Journal of ethnopharmacology Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: Elsevier

Journal description

Current impact factor: 2.94

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 2.939
2012 Impact Factor 2.755
2011 Impact Factor 3.014
2010 Impact Factor 2.466
2009 Impact Factor 2.322
2008 Impact Factor 2.26
2007 Impact Factor 2.049
2006 Impact Factor 1.625
2005 Impact Factor 1.554
2004 Impact Factor 1.42
2003 Impact Factor 1.269
2002 Impact Factor 1.188
2001 Impact Factor 0.78
2000 Impact Factor 0.575
1999 Impact Factor 0.687
1998 Impact Factor 0.522
1997 Impact Factor 0.578
1996 Impact Factor 0.562
1995 Impact Factor 0.366
1994 Impact Factor 0.5
1993 Impact Factor 0.507
1992 Impact Factor 0.272

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 2.99
Cited half-life 6.50
Immediacy index 0.28
Eigenfactor 0.02
Article influence 0.50
ISSN 1872-7573

Publisher details


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    • Author's post-print must be released with a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License
    • Publisher last reviewed on 03/06/2015
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • Josué A Velázquez-Moyado · Alejandro Martínez-González · Edelmira Linares · Robert Bye · Rachel Mata · Andrés Navarrete
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    ABSTRACT: The rhizome of Ligusticum porteri Coulter& Rose (LP) has been traditionally used by the ethnic group Raramuri in the North of México for treatment of diabetes, tuberculosis, stomachaches, diarrhea and ritual healing ceremonies. Its use as antiulcer remedy has been extended to all Mexico. To evaluate the gastroprotective activity of LP organic extracts and the major natural product diligustilide (DLG),using as experimental model the inhibition of the ethanol-induced lesions in rats. Gastric ulcers were induced by intragastric instillation of absolute ethanol (1mL). We tested the gastroprotective activity of the organic extracts of LP and the pure compound DLG. The ulcer index (UI) was determined to measure the activity. In order to elucidate the action mechanism of DLG the animals were treated with l-NAME, N-ethylmalemide, Forskolin, 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine, Indomethacin, Glibenclameide, Diazoxide, NaHS and DL-Propargylglycine. The pylorus-ligated rat model was used to measure gastric secretion. The oral administration of organic extracts of Ligusticum porteri showed gastroprotective effect at 30mg/Kg on ethanol induced gastric lesions; hexane and dichloromethane extracts were the most active. DLG was the major compound in the hexane extract. This compound at 10mg/Kg prevented significantly the gastric injuries induced by ethanol. The alkylation of endogenous non-protein-SH groups with N-ethylmaleimide abolished the gastroprotective effect of DLG and blocking the formation of endogenous prostaglandins by the pretreatment with indomethacin attenuated the gastroprotective effect of DLG. The gastroprotective activity demonstrated in this study tends to support the ethnomedical use of Ligusticum porteri roots. DLG, isolated as major compound of this medicinal plant has a clear gastroprotective effect on the ethanol-induced gastric lesions. The results suggest that the antiulcer activity of DLG depends on the participation of the endogenous non-protein -SH groups and prostaglandins. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.08.030
  • Jing Li · Beixian Zhou · Chufang Li · QiaoYan Chen · Yutao Wang · Zhengtu Li · Tingting Chen · Chunguang Yang · Zhihong Jiang · Nanshan Zhong · Zifeng Yang · Rongchang Chen
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    ABSTRACT: Isatis indigotica is a traditional Chinese medicine. Its dried roots named "ban lan gen" in Chinese, are used for clinical treatment of virus infection, tumor, inflammation with a long history. However, its anti-influenza active ingredient and the underlying mechanism remain unclear. In this study, the anti-influenza and anti-inflammatory effects of a lignan glycoside: lariciresinol-4-O-β-D- glucopyranoside isolated from the root of Isatis indigotica on human alveolar epithelial cell line A549 infected with influenza A virus were investigated. Chemical and spectroscopic methods were employed to identify the structure of the lignan glycoside. Cytotoxicity of the lignan glycoside was analyzed using methylthiazolyltetrazolium (MTT) assay. The inhibitory activity against influenza virus of the lignan was determined by CPE inhibition assay. HEK-293 cells stably co-transfected with NF-κB responsive firefly luciferase and constitutively expressing GFP were employed for monitoring the effect of the lignan on NF-κB signal pathway activation. Nuclear export of viral ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes was monitored by indirect immunofluorescence. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to quantify the expression profiling of cytokines and chemokines after infection with influenza virus. We showed that the lignan glycoside treatment was effective against the influenza A virus-induced cytopathic effect (CPE) in MDCK cells. Further study demonstrated the lignan glycoside attenuated virus-induced NF-κB activation, but did not affect export of viral ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes from the nucleus in late stages of infection. We revealed that the lignan glycoside suppressed influenza A virus (H1N1)-induced expression of the pro-inflammatory molecules IL-6, TNF-α, IL-8, MCP-1, IP-10 and IFN-α. Moreover, the cytokines and chemokines profiles induced by H9N2 virus resembled those of influenza virus H1N1, but the lignan glycoside reduced the expression of IP-10 and TNF-α. Our results suggest that the lignan glycoside is a bioactive component of Isatis indigotica which may contribute an adjunct to pharmacotherapy for influenza virus infection. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.08.037
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    ABSTRACT: Euphorbia kansui is a traditional Chinese medicine widely used for the treatment of edema, ascite and asthma in China for centuries. However, its serious gastrointestinal toxicity restricted its safe clinical application. 3-O-(2'E,4'Z-decadienoyl)-20-O-acetylingenol (3EZ,20Ac-ingenol), a diterpenoid compound derived from kansui, has obvious gastrointestinal cytotoxicity in cells. Until now, its gastrointestinal cytotoxic mechanism is mostly unknown. This study focused on elucidating the cytotoxic mechanism of 3EZ,20Ac-ingenol in intestinal epithelial cells of rats (IEC-6 cells) to guide safer application of this herb in clinic. 3EZ,20Ac-ingenol was isolated from the EtOAc extract of kansui. Cell morphology was detected by inverted phase contrast microscope and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Cell apoptosis was examined by Annexin V-FITC/PI dual-staining or Hoechst staining. ROS generation was detected with DCFH-DA staining by laser scanning confocal microscope. MMP change was examined with JC-1 staining by High content screening (HCS). Further, the release of cytochrome c, the expressions of Bax, Bcl-2, AIF and Apaf-1 were analyzed by western bolt and the activities of caspase-3, 8, 9 were determined by ELISA. Additionally, cell cycle analysis was performed to detect the effects of 3EZ,20Ac-ingenol on cell cycle in IEC-6 cells by flow cytometry. The study showed that 3EZ,20Ac-ingenol significantly reduced IEC-6 cells viability in a dose-dependent manner and the IC50 value was 5.74μg/mL. Consistently, 3EZ,20Ac-ingenol could elevate reactive oxygen species (ROS), disrupt mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), induce the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol, enhance the expressions of Bax, AIF and Apaf-1, suppress the expression of Bcl-2, then activate caspase-3, 8, 9 cascade, and subsequently result in apoptosis. Additionally, 3EZ,20Ac-ingenol also could cause G2/M phase arrest in IEC-6 cells. The results indicated that 3EZ,20Ac-ingenol induced the cytotoxicity of IEC-6 cells depends on induction of cell apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway and cell cycle arrest. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.08.036
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    ABSTRACT: Digestive disorders (DDs) causes indisposition and lead to death, especially in the underdeveloped world where hygienic conditions are scarce. A major proportion of the human populace depends on the use of traditional knowledge about the consumption of medicinal plants for many diseases, including DDs. The contemporary study summarizes the indigenous uses of Wild Edible Fruits (WEFs) of Swat Valley used for DDs and to evaluate the bio-efficacy of these pharmacologically essential fruit species from the available literature. An ethnomedicinal study was conducted in Swat valley, Northern Pakistan. Data was collected through field assessment as well as from traditional healers and local people by means of personal interviews and semi-structured questionnaires, giving value to both rural and urban communities. The ethnomedicinal knowledge was quantitatively analyzed using various indices like Familiarity Index (FI), Consensus index (CI), Informant consensus factor (ICF) and the present data was compared with previous studies in the neighbouring areas using Jaccard similarity coefficient (JI). The present study recorded use reports on 53 WEFs of ethnomedicinal prominence in the treatment of DDs, belonging to 23 families. The recurrent growth forms were trees (51%) shrubs (38%) and herbs (11%). High consumption of fruits (50%), leaves (27%) and flowers (12%) was recorded. The traditional preparations were mostly in the form of unprocessed dried /fresh, powder, Juice and decoction and were usually taken orally. Almost 20-30 % of the plants occurred in synanthropic vegetation while more than 75 % were found in natural woodland and grassland vegetation. Family Berberidaceae dominated with highest FIV (41) followed by Punicaceae (38), Oxalidaceae (36) and Moraceae (35). ICF values for carminative (0.6) showed high consensus factor followed by anthelmintic, gastroenteritis and intestinal disorders (0.5). FI value is high for Berberis lycium (0.5), Morus alba (0.5), Morus nigra (0.5) followed by Olea ferruginea (0.45). Berberis lycium had the high consensus index, whereas, a study conducted on Lesser Himalayas Pakistan showed high value of Jaccard similarity coefficient. WEFs are predominantly used in the treatment of various diseases in the valley and traditional knowledge about the use of these species against DDs is still prevailing. Multiple uses of these WEFs suggest further investigation into its phytochemical, toxicological and pharmaceutical potential. This study will serve as a baseline data for future pharmacological studies. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.08.024
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    ABSTRACT: The two species of Filipendula genus, Filipendula hexapetala Gilib. and Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim are a traditional herbal medicine widely used to treat haemorrhoids, diarrhoea, fever, rheumatism and arthritic pain, kidney problems, to stop bleeding, and the common cold, as well as food supplements. However, no scientific study has been performed to validate genotoxic and/or antigenotoxic potentials of these two Filipendula species. The aim of the present study was to examine the genotoxic and possible in vitro and in vivo DNA protection potential of methanol extracts of F. hexapetala and F. ulmaria. The genotoxicity of different concentrations of F. hexapetala and F. ulmaria methanol extracts from roots and aerial parts (20, 40 and 80mg/ml), mixed with standard food for Drosophila, was evaluated in vivo in the anterior midgut of Drosophila melanogaster using a modified alkaline comet assay. The protective effects of the highest dose of extracts were observed in somatic cells of third-instar larvae against ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS)-induced genotoxicity. Also, DNA protection activity of methanol extracts from F. hexapetala and F. ulmaria (100, 200, and 400 μg/ml) against hydroxyl radical-induced DNA damage was determined under in vitro conditions. The results showed that methanol extracts from the root and aerial part of F. hexapetala at a concentration of 20mg/ml indicated the absence of genotoxicity. Also, there were no statistically significant differences in total scores between any of the groups treated with F. ulmaria root extract and the negative control group, while F. ulmaria aerial part extract possess weak genotoxic effects depending on the concentrations. The percentage reduction in DNA damage was more evident in the group of larvae simultaneously treated with EMS and the highest dose of F. hexapetala root or aerial part extracts and F. ulmaria root extract (91.02, 80.21, and 87.5%, respectively) and less expressive in the group simultaneously treated with F. ulmaria aerial part extract (54.7%). F. hexapetala root and aerial part extracts and F. ulmaria root extract possess strong capabilities to protect DNA from being damaged by hydroxyl radicals. It can be concluded that F. hexapetala root and aerial part extracts and F. ulmaria root extract demonstrated the absence of genotoxic activity. The extracts appeared to have antigenotoxic effect, reducing the levels of DNA damage induced by EMS by more than 80%. Also, F. hexapetala root and aerial part extracts and F. ulmaria root extracts could effectively protect against hydroxyl radical-induced DNA damage. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.08.025
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    ABSTRACT: Limonium brasiliense (Boiss.) Kuntze, Plumbaginaceae, popularly known as baicuru, has been used in folk medicine to treat menstrual cramps and to regulate menstrual periods. However, little is known about its safety. This study evaluated the safety through in vivo tests of the acute, long-term, and liver toxicity, and the mutagenicity of the crude extract (CE) from rhizomes of L. brasiliense. The acute toxicity was assessed in Swiss mice, and the chronic toxicity in Wistar rats. Male and female mice received the CE orally in single doses of 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, or 5.0g/kg. Clinical changes and mortality rate were used as parameters to assess the acute toxicity. In the long-term evaluation, male and female Wistar rats were treated orally with daily doses of the CE (50, 100, or 200mg/kg) for 90 days. Assessments of weight, behavior and food intake, urinalysis, biochemical and hematological analyses, as well as macro- and microscopic observations of several organs were performed. The redox state of the liver was evaluated as a means of investigating the liver toxicity, and the micronucleus test to assess mutagenicity was also performed. Evaluation of acute toxicity indicated no apparent clinical change in the animals; the LD50 was 4.8g/kg. Evaluation after 90 days administration showed that the CE, even in higher doses than are considered therapeutic, appeared to be safe. The micronucleus test demonstrated a low mutagenic potential for the CE. Our results showed that treatment with the CE from L. brasiliense caused low or no toxicity, as assessed using these doses and evaluation methods. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.08.022
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    ABSTRACT: Gentianella acuta (Michx.) Hulten belonging to the family of Gentianaceae is an annual plant mainly distributed in north of China, Mongolia plateau, Siberia and Far East areas of Russia. The whole herb was used as folk medicine to treat hepatitis, jaundice, headache and fever in Mongolia native medicine. Xanthones are the main active compounds of G. acuta and possess a lot of pharmacological and biological activities. A selective and sensitive UHPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the determination and pharmacokinetic study of swertianolin, norswertianolin, bellidifolin and demethylbellidifolin (DMB) in rat plasma after oral administration of G. acuta extract. Sample preparation involved a liquid-liquid extraction of the analytes with ethyl acetate. Butylparaben was employed as an internal standard. LC separation was achieved on an Agilent SB-C18 RRHD column (1.8μm, 150mm×2.1mm) at 30°C with an isocratic mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-water (0.1% formic acid) (90:10, v/v). The detection was accomplished by multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) scanning with electrospray ionization (ESI) source operating in the negative ionization mode. The optimized mass transition ion-pairs (m/z) monitored for swertianolin, norswertianolin, bellidifolin, DMB and I.S. were 435.1/272.0, 420.8/258.9, 273.0/258.0, 258.9/214.9 and 193.0/92.0, respectively. The current UHPLC-MS/MS assay was validated for linearity, intra-day and inter-day precisions, accuracy, extraction recovery and stability and was suitable for pharmacokinetic studies of the four xanthones after oral administration of G. acuta extract. The time to reach the maximum plasma concentration (Tmax) was 0.40±0.12h for swertianolin, 0.27±0.07h for norswertianolin, 1.00±0.18h for bellidifolin and 0.94±0.15h for demethylbellidifolin. The elimination half-time (t1/2) of swertianolin, norswertianolin, bellidifolin and DMB, was 19.7±9.64h, 11.3±4.51h, 19.9±8.11h and 24.9±8.19h, respectively. This study described a simple, sensitive and validated UHPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of four xanthones in rat plasma after oral administration of G. acuta extract, and investigated on their pharmacokinetic studies as well. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.08.023
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    ABSTRACT: Cyperus rotundus L. (Cyperaceae) is a medicinal herb traditionally used to treat various clinical conditions at home such as diarrhea, diabetes, pyresis, inflammation, malaria, and stomach and bowel disorders. Currently, it is one of the most widespread, problematic, and economically damaging agronomic weeds, growing wildly in various tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The present paper summarizes the available information that will aid in future medicine preparation by identifying active ingredients and their mode of action for a specific therapeutic activity using the latest technologies. This review article is based on the information available on the phytochemical, toxicological, and pharmacological studies on and traditional uses of C. rotundus. The present paper covers the literature available particularly from 2000 to 2015 online (Google Scholar, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, SpringerLink, and Web of Science) and in books on phytochemistry, ethnopharmacology, and botany of this plant. Phytochemical and pharmacological studies revealed the significance of C. rotundus as an antiandrogenic, antibacterial, anticancerous, anticonvulsant, antidiabetic, antidiarrheal, antigenotoxic, anti-inflammatory, antilipidemic, antimalarial, antimutagenic, antiobesity, antioxidant, anti-uropathogenic, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, and nootropic agent. This is the most investigated plant worldwide due to the higher concentration of active ingredients in the form of essential oils, phenolic acids, ascorbic acids, and flavonoids in the tuber and rhizomes. Unfortunately, this significant plant species has not been assessed under improved cultivation conditions with the aim of conservation in natural habitats and high quality. Reports can be found on the ehtnobotanical use of C. rotundus in atherosclerosis, aging, apoptosis, cancer, cystitis, epilepsy, hirsutism, nociception, prostatitis, and genotoxicity disorders. The phytochemical and pharmacological activities of C. rotundus have supported its traditional as well as prospective uses as a valuable Ayurvedic plant. Previous researches focuses on the phytochemistry, biological properties and clinical application of rhizomes and tubers of C. rotundus. However, such studies on the other parts of this medicinally important plant are still quest to be investigate. Furthermore, future study should aim at confirming the clinical activities and safety of this plant before being used for the development of new therapeutic agent in human subjects. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.08.012
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    ABSTRACT: Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae) is commonly known as the cashew tree. It is native to tropical America and extracts of the leaves, bark, roots, chestnut net and exudate have been traditionally used in northeast Brazil for the treatment of various diseases. The exudate of the cashew tree (cashew gum) has been exploited by locals since ancient times for multiple applications, including the treatment of diarrheal diseases. The primary aim of the present study is to evaluate the antidiarrheal activity of cashew gum (CG), a complex heteropolysaccharide from the exudate of the cashew tree, using various models. The antidiarrheal activity of cashew gum (CG) against acute diarrhea was investigated using the castor oil-induced diarrhea model. The effects of CG on gastrointestinal transit and castor oil- and PGE2- induced enteropooling were also examined in rodents. In addition, the effect of CG against secretory diarrhea was investigated using a model of fluid secretion in cholera toxin-treated intestinal closed loops in live mice. Cashew gum (30, 60, and 90mg/kg, p.o.) showed a significant (P<0.05-0.01) antidiarrheal effect in rats with castor oil-induced diarrhea, inhibiting the total amount of stool and diarrheal stools. The 60mg/kg dose of CG exhibited excellent antidiarrheal activity and significantly reduced the severity of diarrhea (diarrhea scores) in rats. CG (60mg/kg) significantly (P<0.05) decreased the volume of castor oil- and PGE2-induced intestinal fluid secretion (enteropooling). In addition, similar to loperamide (standard drug, 5mg/kg, p.o.), CG treatment reduced the distance travelled by a charcoal meal in the 30-min gastrointestinal transit model by interacting with opioid receptors. In cholera toxin-induced secretory diarrhea, CG (60mg/kg) significantly inhibited the intestinal fluid secretion and decreased Cl(-) ion loss in the cholera toxin(-)treated isolated loops model of live mice by competitively binding to cholera toxin-GM1 receptors. In conclusion, our results indicate that a complex heteropolysaccharide extracted from the exudate of A. occidentale L. has antidiarrheal activity in acute, inflammatory, and secretory diarrhea models, which could justify its traditional use in the treatment of diarrhea in northeast Brazil. The antidiarrheal activity might be explained by the capacity of CG to inhibit gastrointestinal motility and thereby reduce the accumulation of intestinal fluid and the secretion of water and chloride ions in the lumen of the intestine. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.08.020
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    ABSTRACT: Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae) is a traditional medicinal plant used to treat gastrointestinal disorders, such as gastritis. Helicobacter pylori has been described as the etiological agent of gastritis, peptic ulcer, as well as gastric adenocarcinoma. 50% of the world's population is infected with this bacterium and the current therapy fails due to the increment in antibiotic resistance; therefore, it is necessary to find new approaches to control H. pylori infection, either by its eradication or by preventing the bacterial colonization. To investigate the effect of P. hysterophorus extracts on H. pylori growth and upon its colonization-related factors. Five different polarity extracts from roots and aerial parts of P. hysterophorus were evaluated in vitro against H. pylori growth by the broth dilution method. Anti-colonization activities were determined as follows: motility in soft agar plates, urease activity by ammonia colorimetrical quantification, and adherence of FITC labeled H. pylori to AGS cells by fluorometrical measurement. Organic extracts inhibited H. pylori growth. Particularly, the dichloromethane extract from roots showed a MIC of 15.6µg/ml while the aqueous extracts showed low or null activity. There is a direct correlation between antibacterial activity and inhibition of motility. Urease activity was partially inhibited by organic extracts, at best 46%, except for the roots dichloromethane extract which reached 74% of inhibition with 500µg/ml (IC50=136.4µg/ml). Plant extracts inhibited adherence in different ranges but the dichloromethane-methanol ones possessed the highest effect, with a 70% maximal inhibition at 1mg/ml. The results indicate that some P. hysterophorus extracts have various biological activities that could act synergistically against H. pylori. This work contributes to the ethnomedical knowledge of this species and underlines the potential of some organic extracts as a good source for the isolation of bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.08.021
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    ABSTRACT: Here we present the results of an ethnobotanical survey of the medicinal plants used by the Miu, a virtually unresearched ethnolinguistic group who live in the mountainous interior of Papua New Guinea's West New Britain Province. We compare the findings for those previously reported for the neighbouring inland Kaulong speaking population. Three species, Trema orientalis, Spondias dulcis and Ficus botryocarpa are used in combination with locally prepared slaked lime to produce intensely coloured mixtures which are applied to dermatological infections. Their effects on dermal fibroblast viability with and without slaked lime are examined. The sap of F. botryocarpa which is used to treat tropical ulcers was examined further with assays relevant to wound healing. Focus groups and semi-structured interviews were used to acquire information on the uses of plants, vouchers of which were collected and identified by comparison with authentic herbarium specimens. LC-MS and NMR were used to identify chemical components. Cell viability assays were used to examine the effects of added slaked lime on dermal fibroblasts. For the sap of F. botryocarpa, fibroblast stimulation assays and antibacterial growth inhibition with Bacillus subtilis were carried out. The survey identified 33 plants and one fungal species, and clear differences with the inland Kaulong group despite their close proximity. Added slaked lime does not greatly increase the cytotoxicity of plant material towards dermal fibroblasts. The sap of F. botryocarpa contains the alkaloid ficuseptine as a single major component and displays antibacterial activity. The results demonstrate the potential for variation in medicinal plant use amongst Papua New Guinea's numerous language groups. The addition of slaked lime to plant material does not appear to present a concern for wound healing in the amounts used. The sap of F. botryocarpa displays antibacterial activity at concentrations that would occur at the wound surface and could be used as a highly accessible alternative to conventional antiseptics for remote communities in Papua New Guinea. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.08.019
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    ABSTRACT: Vitellaria paradoxa (shea tree) is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments, including, inflammation and fever. Therefore the present research investigates the anti-inflammatory and anti-rheumatic effects of Vitellaria paradoxa stem bark extracts in rats and the isolation and characterization of its active constituents. The anti-inflammatory activity of ethyl acetate extract of V. Paradoxa (VPEE) was evaluated by use of the carrageenan-induced paw oedema model in rats. Moreover, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was induced by injection of Freund's Completed Adjuvant (FCA) into the subplantar surface of the hind paw of the male Wistar rats. Paw volume was measured plethysmometrically. Joint swelling was measured using electronic vernier caliper. Hot plate test was used to assess the effect of VPEE on hyperalgesia while open field was used to assess the locomotors activity. The relative weight of spleen, liver and thymus was obtained as well as some haematological parameters. Tibiotarsal joint was extracted for histopathology under light microscope. Chemical analysis was carried out by high resolution mass spectrometry and one and two-dimensional NMR techniques. LC-MS analysis of the EtOAc extract revealed the presence of a new triterpenoid and several known compounds. The structure of the novel compound was elucidated by means of LC-MS and selected 1-D and 2d-NMR experiments. The biological effects of ethyl acetate (VPEE), methanol (VPME) and water extracts (VPAE) of Vitellaria paradoxa were tested on carrageenan model of acute inflammation and FCA-induced rheumatoid arthritis animal model. In the carrageenan-induced inflammation, VPEE (150mg/kg) significant (66.67%) inhibited the first (after 1h) and the second phase (4-6h) of edema formation. On the Complete Freund's adjuvant-induced rheumatoid arthritis, VPEE at the same dose showed a significantly protective effect. On days 19(th) to 28(th) of treatment, the maximum inflammatory percentage was between 9.60 to 8.91% for the VPEE compared to 30.91 to 24.29% for the controls. All the extracts significantly reduced the score of arthritis but the maximal reduction was obtained with the VPEE on day 24(th) of the experimentation. The altered haematological parameters in the arthritic rats were significantly recovered to near normal by the treatment with VPEE at the dose of 150mg/kg. Further histological studies revealed the anti-arthritic activity by preventing cartilage destruction of the arthritic joints of adjuvant arthritic rats. The spleen hypertrophy induced by the FCA was also significantly inhibited. These findings provide pharmacological basis for the application of the VPEE in inflammatory disorders. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.08.014
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    ABSTRACT: GB-2a is a I3-naringenin-II8-eriodictyol compound isolated from Garcinia gardneriana (Planchon & Triana) Zappi, a plant used in folk medicine for the treatment of skin disorders. In the search for new depigmenting agents, this study was carried out to investigate the in vitro effects of GB-2a isolated from Garcinia gardneriana (Planchon & Triana) Zappi in B16F10 melanoma cells. The effects of GB-2a were evaluated through determination of melanin biosynthesis in B16F10 melanoma cells in comparison with the reference drug kojic acid (500µM). In parallel, the GB-2a effect was assessed in a cell viability assay. Mushroom tyrosinase activity assays were conducted to verify the effect of this enzyme. In order to ascertain the nature of enzyme inhibition on tyrosinase, kinetics analysis of the GB-2a was performed with l-tyrosine and l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) substrates. The results showed that GB-2a biflavonoid significantly inhibited the melanin content, without reducing cell viability. GB-2a also showed a strong antityrosinase activity in the mushroom tyrosinase assay. GB-2a inhibited the tyrosinase activity, exerting a mixed inhibition. For the l-tyrosine substrate the inhibition was in non-competitive mode and for l-DOPA it was in uncompetitive mode. GB-2a biflavonoid promoted inhibition on tyrosinase activity and reduced melanin biosynthesis in B16F10 cells, which suggests great potential for medical and cosmetic uses as a depigmenting agent. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.08.015
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    ABSTRACT: Leonotis leonurus, locally commonly known as "wilde dagga" (=wild cannabis), is traditionally used as a decoction, both topically and orally, in the treatment of a wide variety of conditions such as haemorrhoids, eczema, skin rashes, boils, itching, muscular cramps, headache, epilepsy, chest infections, constipation, spider and snake bites. The dried leaves and flowers are also smoked to relieve epilepsy. The leaves and flowers are reported to produce a mild euphoric effect when smoked and have been said to have a similar, although less potent, psychoactive effect to cannabis. To amalgamate the botanical aspects, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, biological activity, toxicity and commercial aspects of the scientific literature available on Leonotis leonurus. An extensive review of the literature from 1900 to 2015 was carried out. Electronic databases including Scopus(®), SciFinder®, Pubmed(®), Google Scholar(®) and Google(®) were used as data sources. All abstracts, full-text articles and books written in English were considered. The phytochemistry of particularly the non-volatile constituents of Leonotis leonurus has been comprehensively investigated due to interest generated as a result of the wide variety of biological effects reported for this plant. More than 50 compounds have been isolated and characterised. Leonotis leonurus contains mainly terpenoids, particularly labdane diterpenes, the major diterpene reported is marrubiin. Various other compounds have been reported by some authors to have been isolated from the plant, including, in the popular literature only, the mildly psychoactive alkaloid, leonurine. Leonurine has however, never been reported by any scientific analysis of the extracts of L. leonurus. Despite the publication of various papers on L. leonurus, there is still, however, the need for definitive research and clarification of other compounds, including alkaloids and essential oils from L. leonurus, as well as from other plant parts, such as the roots which are extensively used in traditional medicine. The traditional use by smoking also requires further investigation as to how the chemistry and activity are affected by this form of administration. Research has proven the psychoactive effects of the crude extract of L. leonurus, but confirmation of the presence of psychoactive compounds, as well as isolation and characterisation, is still required. Deliberate adulteration of L. leonurus with synthetic cannabinoids has been reported recently, in an attempt to facilitate the marketing of these illegal substances, highlighting the necessity for refinement of appropriate quality control processes to ensure safety and quality. Much work is therefore still required on the aspect of quality control to ensure safety, quality and efficacy of the product supplied to patients, as this plant is widely used in South Africa as a traditional medicine. Commercially available plant sources provide a viable option for phytochemical research, particularly with regard to the appropriate validation of the plant material (taxonomy) in order to identify and delimit closely related species such as L. leonurus and L. nepetifolia which are very similar in habit. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.08.013
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    ABSTRACT: Indigenous plants have played a key role in the treatment of human diseases. This study was aimed to report the indigenous medicinal plants from Bahawalnagar district of Southern Punjab, Pakistan to document the important medicinal plants and herbal preparations. Rapid appraisal approach (RAA) involved direct interaction with local people and observations during the field visits; was used to collect data during March to June and August to December 2012. A total of 63 plants were reported to be effective for ailments treatment in the local healthcare system of the study area, belonging to 56 genera and 34 families. Among families Fabaceae was the predominant by contributing 09 species. Plants knowledge is not uniformly distributed among the 488 informants interviewed by mean of questionnaire. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.08.011
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    ABSTRACT: Complementary and alternative medicine has been increasingly used to treat chronic illnesses, such as diabetes mellitus. However, various limitations in terms of their application and efficacies exist. Furthermore, there is still much to be done to discover the right herbal medicine for diabetes. This paper aims to evaluate previous herbal studies on the management of diabetes mellitus, to address their strengths and weaknesses and propose a general framework for future studies. Data sources such as PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, SpringerLink, and Wiley were searched, limited to Iran, using 36 search terms such as herbal, traditional, medicine, and phytopharmacy in combination with diabetes and related complications. Reviewed articles were evaluated regarding the use of botanical nomenclature and included information on (1) identity of plants and plant parts used, (2) the processing procedure, and (3) the extraction process. The main outcomes were extracted and then surveyed in terms of the efficacies of herbs in the management of diabetes mellitus. Then a comparative study was performed between Iranian and non-Iranian studies with respect to herbs best studied in Iran. Of the 82 herbs studied in Iran, only six herbs were endemic and 19 were studied in detail. Although most of the reviewed herbs were found to decrease the level of blood glucose and/or glycated hemoglobin in both Iranian and non-Iranian studies, information on their pharmacological mechanisms is scarce. However, the level of HbA1C was measured in a limited number of clinical trials or animal studies. Available information on both short- and long-term use of studied herbs on diabetes related complications and functions of involved organs as well as comorbid depression and/or simultaneous changes in lifesyle is also insufficient. Furthermore, little or no information on their phytochemical, toxicological, and herb-drug interaction properties is available. It is worth noting that the efficacy of the reviewed herbs has been studied scarcely in both humans and animals regarding both Iranian and non-Iranian studies. A significant number of reviewed articles failed to cite the scientific name of herbs and include information on the processing procedure and the extraction process. Treatment of diabetes mellitus as a multifactorial disease using herbal medicines requires a comprehensive approach. In order to discover the right herbal medicine for the management of diabetes many other important factors than the levels of BG, HbA1C and insulin should be considered. According to our criteria, all the reviewed herbs suffered from inadequate investigation in human, animal and in vitro models in this respect, whereas they are worth investigating further. However, more research on endemic plants and the traditional history of herbal medicine is warranted. In our opinion, the pharmacological, toxicological, and phytochemical information should be obtained before clinical trials. Furthermore, information such as botanical scientific nomenclature, side effects, and toxicity will improve the quality and validity of publications in herbal research. In particular, designing a database covering all valid information about herbs and/or diseases will decrease unnecessary costs and increase the efficiency of research. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.08.010
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    ABSTRACT: In the 1990's, a Belgian cohort of more than 100 patients reported cases of Aristolochic Acid Nephropathy (AAN). This progressive renal and interstitial fibrosis, frequently associated with urothelial malignancies, was consecutive to the Chinese-herbs based slimming capsules intake where a plant Stephania tetrandra S. Moore was replaced by a highly genotoxic Aristolochia species. 70% of the Belgian patients evolved into end-stage renal disease, requiring dialysis or renal transplantation. Furthermore the prevalence of upper urinary tract carcinoma was found alarmingly high in these patients. The Aristolochia adulteration was blamed for the intoxication cases and, to the best of our knowledge, the prescription itself has not been further investigated. This work proposes to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of Aristolochia and Magnolia traditional aqueous decoctions and their association. The cytotoxicity of extracts has been assessed by a MTT cell proliferation assay and the genotoxicity by measuring the presence of γ-H2AX, a phosphorylated histone associated with DNA damages. Treating cells for 24h with a mixture 1:1 of Magnolia officinalis and Aristolochia baetica decoctions led to an increase in the production of γ-H2AX. This genotoxic potentiation warrants further studies but may lead to an explanatory factor for the "Chinese herb nephropathy" cases. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.07.045
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    ABSTRACT: Khat (Catha edulis) contains cathinone, an active principal that is customarily used as a psychostimulant that wards off fatigue and to some extent used as an aphrodisiac. To investigate effects of escalating doses of cathinone on hormone expression by different anterior pituitary cell types using specific antibodies. Eleven vervet monkeys (6 males and 5 females) divided into tests (n=9) and controls (n=2) were used. Animals were allocated as group I (saline controls), group II (0.8mg/kg), group III (3.2mg/kg) and group IV (6.4mg/kg) of cathinone. All treatments were via oral route at alternate days of each week. At the end of 4- month treatment phase, GnRH agonist (ZOLADEX) was administered to group II (low dose) and group IV (high dose) alongside cathinone for 2 additional weeks. High cathinone dose at long-term exposure caused proliferation of gonadotrophs but decrease in lactotrophs and corticotrophs in anterior pituitary sections of animals while effect of low dose on these cells was insignificant. Subsequent GnRH agonist co-treatment with low and high cathinone doses enhanced gonadotroph proliferation but no change on decline of lactotrophs and corticotrophs. We believe that there was a possible potentiation of cathinone on pituitary hormone synthesis thereby influencing reproductive function. Suppression of corticotrophic and lactotrophic functions suggest lowering of stress levels and modulation of reproductive function based on dose level and chronicity of exposure. The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that cathinone interferes with pituitary cell integrity and consequently target organs, but further studies are required to address the precise mechanism underlying this phenomenon. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.08.007
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    ABSTRACT: Lamivudine associated mutation and resistance reduces the effect of anti-hepatitis B virus. Pharmacological studies in cell and animal model suggest that Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) have anti-hepatitis B virus effect. Observational studies offer mixed results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between the use of CHMs and outcome in patients with chronic hepatitis B receiving lamivudine treatment and further estimate the association of Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-Sang (JWXYS) use with mortality of those patients. We conducted a cohort study among patients age 20-90 years within a National Health Insurance Healthcare system. Information on the use of CHMs and covariates were obtained from Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the hazard ratio and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for all-cause mortality among CHMs users compared to nonusers. Among 1,037 patients studied from 2004 to 2011, median follow-up time 5.3 years and 88 deaths were identified. During the study period, 49% of patients used CHMs and the median duration of use was 2.4 years. We found that significant difference on all-cause mortality among CHMs users (aHR =0.45, 95% CI: 0.27-0.76) compared to CHMs nonusers. All-cause mortality also differed by JWXYS use (aHR=0.26, 95% CI: 0.08-0.83). This study reveals that the use of CHMs may lower the risk of death in patients with chronic hepatitis B receiving lamivudine treatment. Further randomized-controlled trials are required to validate these findings. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.08.002