygii (7 species). According to EFI, 3.34% of the indigenous fauna in Mauritius were used in the treatment and/or management of different ailments. The highest FIC value (0.98) was cited for endocrine, nutritional and metabolic disorders which included diabetes and gangrene. Rattus rattus scored the highest FL (100%) for the ailment category injury and poisons of external cause; Bos taurus had the highest RI value (2.00) due to its versatility, had the highest frequency of citation (RFC= 0.49), the highest cultural importance (CII=0.84) and the highest CAI value (0.77). According to IAR, Salmo salar (IAR=1.00) had the highest agreement among the informants for being used for the same medicinal purpose. Furthermore, no side effects have been reported from the use of ABT. Our study revealed that Mauritians possesses valuable knowledge on a plethora of ABT. It is believed that the present documentation will serve to record this vanishing knowledge before it is eroded completely from the island and to the scientific community. It is also anticipated that the present documentation will be fundamental to protect traditional knowledge, for the conservation and sustainable use of the rich biodiversity of Mauritius for future generations and to ensure Mauritius's sovereign rights over its genetic resources and utilisation by first documenting them. In addition, further experimental investigations are required to elucidate the pharmacological properties of the reported medicinal fauna of Mauritius.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 05/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Saponins of several herbs are known to induce apoptosis in some cancer cells and are proposed to be promising modulators of drug resistance. In the present study, we extracted Paris saponin VII (PS VII), a kind of saponin, from Trillium tschonoskii Maxim. and observed its effect on adriamycin-resistant breast cancer cells. An adriamycin-resistant human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7/ADR cells were exposed to different concentrations of PS VII (0-100μmol/L). Then, flow cytometric assays and a human apoptosis array were used to detect apoptotic cells and apoptosis related protein expression. P-glycoprotein levels and intracellular rhodamine 123 (RH-123) accumulations were measured to evaluate the expression and activity of P-glycoprotein. PS VII dose dependently suppressed cell viability as well as triggered apoptosis and modulated drug resistance of MCF-7/ADR cells. Further results showed that PS VII treatment in MCF-7/ADR cells led to increased TNFR1, TRAIL R1/DR4, TRAIL R2/DR5, and FADD expression, and activation of PARP, caspase-8, and 3. In parallel to the alterations, P-glycoprotein expression and activity were also reduced. These findings showed that PS VII might be an effective tumouristatic agent for the treatment of MDR breast cancer.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 05/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cyrtopodium macrobulbon ("cañaveral") has been long used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of painful urinary ailments ("mal de orin") in men. (i) To establish the potential acute toxicity and the antinociceptive activity of some preparations of C. macrobulbon, in order to demonstrate its preclinical efficacy for treating symptoms of "mal de orin"; and (ii) to determine the chemical composition and quality control parameters of this medicinal orchid. The antinociceptive effect was assessed using the acetic acid-induced writhing and the hot-plate tests. Investigation of the acute toxicity was accomplished by the Lorke method. The organic extract (OE) was subjected to conventional phytochemical study using chromatographic conventional procedures. The volatile components profile of the species was accomplished via GC-MS analysis of HS-SPME-adsorbed compounds. Furthermore, an HPLC method to quantify ephemeranthol B (10) was developed and validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization Guidelines. Microscopic anatomy studies were performed using light and scanning electron microscopies. Finally, a potential distribution map was generated using the MaxEnt modeling method. AE and OE were not toxic to mice since the LD50 was higher than 5000mg/kg. OE was only active in the acetic acid-induced writhing assay at the doses of 100 and 316mg/kg. Conventional phytochemical analysis of OE led to the isolation and characterization of n-hexacosyl-trans-p-coumarate (1), n-octacosyl-trans-p-coumarate (2), n-triacontyl-trans-p-coumarate (3), 4-methoxy-benzyl alcohol (4), 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (5), 1,5,7-trimethoxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene-2,6-diol (6), confusarin (7), gigantol (8), batatasin III (9), and ephemeranthol B (10). The major volatile components identified by HS-SPME analysis were 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone, eucalyptol (11), and isobornyl formate. An HPLC analytical method for the quantification of compound 10 in the plant was developed and fully validated for selectivity, accuracy, and precision. The microscopic studies revealed that the epidermal tissue displayed a layer of enlarged, crenate and cell thin-walled cells with a thickened cuticle; these cells are described for first time for this species. The potential distribution map generated revealed that this species is widespread in Mexico from Sinaloa to Merida states. The results of the pharmacological studies tend to support the traditional use of C. macrobulbon for "mal de orin"; the presence of compounds 8, 9, and 11 with known antinociceptive activity might be related with the pharmacological effect demonstrated. The HPLC and microscopic analyses developed in this work will be valuable tools for quality control purposes for this plant.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 05/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ethnopharmacological relevance: Red ginseng (RG) has been widely used to treat various diseases in East Asian countries. Previous studies have shown the anti-oxidative and anti-diabetic effects of RG. This study aimed to investigate the effects of RG on oxidative stress and insulin resistance in postmenopausal women. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 82 postmenopausal women aged 45-60 years. Participants were randomized to receive 3g red ginseng daily or placebo for 12 weeks. Antioxidant enzymes activity (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) and oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine) were assessed, and the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance index was calculated at the baseline and at the end of the trial. A total of 71 postmenopausal women completed the study. Serum superoxide dismutase activity was significantly increased after the 12-week RG supplementation (P<0.001), and these changes were statistically significant compared with the placebo group (P=0.004). Serum malondialdehyde levels showed a tendency to decrease after the 12-week RG supplementation (P=0.001), but these changes were not statistically significant compared with the placebo group (P=0.064). No statistically significant changes in serum glutathione peroxidase and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine were noted. Further, RG supplementation showed no effects on fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and insulin resistance. The results suggest that RG may reduce oxidative stress by increasing antioxidant enzyme activity in postmenopausal women.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 05/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The medicinal efficacy of hempseed (Cannabis sativa L.), which is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, in atopic dermatitis, inflammation, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been suggested for centuries. Hempseed has been used as a treatment for these diseases in Korean and Chinese folk medicine. To investigate the effects of hempseed oil (HO) on MH7A human RA fibroblast-like synovial cells. MH7A cells were used to study the anti-rheumatoid effects of hempseed (Cannabis sativa L., cv. Cheungsam/Cannabaceae) oil by investigating cell viability, apoptosis, lipid accumulation, oxidative stress, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptosis. HO treatment reduced the survival rate of MH7A cells and promoted apoptotic cell death in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Both lipid accumulation and the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) increased in HO-treated MH7A cells. Co-treatment with the antioxidant Tiron effectively abrogated the cytotoxic effects of HO; the ROS level was reduced, cell viability was recovered, and apoptotic cell death was significantly diminished. Moreover, HO-treated cells exhibited increased expression of the major ER stress markers, glucose-regulated protein 78 and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP). The siRNA-mediated knockdown of CHOP prevented HO-induced apoptosis. Our results suggest that HO treatment induced lipid accumulation, ROS production, CHOP expression, and apoptosis in MH7A cells, and that CHOP functions as an anti-rheumatoid factor downstream of HO in MH7A cells.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 05/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Rhynchophylline (Rhy) is a major ingredient of uncaria rhynchophylla (UR) used to reduce blood pressure and ameliorate brain ailments. This study was to examine the role of Rho kinase (ROCK) in the inhibition of Rhy on contraction of cerebral arterioles caused by endothelin 1 (ET-1). Cerebral arterioles of male Wistar rats were constricted with ET-1 for 10min followed by perfusion of Rhy for 20min. Changes in the diameters of the arterioles were recorded. The effects of Rhy on contraction of middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) were determined by a Multi Myograph. Western blotting and immunofluorescent staining were used to examine the effects of Rhy on RhoA translocation and myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT1) phosphorylation. In vivo, Rhy (30-300µM) relaxed cerebral arterioles constricted with ET-1 dose-dependently. In vitro, Rhy at lower concentrations (1-100µM) caused relaxation of rat MCAs constricted with KCl and Bay-K8644 (an agonist of L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels (L-VDCCs)). Rhy at higher concentrations (>100µM) caused relaxation of rat MCAs constricted with ET-1, which was inhibited by Y27632, a ROCK's inhibitor. Western blotting of rat aortas showed that Rhy inhibited RhoA translocation and MYPT1 phosphorylation. Immunofluorescent staining of MCAs confirmed that phosphorylation of MYPT1 caused by ET-1 was inhibited by Rhy. These results demonstrate that Rhy is a potent inhibitor of contraction of cerebral arteries caused by ET-1 in vivo and in vitro. The effect of Rhy was in part mediated by inhibiting RhoA-ROCK signaling.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 05/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Dragon's blood, a traditional Chinese herb, has been used to "panacea of blood activating" and its major biological activity appears to be from phenolic compounds. In this study, our research aims to examine the effects of Dragon's blood (DB) and its extracts (DBE) on radiation-induced myelosuppressive mice. Adult BALB/C mice were exposed to the whole body irradiation with 4Gy (60)Co γ-rays. DB and DBE were respectively administered orally for 5 constitutive days prior to irradiation treatment. The radioprotective effects and relevant mechanisms of DB and DBE in radiation-induced bone marrow injury were investigated by ex vivo examination. We found that the administration of DB and DBE significantly increased the numbers of peripheral blood cells and colony forming unit of bone marrow-derived stem/progenitor cells. Interestingly, compared with the irradiation group, the administration of DB and DBE significantly decreased the levels of the inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-α and IFN-γ and oxidative stress injury such as SOD, CAT, GSH, MDA in serum of mice. Furthermore, DBE markedly improved the morphology of bone marrow histopathology. Our data suggest that DB and DBE effectively attenuate radiation-induced damage in bone marrow, which is likely associated with the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of DB and DBE.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 05/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Jiao-Tai-Wan (JTW), an important herbal formula consists of Rhizoma Coptidis and Cortex Cinnamomi powder, is a famous prescription which has been used for centuries to treat insomnia in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The purpose of this study is to compare the pharmacokinetic properties of five protoberberine-type alkaloids (i.e. berberine, palmatine, coptisine, epiberberine and jatrorrhizine), the main bioactive constituents in JTW, between normal and insomnic rats. We also investigate the differences between single-dose and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of five protoberberine-type alkaloids. The insomnic rat models were induced by intraperitoneal injection of one-dose para-chlorophenylalanine acid (PCPA). Quantification of five protoberberine-type alkaloids in rat plasma was achieved by using a rapid LC-MS/MS method. Plasma samples were collected at different time points to construct pharmacokinetic profiles by plotting drug concentration versus time and estimate pharmacokinetic parameters. An unpaired Student's t test was used for comparisons with SPSS 17.0. The five protoberberine-type alkaloids of single-dose normal groups had slow absorption and low bioavailability, as well as a delay of peak time. In the single-dose oral administration, the Cmax and Tmax of five ingredients in insomnic rats had significant differences compared with those of normal rats. In the multiple-dose oral administration, the pharmacokinetic parameters of five protoberberine-type alkaloids varied greatly in insomnic rats. In the normal rats, there were significant differences (P<0.05) in the principal pharmacokinetic parameters such as Cmax and Tmax between single-dose and multiple-dose oral administration. In the insomnic rats, the five ingredients of multiple-dose groups showed better absorption than the single-dose groups. Particularly, three peaks were observed in multiple-dose model group of plasma-concentration curves. The pharmacokinetic behavior of five protoberberine-type alkaloids was described in this paper. In both normal groups and model groups, the pharmacokinetic behavior of multiple-dose had significant differences comparing with the single-dose; either single-dose or multiple-dose, the pharmacokinetic behavior of insomnic rats had significant differences comparing the normal rats. Multiple dosing may improve the absorption of JTW in insomnic rats, which will increase the bioavailability and bring into active role in therapeutical effect.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 05/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Er-Miao-San (EMS) is a traditional Chinese herbal formulation that contain combinations of Rhizoma Atractylodis (RA) and Cortex Phellodendri (CP). It exhibits analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities and have been used for the treatment of various "Bi Zheng" for thousand years in China. The aims of the present study were to investigate the anti-inflammatory activities of EMS and elucidate the underlying mechanisms with regards to its molecular basis of action for the best combination. The anti-inflammatory effects of EMS were studied by using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated activation of nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokine production in mouse RAW 264.7 macrophages. Expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) phosphorylation, p65 phosphorylation, inhibitor-κBα (IκBα) degradation, and NF-κB DNA-binding activity were further investigated. The present study demonstrated that EMS could suppress the production of NO in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. However, CP and RA did not have significant inhibitory effect on them. EMS also inhibited the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 beta and macrophage chemotactic protein-1. Further investigations showed EMS could suppress iNOs expression, and p38 phosphorylation. EMS significantly decreased the content of IκBα, reduced the level of phosphorylated p65 and suppressed the NF-κB DNA-binding activity. All these results suggested the inhibitory effects of EMS on the production of inflammatory mediators through the inhibition of the NF-κB pathway. Our results indicated that EMS inhibited inflammatory events and iNOS expression in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells through the inactivation of MAPK and NF-κB pathway. This study gives scientific evidence validating the use of EMS in treatment of patients with "Bi Zheng" in clinical practice in traditional Chinese medicine.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 05/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Shu-Gan-Liang-Xue Decoction (SGLXD), a traditional Chinese herbal formula used to ameliorate the hot flushes in breast cancer patients, was reported to have anti-tumor effect on breast carcinoma. Estrogen plays a critical role in the genesis and evolution of breast cancer. Aromatase and steroid sulfatase (STS) are key estrogen synthesis enzymes that predominantly contribute to the high local hormone concentrations. The present study was to evaluate the anti-tumor effect of SGLXD on estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer cell line ZR-75-1, and to investigate its underlying mechanisms both in vitro and in vivo. The anti-tumor activity of SGLXD in vitro was investigated using the MTT assay. The in vivo anti-tumor effect of SGLXD was evaluated in non-ovariectomized and ovariectomized athymic nude mice. The effect of SGLXD on enzymatic activity of aromatase and STS was examined using the dual-luciferase reporter (DLR) based on bioluminescent measurements. Aromatase and STS protein level were assessed using Western blot assay. SGLXD showed dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the proliferation of ZR-75-1 cells with IC50 value of 3.40mg/mL. It also suppressed the stimulating effect on cell proliferation of testosterone and estrogen sulfates (E1S). Oral administration of 6g/kg of SGLXD for 25 days resulted in a reduction in tumor volume in non-ovariectomized and ovariectomized nude mice. The bioluminescent measurements confirmed that SGLXD has a dual-inhibitory effect on the activity of aromatase and STS. Western blot assay demonstrated that the treatment of SGLXD resulted in a decrease in aromatase and STS protein levels both in vitro and in vivo. Our results suggested that SGLXD showed anti-tumor effect on breast cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. The anti-tumor activity of SGLXD is related to inhibition of aromatase and STS via decreasing their expression. SGLXD may be considered as a novel treatment for ER positive breast cancer.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 05/2014;