Journal of ethnopharmacology Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: Elsevier

Journal description

Current impact factor: 2.94

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 2.939
2012 Impact Factor 2.755
2011 Impact Factor 3.014
2010 Impact Factor 2.466
2009 Impact Factor 2.322
2008 Impact Factor 2.26
2007 Impact Factor 2.049
2006 Impact Factor 1.625
2005 Impact Factor 1.554
2004 Impact Factor 1.42
2003 Impact Factor 1.269
2002 Impact Factor 1.188
2001 Impact Factor 0.78
2000 Impact Factor 0.575
1999 Impact Factor 0.687
1998 Impact Factor 0.522
1997 Impact Factor 0.578
1996 Impact Factor 0.562
1995 Impact Factor 0.366
1994 Impact Factor 0.5
1993 Impact Factor 0.507
1992 Impact Factor 0.272

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 2.99
Cited half-life 6.50
Immediacy index 0.28
Eigenfactor 0.02
Article influence 0.50
ISSN 1872-7573

Publisher details


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    • Permitted deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate, may be required to comply with embargo periods of 12 months to 48 months .
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    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
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    • NIH Authors articles will be submitted to PubMed Central after 12 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 18/10/2013
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • Hua Fang, Xiaohong Hu, Meiling Wang, Wencheng Wan, Qiaohong Yang, Xiaosheng Sun, Qiong Gu, Xinxin Gao, Zhengtao Wang, Lianquan Gu, C-Y Oliver Chen, Xiaoyong Wei
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    ABSTRACT: Dendrobium aurantiacum var. denneanumis widespread in southern China, locally known as 'Shihu', 'Huangcao' or 'Fengdou', has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine for antipyretic, immunomodulatory, anti-aging effects and eye benefiting. To investigate the effects of gigantol extracted from the stem of Dendrobium aurantiacum var. denneanum on the formation of galactose-induced cataractogenesis and the potential mechanisms underlying these effects. Cataract lens models were induced by d-galactose both in vitro and in vivo. The transparency of the rat lenses in vitro and in vivo was observed with an anatomical microscope and a slit lamp microscope. The differential protein and action targets of gigantol were determined and compared among the control group, model group, and gigantol group using two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry(MS). Enzyme kinetics was used to show the ability of gigantol to respress aldose reductase (AR) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Quantitative real-time PCR(RT-qPCR). was used to detect repression of the expression of AR and iNOS genes. Molecular docking and dynamic simulation were used to predict the interaction points and combination patterns between gigantol, AR, and iNOS. Gigantol was found to prevent galactose-induced damage to the rat lenses both in vitro and in vivo, to delay lens turbidity, and to keep the lenses transparent. Differential proteomes, MS, and RT-qPCR showed AR and iNOS to be the target proteins of gigantol. Gigantol reduced the galactose-induced AR and iNOS mRNA expression by 51.2 and 60.9%, respectively. The IC50 of gigantol for inhibition of AR and iNOS activities were 65.67μg/mL and 8.768μg/mL, respectively. Gigantol-AR binding sites were Trp111,His110, Tyr48, and Trp20, and gigantol-iNOS binding sites were Ile195 and Gln257. The main forms of interaction were hydrophobic forces, hydrogen bonds, and Van der Waals forces. Gigantol extracted from Dendrobium aurantiacum var.denneanum was found to inhibit galactose-induced formation of cataracts through repression of the gene expression and activity of AR and iNOS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.06.034
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    ABSTRACT: Simiao pill is one of the most frequently prescriptions in traditional Chinese medicine to treat hyperuricemia and gout. This study was to investigate the protective effects of Simiao pill on renal glomerular injury in a rat model of high fructose intake. Sprague-Dawley male rats were given 10% fructose in drinking water and standard laboratory chow for 4 weeks to induce hyperuricemia and metabolic syndrome. Then fructose-fed animals were randomly divided into four groups receiving water, Simiao pill (78.87 and 157.74mg/kg) and allopurinol (5mg/kg) daily for next 6 weeks, respectively. Serum levels of uric acid, creatinine, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, blood urea nitrogen, insulin, as well as urinary albumin were measured. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was carried out. Kidney pathological changes were detected using periodic-acid schiff-stained (PAS) staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Glomerular protein levels of nephrin, podocin, CD2-associated protein (CD2AP), interleukin (IL)-1β, sirtuin 1 (Sirt1), nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) and pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome were measured by Western blot. Simiao pill effectively restored high fructose-induced hyperuricemia and metabolic syndrome in rats. Simiao pill significantly increased protein levels of nephrin, podocin and CD2AP in renal glomeruli, improved renal inflammatory cell infiltration into interstitium and glomerular injury in high fructose-fed rats with reduction of urine albumin levels. Furthermore, Simiao pill up-regulated Sirt1 protein levels and suppressed NF-κB/NLRP3 inflammasome activation to reduce IL-1β in renal glomeruli of high fructose-fed rats. The renal protective effects of Simiao pill may be associated with up-regulation of Sirt1 expression and suppression of NF-κB/NLRP3 inflammasome activation to reduce renal glomerular injury in high fructose-fed rats with metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.06.015
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    ABSTRACT: Frankincense (FRA), Ruxiang, Is the resin of Boswellia carterii Birdw and B. bhaw-dajiana Birdw which has been used for centuries as fORMULAS TO IMPROVE THE CIRCULATION AND TO RELIEVE PAIN AGAINST CARBUNCLES. STIR-FRIED Frankincense (sfF) AND VINEGAR pROCESsED Frankincense (vpf) ARE TWO MAJOR PROCESsED Frankincense, AND THE PROCESSING pROCEDURES REPORTEDLY eNHANCE THE CURATIVE efficacy oR rEDUCE THE SIDE eFfECTS OF fra. This PAPER DESCRIBES THE COMPARISONS IN PLASMA PHARMACOKINETIC BEHAVIORS oF 11-KETO-β-boswellic aCID (kba) AND 3-ACETYL-11-KETO-β-boswellic aCID (akba) IN fra AND ITS PROCESsED PRODUCTS, aND THEIR EFfECTS ON COAGULATION fACTORS AND BLOoD CLOTTING tetrachoric, using aN ACUTE COLD BLOoD-STASIS ANIMAL MODEL AFTER ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF fra, sfF, AND vpf. For pharmacokinetic study, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three groups, including group FRA, group SFF and group VPF. And the plasma samples were analyzed by HPLC. For study of anticoagulatory effect, SD rats were randomly divided into six groups, including control, acute cold blood-stasis model, Fu-fang-dan-shen tablet- (0.75g/kg), FRA-, SFF-, and VPF-treated (2.7g/kg) groups, respectively. The serum contents of thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT), d-dimer (d-D), and prostacyclin (PGI2) of each group were measured by ELISA. The values of prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and fibrinogen (FIB) were also assessed by hematology analyzer. Significantly increased levels of Cmax, AUC, T1/2, and MRT were found in rats treated with the processed products. In addition, decreased levels of d-D and TAT and increased contents of PGI2 were observed in rats given FRA and its processed products, compared with that of the model group. Moreover, VPF improved anticoagulation more than SFF in the animals. The observed improvement of anticoagulation by processed FRA may result from the increased absorption and bioavailability of triterpenoids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.06.029
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    ABSTRACT: Spilanthes africana is a plant used in several countries for the treatment of toothache, malaria, fracture, pneumonia, and dysentery. In order to establish the safety of aerial part of the plant extract, the acute and sub-acute toxicity of the aqueous extract of this plant has been evaluated in male and female young rats. In acute toxicity, the effects of a single oral dose (2000mg/kg and 5000mg/kg) of the lyophilised aqueous extract have been determined. General behaviour, adverse effects and mortality were determined for up to fourteen days. In sub-acute treatment, the effects of the extract in daily single oral administration at the doses of 250, 500 and 1000mg/kg during 28 days were evaluated. One group treated at the dose of 1000mg/kg for 28 days was let without treatment during 14 days to assess the possible reversibility of the harmful effects of the extract. Body weight, food and water intakes, biochemical and haematological parameters were recorded. Histopathologycal examination of liver, kidney and lungs were assessed. In acute study, a single administration of the aqueous extract at the doses of 2000mg/kg or 5000mg/kg did not induce mortality. Thus, the LD50 of the aqueous extract of Spilanthes africana has been estimated higher than 5000mg/kg. Four hours after administration of the extract, a reduction of the mobility, sensitivity to the noise and to touch has been observed. In sub-acute study, the administration of the extract during 28 days at all doses didn't significantly modify the body weight. On the haematological analysis, a decrease of the rate of monocytes and a rise of lymphocytes counts were observed among the male group. In both sexes, it appeared a decrease of the rate of granulocytes two weeks after stopping the treatment. It has also been observed in different groups among the females, an increase of the mean corpuscular content and the mean concentration in haemoglobin as well as an increase of platelets. A significant decrease of transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, triglycerides, and a significant increase of total bilirubin compared to the normal group has been observed. There was a significant decrease in renal catalase in both sexes compared with different control groups. Besides, a significant increase of the kidney rates of glutathion and malondialdehyde have also been observed in the female treated at the doses of 1000mg/kg. Histopathological analysis has shown vascular congestion and leukocyte infiltrations in the liver of animals treated at the dose of 1000mg/kg. This congestion has been marked in satellite group. In the kidney female satellite group, tubular clarifications have been observed and disappear when stopping the treatment. These results show that the aqueous extract of S. africana given by the oral route is slightly toxic. However in sub-acute treatment, higher doses could provoke functional and structural changes in the organism which could in part reversible. Thus the extract should be used with caution. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.06.035
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    ABSTRACT: Sokoto is known for its diverse traditional medicinal wealth and international market of traditional medicines in Africa. However, information of the folk knowledge, especially for the treatment of diabetes, is not documented. This survey identified and documented the information on traditional medicinal plants used by Hausa-Fulani community of Sokoto for the treatment of diabetes. Demographic data and information about the medicinal plants were collected via administration of semi-structured oral questionnaires. Willing herbal medical practitioners/traditional healers were interviewed. The medicinal plants mentioned by herbalists were collected and authenticated by a taxonomist and the voucher specimens were preserved. Fifty one informants across the state divulged information on traditional medicinal plants and practices used in diabetes and revealed 54 species, belonging to 33 families, with Cassia sieberiana being cited the most (19 times) and ranked first (39%). Azadirachta indica, Ficus exasperata and Schwenckia americana ranked second (15%), each cited 8 times. The survey documented the rich wealth of knowledge and usage of plants for the treatment of diabetes in Sokoto. The paper will not only serve as a source of information but will also help to make the knowledge accessible for further drug screening and development, and at the same time underlines the need for biodiversity conservation of this traditional wealth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.06.014
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    ABSTRACT: Marsilea quadrifolia Linn. (MQ) has been used for insomnia and epileptic disorders in traditional Indian medicine. The present study is to isolate the active component responsible for antiepileptic property of MQ by evaluating its ability to minimize the reactive oxidative damage in brain due to chronic epilepsy in rat. 1- Triacontanol cerotate (1TAC) was isolated after chromatography on a silica gel from dried petroleum ether fraction of methanolic extract of MQ. Acute oral toxicity studies of 1TAC were carried out and efficacy of 1TAC on malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) production in different brain areas of chronic pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced epileptic rats were evaluated. Our results showed that PTZ-kindled chronic epileptic rats had an increase MDA and decreased GSH concentration in the frontal cortex as well as hippocampus, compared to the normal control. MDA and GSH concentrations in those brain areas were normalized after treatment with sodium valproate (SV) in 200mgkg(-1) bw; as well as 1TAC in 40 and 80mgkg(-1) bw doses. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is known to worsen epileptogenesis. The isolated component 1TAC which reduced the reactive oxidative damage in hippocampus and frontal cortex of PTZ kindled rats could be responsible for antiepileptic property of MQ. Its action is found to be dose dependent, with 80mgkg(-1) bw showing even better efficacy than 200mgkg(-1) bw of SV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.06.020
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    ABSTRACT: Acupuncture attenuates neuronal damages following ischemia. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the beneficial effects of acupuncture on hypoxia-ischemia induced brain damages in neonatal rats. Male postnatal 7days rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: sham control (sham), hypoxia-ischemia (HI), and HI plus acupuncture treatment (HI+Acu). The rats in HI and HI+Acu groups were submitted to model of neonatal HI, established by occluding the left common carotid artery followed by a 3.5h period of hypoxia (8% O2-92% N2). At 24h after HI, animals were stimulated by acupuncture treatment once a day and the treatment continued during 4 weeks, 5 days/week. Behavioral functions, learning and memory ability, and body weight were observed at different time-points after HI. DNA fragmentation assay were performed with TUNEL staining to evaluate apoptosis and expression levels of mitochondrial Bcl-2, mitochondrial Bax, Cleaved caspase 3, Cleaved caspase 9 in the damaged hippocampus were detected by western blotting 28 days following HI. GDNF, BDNF levels in hippocampus were also determined. The results showed that acupuncture significantly promoted growth and development, improved neurobehavioral function, learning and memory ability after 20 days' treatment. Furthermore, we obtained one interesting finding that acupuncture attenuated cellular apoptosis and up-regulated GDNF and BDNF levels in hippocampus. All of these results suggest that acupuncture as a potential treatment may exert neuroprotective effects via inhibiting cellular apoptosis, increased GDNF and BDNF expression levels in rat hippocampus experiencing HI. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.06.032
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    ABSTRACT: In traditional Chinese medicine, Gentiana macrophylla Pall have been prescribed for the treatment of pain and inflammatory conditions. In addition, it is a common Tibetan medicinal herb used for the treatment of tonsillitis, urticaria, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), while the flowers of Gentiana macrophylla Pall have been traditionally treated as an anti-inflammatory agent to clear heat in Mongolian medicine. The secoiridoid glycosides and their derivatives are the primary active components of Gmacrophylla and have been demonstrated to be effective as anti-inflammatory agents. Solvent extraction and D101 macroporous resin columns were employed to concentratethe gentiopicroside. Gentiopicroside cytotoxicity was assessed by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay; the toxicity of gentiopicroside in chondrocytes was reconfirmed using Hoechst staining. Western blotting, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry were utilized to explore the protective effects and mechanisms of gentiopicroside prevents interleukin-1 beta induced inflammation response in rat articular chondrocyte. The MTT assay demonstrated that 50, 500, and 1500μg/mL of gentiopicroside exhibited no significant toxicity to chondrocytes (P>0.05) after 24h. Using immunohistochemistry, ELISA, RT-PCR, Western blot method to explore the protective effect and mechanism of gentiopicroside on chondrocytes induced by IL-1β. The results showed some pathways of IL-1β signal transduction were inhibited by gentiopicroside in rat chondrocytes: p38, ERK and JNK. Meanwhile, gentiopicroside showed inhibition in the IL-1β-induced release of MMPs while increasing Collagen type II expression. The current study demonstrated that gentiopicroside exhibited a potent protective effect on IL-1β induced inflammation response in rat articular chondrocyte. Thus, gentiopicroside could be a potential therapeutic strategy for treatment of OA. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.06.031
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    ABSTRACT: Ethnopharmacological relevance Tripterygium wilfordi (lei gong teng; Thunder of God Vine), which belongs to the Celastraceae family, has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis. Celastrol is a bioactive compound isolated from Tripterygium wilfordii. Aim of the study We investigated whether celastrol suppressed binding of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to myeloid differentiation factor 2 (MD2), thereby downregulating Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation in mouse primary macrophages. Materials and methods Cytokine expression was determined by polymerase chain reaction analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in bone marrow-derived primary macrophages (BMDMs). The kinase activity of tank-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) was examined by a luciferase reporter assay and an in vitro kinase assay. LPS binding to MD2 was examined by an in vitro binding assay and confocal microscopy analysis. Results Celastrol reduced LPS-induced expression of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, and IL-1β, at both the mRNA and protein levels in BMDMs. Celastrol suppressed LPS binding to MD2, as shown by the in vitro binding assay, whereas it did not inhibit TBK1. In addition, co-localization of LPS with MD2 in BMDMs was blocked by celastrol. The inhibitory effects of celastrol on LPS binding to MD2 were reversed by thiol donors (N-acetyl-L-cysteine and dithiothreitol), suggesting that the thiol reactivity of celastrol contributes to its inhibitory effects on TLR4 activation in macrophages. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that celastrol suppresses TLR4 activation through the inhibition of LPS binding to the TLR4/MD2 complex. These results provide a novel mechanism of action by which celastrol contributes to the anti-inflammatory activity of Tripterygium wilfordii. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.06.028
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    ABSTRACT: Turmeric rhizome is a traditional herbal medicine, which has been widely used as a remedy to stop bleeding on fresh cuts and for wound healing by the rural and tribal population of India. To validate scientific and therapeutic application of turmeric rhizomes to stop bleeding on fresh cuts and its role in wound healing process. The water extracts of thoroughly scrubbed and washed turmeric rhizomes viz., Curcuma aromatica Salisb., Curcuma longa L., Curcuma caesia Roxb., Curcuma amada Roxb. and Curcuma zedoria (Christm.) Roscoe. were subjected to salting out and dialysis. The dialyzed crude enzyme fractions (CEFs) were assessed for proteolytic activity using casein as substrate and was also confirmed by caseinolytic zymography. Its coagulant activity and fibrinogenolytic activity were assessed using human citrated plasma and fibrinogen respectively. The type of protease(s) in CEFs was confirmed by inhibition studies using specific protease inhibitors. The CEFs of Curcuma aromatica, Curcuma longa and Curcuma caesia showed 1.89, 1.21 and 1.07 folds higher proteolytic activity respectively compared to papain. In contrast to these, Curcuma amada and Curcuma zedoria exhibited moderate proteolytic activity. CEFs showed low proteolytic activities compared to trypsin. The proteolytic activities of CEFs were confirmed by caseinolytic zymography. The CEFs of Curcuma aromatica, Curcuma longa and Curcuma caesia showed complete hydrolysis of Aα, Bβ and γ subunits of human fibrinogen, while Curcuma amada and Curcuma zedoria showed partial hydrolysis. The CEFs viz., Curcuma aromatica, Curcuma longa, Curcuma caesia, Curcuma amada and Curcuma zedoria exhibited strong procoagulant activity by reducing the human plasma clotting time from 172s (Control) to 66s, 84s 88s, 78s and 90s respectively. The proteolytic activity of Curcuma aromatica, Curcuma longa, Curcuma caesia and Curcuma amada was inhibited (>82%) by PMSF, suggesting the possible presence of a serine protease(s). However, Curcuma zedoria showed significant inhibition (60%) against IAA and moderate inhibition (30%) against PMSF, indicating the presence of cysteine and serine protease(s). The CEFs of turmeric species exhibited strong procoagulant activity associated with fibrinogenolytic activity. This study provides the scientific credence to turmeric in its propensity to stop bleeding and wound healing process practiced by traditional Indian medicine. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.06.018
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    ABSTRACT: This study provides ethnopharmacological knowledge of traditional herbal healers from Shiraz and Fasa in Fars region (Iran) for treatment of diabetes mellitus. Field surveys were carried out during September 2013- February 2014 in Shiraz and Fasa. The data were collected through structured questionnaire in Persian. All plant species recorded for the treatment of diabetes mellitus were sampled. Samples were identified by a botanist and obtained a voucher specimens number and deposited in the Shiraz School of Pharmacy Herbarium. The information such as scientific name, family, local name, medicinal use(s), parts used and preparation method were provided. Literature review on available data about antidiabetic effect of the addressed plant species was done to highlight gaps in current knowledge and propose the next steps. In total, 50 informants were interviewed. Totally 39 plant species were recommended by herbal healers, of which 28 are native to Iran. The most recommended plants for diabetes were Trigonella foenum-graecam (28 Attars), Securigera securidaca (22 Attars), Vaccinium arctostaphylos (18 Attars). The most abundant families were Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Lamiaceae and Apiaceae. Plant parts used were mainly seeds, flowers, leaves and fruits. The most usual preparation methods were decoction, powder and distillation. Around 44% of all reported plants for diabetes are also in use for obesity management CONCLUSIONS: This study provided ethnopharmacological knowledge from Fars region in Iran for a specific disease and we have introduced important plant species which are recommended by local herbal healers for diabetes mellitus. For 23% of reported plants, clinical studies approved antidiabetic properties and for 61%, animal studies approved antidiabetic activity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.06.017
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    ABSTRACT: Saussurea involucrata Matsum. & Koidz. is an endangered species of the Asteraceae family, growing in the high mountains of central Asia. It has been, and is, widely used in traditional Uyghur, Mongolian and Kazakhstan medicine as well as in Traditional Chinese Medicine as Tianshan Snow Lotus (Chinese: ). In traditional medical theory, S. involucrata can promote blood circulation, thereby alleviating all symptoms associated with poor circulation. It also reputedly eliminates cold and dampness from the body, diminishes inflammation, invigorates, and strengthens Yin and Yang. It has long been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, cough with cold, stomachache, dysmenorrhea, and altitude sickness in Uyghur and Chinese medicine. To comprehensively summarize the miscellaneous research that has been done regarding the botany, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, biological activity, toxicology of S. involucrata. An extensive review of the literature was carried out. Apart from different electronic databases including SciFinder, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), ScienceDirect that were sourced for information, abstracts, full-text articles and books written in English and Chinese, including those traditional records tracing back to the Qing Dynasty. Pharmacopoeia of China and other local herbal records in Uighur, Mongolian and Kazakhstan ethnomedicines were investigated and compared for pertinent information. The phytochemistry of S. involucrata has been comprehensively investigated. More than 70 compounds have been isolated and identified; they include phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, coumarins, lignans, sesquiterpenes, steroids, ceramides, polysaccharides. Scientific studies on the biological activity of S. involucrata are equally numerous. The herb has been shown to have anti-neoplastic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-oxidative, anti-fatigue, anti-aging, anti-hypoxic, neuroprotective and immunomodulating effects. Many have shown correlations to the traditional clinical applications in Traditional Chinese Medicine and medicines. The possible mechanisms of S. involucrata in treating various cancers are revealed in the article, these include inhibition of cancer cells by affecting their growth, adhesion, migration, aggregation and invasion, inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling in cancer cells, hindrance of cancer cell proliferation, causing cytotoxicity to cancer cells and promoting expression of tumor suppressor genes. Dosage efficacy is found to be generally concentration- and time-dependent. However, studies on the correlation between particular chemical constituents and specific bioactivities are limited. In this review, we have documented the existing traditional uses of Saussurea involucrata and summarized recent research into the phytochemistry and pharmacology of Saussurea involucrata. Many of the traditional uses have been validated by phytochemical and modern pharmacological studies but there are still some areas where the current knowledge could be improved. Although studies have confirmed that Saussurea involucrata has a broad range of bioactivities, further in-depth studies on the exact bioactive molecules and the mechanism of action are expected. Whether we should use this herb independently or in combination deserves to be clarified. The exact quality control as well as the toxicology studies is necessary to guarantee the stability and safety of the clinic use. The sustainable use of this endangered resource was also addressed. In conclusion, this review was anticipated to highlight the importance of Saussurea involucrata and provides some directions for the future development of this plant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.06.033
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    ABSTRACT: The plant species Ageratina pichinchensis (Schauer) R.M.King & H.Rob. (Asteraceae) in a wild plant native to Mexico that is utilized in traditional medicine for the treatment of skin problems and for mouth ulcers. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and therapeutic safety of a phytopharmaceutical elaborated with a depigmented hexane-ethyl acetate extract of A. pichinchensis at a concentration of 5% in patients with a clinical condition of Minor Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (MiRAS). We conducted a double-blind, randomized, and controlled pilot study in which the experimental treatment was a phytopharmaceutical elaborated with a unpigmented hexane-ethyl acetate extract of A. pichinchensis at a 5% concentration and, as control treatment, we utilized Triamcinolone at 0.1%. Study participants were patients with a diagnosis of MiRAS, elderly males and females, with a disease evolution of no >3 days. Lesion size was measured by means of a tracing sheet and pain, by the Visual analogue scale (VAS). Output variables comprised clinical effectiveness, treatment adherence, therapeutic failure, and therapeutic success. Fifty six patients participated in the study and we distributed these into two study groups (28 in each group). The results obtained did not show statistically significant differences between the experimental and the control treatments. Among patients treated with the A. pichinchensis extract, the time required for achieving the absence of pain was 4.0 days, while that of the control treatment was 4.1 days. In patients treated with A. pichinchensis, the time necessary for healing was 4.5 days and for the Triamcinolone 0.1%-treated group, this was 4.7 days. Greater clinical effectiveness was evidenced on days 2, 3, and 4 of treatment. During the first 7 follow-up days, there was clinical effectiveness in 92.8% of experimental-group and in 89.2% of control-group patients. At the end of the study, 100% therapeutic effectiveness was able to be scored. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.06.021
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    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. This disease is a progressive and irreversible brain disorder accompanied with severe learning and memory impairment. This study investigated whether treatment with standardized Lycii Fructus Extract (LFE) would improve the cognitive function and the pathological features of AD in 3xTg-AD mice. Lycii Fructus is a fruit of Lycium chinense Miller and widely distributed in East Asia and has been used traditionally for anti-aging purposes. The cognitive function of 3xTg-AD mice was assessed using the Morris water maze test. The levels of the amyloid beta deposits and NeuN in the hippocampus were evaluated with immunohistochemistry. Brain neurotrophic derived factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) expressions were examined by western blot analysis. LFE treatment significantly ameliorated learning and memory deficits in AD mice, as shown by increased time spent in the target zone during probe tests. In addition, LFE significantly decreased Aβ deposits, increased NeuN-positive cells, and upregulated the expression of BDNF and TrkB in the 3xTg AD mice. The present study suggests that LFE treatment can be a useful strategy for treating memory impairment induced by several neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.06.026
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    ABSTRACT: The leaves of Phaleria nisidai Kaneh. (Thymelaeaceae) are brewed into a tea commonly used as a tonic, strengthening beverage and immune enhancer in Palau, Micronesia. Recently, the leaves of P. nisidai have been shown to contain toxic daphnane diterpene esters which may pose a public health threat to Palauans. This project documents the use frequency, preparation and side effects of Phaleria nisidai. The content of daphnane diterpene esters in aqueous and methanol extracts and infusions prepared by healers in Palau is compared to assess the risk of daphnane ingestion associated with traditional consumption. Quantitative results are correlated with an in vitro assessment of the immunomodulating activity of the extracts. Research participants, comprising traditional healers and laypeople, were interviewed concerning use patterns and side effects of Phaleria nisidai. Several traditional healers prepared and provided boiled tea samples for chemical analysis. Leaves were collected and methanolic and aqueous extractions were prepared in the laboratory. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were cultured with various concentrations of methanol and aqueous leaf extracts and their output of IFNγ was measured using ELISA. Cell proliferation was also assessed using the MTT assay. The concentration of selected daphnane diterpene esters in healer-prepared infusions, lab methanol and lab aqueous extracts was quantified using ultraperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-triple quadrupole detection (UPLC-MS-TQD). Through structured interviews it was determined that Phaleria nisidai tea was used frequently, with many participants drinking it daily. The reported side effects were mild, and with the exception of diarrhea (n=2), no side effect was mentioned more than once. Methanol extracts contained 4.0 ug simplexin, 17.6 ug acetoxyhuratoxin and 2.3 ug huratoxin per g dry leaf material. In traditional water infusions provided by healers and in standardized lab-prepared aqueous extracts all three compounds were below the limit of detection (16.3ng/mL) using our UPLC-MS-TQD method. Methanol and aqueous extracts increased the release of IFNγ by PBMCs (p<0.05); however, methanol extracts were significantly more active than aqueous extracts (p<0.05). Methanol and aqueous extracts significantly increased proliferation of PBMCs, causing at least 60% more cell proliferation than negative control (p<0.05). The presence of daphnane diterpene esters in a frequently consumed traditional beverage was initially viewed as a public health concern, though interview data reveal that Palauans do not observe toxicity or side effects associated with their use of Phaleria nisidai tea. Concurrently, daphnanes are present in methanolic extracts but not detected in aqueous preparations indicating that the traditional method of preparation avoids the extraction of these potentially toxic compounds, while still maintaining immunostimulant activity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.06.023
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    ABSTRACT: T. catigua preparations have antinociceptive, antiinflammatory, and neuroprotective activity. Recently, a neuroprotective role for T. catigua was proposed using an in vitro model of ischemia-reperfusion in rat hippocampal slices. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of an ethyl-acetate fraction (EAF) of T. catigua, which has potent antioxidant activity, in mice subjected to an in vivo model of cerebral ischemia. Male Swiss mice were subject to the bilateral common carotid occlusion (BCCAO) model of cerebral ischemia. The animals were orally administered the T. catigua EAF (200, 400, or 800mg/kg) 30min before and once per day for 7 days after BCCAO. Histological and behavioral outcomes were assessed using Nissl staining and the Morris water maze test of cognition, respectively. Mice that were subjected to BCCAO exhibited cognitive impairments in the Morris water maze. The spatial cognitive deficits were counteracted by T. catigua EAF administration (200-800mg/kg). The T. catigua EAF significantly increased the number of intact-appearing Nissl-stained cells in the hippocampus in BCCAO mice. These results show that the T. catigua EAF promoted functional recovery, decreased the delayed hippocampal cell loss, and mitigated the ongoing neurodegenerative processes induced by BCCAO in mice. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.05.060
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    ABSTRACT: Buruli ulcer (BU) is the third most common mycobacterial infection in the world, after tuberculosis and leprosy and has recently been recognized as an important emerging disease. This disease is common in West Africa where more than 99% of the burden is felt and where most affected people live in remote areas with traditional medicine as primary or only option. Reports indicate that the ethnopharmacological control approach of the disease in such settings has shown promise. However, no or very few compilations of traditional knowledge in using medicinal plants to treat BU have been attempted so far. This review aimed to record medicinal plants used traditionally against BU in three countries in West Africa: Ivory Coast, Ghana and Benin and for which ethnopharmacological knowledge supported by pharmacological investigations has been reported. The information recorded in this review will support further pharmacological research to develop appropriate drugs for a better BU control.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.06.024
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    ABSTRACT: Studies of ethnobiological nature favor the rescue of popular culture, preventing important cultural and biological information from being lost over time. Another interesting point is that it can support bioprospecting studies focusing on the discovery of new drugs. Our aim was to conduct a survey of plants sold for therapeutic purposes in public markets in the Crajubar Triangle in Northeast Brazil. Using a questionnaire, data were collected regarding the part of the plant used, method of preparation, quantity needed, instructions for use and known adverse effects. From the data obtained, we calculated the relative importance of species and informant consensus factor. Vendors indicated 91 useful species from a therapeutic point of view, distributed in 49 plant families. The preparation methods most frequently mentioned by informants were decoction, infusion, sauce with part of the plant in water and lozenge. The informants of this study mentioned bark, leaves, seeds and roots as parts of the plant most sold for therapeutic use. Disorders of the digestive system was the disease/disorder category with the highest consensus among the vendors, and the species Ximenia americana, Lippia gracillis, Stryphnodendron rotundifolium, Anacardium occidentale, Hymenaea courbail, Myracrodruon urundeva, Amburana cearensis and Himatanthus drasticus were the most versatile among the plants sold in markets. Vendors indicated 91 species belonging to 49 botanical families and 89 genera. The most frequent forms of preparation were decoction, infusion and sauce made with part of the plant in water. The most common form of administration was oral. Bark and leaves were the plant parts most used. Thirteen species showed great versatility regarding their use. We noted 291 indications for use in 13 disease/disorder categories. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.06.022
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    ABSTRACT: Zeng-Sheng-Ping (ZSP) is a marketed Chinese traditional medicine used for cancer prevention. Currently, for the quality control of Chinese traditional medicines, marker compounds are not selected based on bioactivities and pharmaceutical behaviors in most of the cases. Therefore, even if the "quality" of the medicine is controlled, the pharmacological effect could still be inconsistent. The aim of this study is to establish an activity and absorption-based platform to select marker compound(s) for the quality control of Chinese traditional medicines. We used ZSP as a reference Chinese traditional medicine to establish the platform. Activity guided fractionation approach was used to purify the major components from ZSP. NMR and MS spectra were used to elucidate the structure of the isolated compounds. MTT assay against oral carcinoma cell line (SCC2095) was performed to evaluate the activities. UPLC-MS/MS was used to quantify the pure compounds in ZSP and the active fraction. The permeabilities of the identified compounds were evaluated in the Caco-2 cell culture model. The intracellular accumulation of the isolated compounds was evaluated in the SCC2095 cells. The major compounds were identified from ZSP. The contents, anti-proliferation activities, permeabilities, and intracellular accumulations of these compounds were also evaluated. The structure of these purified compounds were identified by comparing the NMR and MS data with those of references as rutaevine (1), limonin (2), evodol (3), obacunone (4), fraxinellone (5), dictamnine (6), maackiain (7), trifolirhizin (8), and matrine (9). The IC50 of compounds 5, 6, and 7 against SCC2095 cells were significantly lower than that of ZSP. The uptake permeability of compounds 5, 6, and 7 were 2.58±0. 3×10(-5), 4.33±0.5×10(-5), and 4.27±0.8×10(-5) respectively in the Caco-2 cell culture model. The intracellular concentrations of these compounds showed that compounds 5, 6, and 7 were significantly accumulated inside the cells. Based on the activity against oral carcinoma cell line as well as the absorption permeability, compound 5, 6, and 7 are selected as quality control markers for ZSP. A activity and absorption-based platform was established and successfully used for the quality control of ZSP. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.06.019