Journal of Children s Orthopaedics Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: Springer Verlag

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Other titles SpringerLink
ISSN 1863-2521
OCLC 288981587
Material type Document, Periodical
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Computer File

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Springer Verlag

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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the results on shoulder function following isolated proximal subscapularis release in children with Erb's palsy. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on 64 consecutive children with Erb's palsy who underwent a Carlioz proximal subscapularis release between 2001 and 2012. Fifty children with complete records and a minimum follow-up of 2 years were included for evaluation. Age at surgery ranged from 1.3 to 4.5 years (average 2.6 years). Preoperative active shoulder abduction/anterior elevation, active external and internal rotations as well as the Mallet score were compared with those found at 6 and 24 months postoperatively using the Student paired t test, with a confidence interval of 95 %. The results were compared between children <3 years of age at surgery and those older, and between children who had an isolated C5-C6 and those with greater involvement. p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Active abduction improved 21° at 6 months and 31° (total) at 2 years (p < 0.01) with an overall Mallet abduction score improvement of 0.58 at 6 months and 0.6 (overall) at 2 years (p < 0.01). Active external rotation improved 52° at 6 months and 35° (total) at 2 years (p < 0.01) with an overall Mallet external rotation score improvement of 1.3 at 6 months (p < 0.01) and 0.52 (overall) at 2 years (p = 0.013). There was no statistically significant change in internal rotation (p = 0.37). We found no correlation between the child's age or the severity of involvement at surgery and the end result. Conclusion: Proximal subscapularis release according to Carlioz is simple and effective in improving overall shoulder function in children with obstetric brachial plexus palsy, mainly abduction and external rotation. Improvement tends to reach a plateau around 6-12 months postoperatively.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 10/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11832-015-0696-2
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    ABSTRACT: Background: A triad of deformities-thoracolumbar scoliosis, pelvic obliquity, and femoral head (hip) subluxation/dislocation-occurs frequently in non-ambulatory neuromuscular patients, but their close inter-relationship is infrequently appreciated or quantified. We propose a deformity documentation approach to assess each component simultaneously. Methods: The documentation assesses each component for maximal functional level, deformity, and flexibility/rigidity: deformity from antero-posterior radiographs (scoliosis-maximal functional position, pelvic obliquity-sitting, hip position-supine) and flexibility/rigidity from extent of repositioning on supine (spine, pelvis) and frog lateral (hip) radiographs. The approach was applied in 211 patients: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (110), spinal muscular atrophy (49), cerebral palsy (26), and other neuromuscular disorders (26). Results: Measurement of 2124 radiological data points allowed for deformity (mild to moderate to severe) and flexibility/rigidity (fully reducible to partially to non-reducible) gradations for scoliosis, pelvic obliquity, and hip subluxation/dislocation. The charting documented: (1) numerical deformity and flexibility/rigidity changes [x-axis: age; y-axis: angulation (scoliosis and pelvic obliquity) and percent coverage (hip subluxation or dislocation) from 0-120]; and (2) grade deformity and flexibility/rigidity changes [x-axis: age; y-axis: deformity and flexibility/rigidity, following conversion of numerical measurements to a 1-5 grade scale]. In subgroups with the most extensive documentation, thoracolumbar and lumbar scoliosis extended into the sacrum with 98 % (114/116) accompanied by pelvic obliquity; and scoliosis developed more rapidly than hip deformity in 44 % (28/63), scoliosis and hip deformity developed at the same time in 40 % (25/63), and hip deformity developed more rapidly than scoliosis in 16 % (10/63) (Pearson's chi-squared test p = 0.0501, almost significant). Conclusion and significance: Documentation of the triad of neuromuscular deformities is applicable to all diagnoses; it outlines maximal functional level, deformity, and flexibility/rigidity at each site; and it shows the relationship between spine, pelvic, and hip deformation. Prospective charting will enhance both clinical management and clinical research into neuromuscular deformity.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 10/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11832-015-0683-7
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Percutaneous epiphysiodesis using transphyseal screws (PETS) was developed as a minimally invasive outpatient procedure to address limb-length discrepancy (LLD) that allowed immediate postoperative weight bearing and was potentially reversible by removing the screws. The aims of our study were to report our results using PETS for LLD and evaluate the accuracy of three growth predictor models. Methods: Sixteen patients with an average age of 14 years were treated for LLD using PETS. Thirteen patients had screws inserted in a parallel fashion and 3 had crossed screws. We compared the predicted LLD at skeletal maturity using the three growth predictor methods with the actual LLD at skeletal maturity and preoperative LLD with the final LLD at skeletal maturity. Results: The mean LLD at skeletal maturity between the predicted and final measurements was 0.2 cm using the Green-Anderson method, 1.4 cm using the Moseley method, and -0.1 cm using the Paley method. The mean preoperative LLD of 3.1 cm was corrected to 1.7 cm at skeletal maturity (p < 0.001). Six patients complained of pain over the screw heads; however, no patient developed an infection or angular deformity. Conclusions: The three growth predictor methods predicted the final LLD within an average of 1.4 cm, but there was high variability. Although PETS improved the LLD by a mean of 1.4 cm, we believe the results would have been better if PETS was performed at an earlier skeletal age.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 10/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11832-015-0687-3
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Intra-articular knee fractures in children are rare. The Patient Compensation Association (PCA) receives claims for financial compensation from patients who believe they have sustained damage from their treatment in the health care system. We used relevant cases of closed claims to identify causality and co-factors contributing to these apparent malpractices. Materials and methods: A partial root core analysis was performed on closed claims from the PCA database concerning proximal tibial fractures in children aged ≤15 years. Results: We identified 13 cases. The main complaint was missed diagnosis (6 cases)-fractures of the tibial eminence were the main culprit, with damage to the popliteal artery caused by a medial condyle fracture being the most serious. All cases were missed by junior doctors. Secondary complaints were problems with casting, dissatisfaction with correct treatment, and insufficient surgery or complications relating to surgery. Eight of the complaints were acknowledged, with six receiving financial compensation ranging from EUR 9,600 to EUR 70,000. Five out of the six cases of missed diagnosis were acknowledged. Conclusions: This study indicates that recognizing the degree of injury to the knee in children, which should include an X-ray examination, is key to preventing missed diagnosis and delayed and potentially more difficult surgery with long-lasting sequelae for the child. The PCA database seems to be a useful way to highlight systematic problems in the Danish health care system and could potentially be an important means to improving patient safety and preventing treatment-related injuries.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11832-015-0684-6
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Although off-road motorcycling is one of the most popular sports activities practised by millions of people worldwide, little has been written on motocross injuries and their prevention. In the UK alone, motocross has grown into a phenomenally ambitious and popular franchise. There are >200 motocross clubs across the country holding >900 events annually. The aim of this study is to categorise and quantify the magnitude of motocross paediatric injuries and associated morbidity. Methods: Data were collected prospectively over 4 years (2010-2014) at our unit. All injuries caused by motocross biking that were referred to our trauma and orthopaedic department were included in this study, regardless of whether the rider was performing the sport competitively or recreationally. Results: During the study period, 130 patients (aged 4-17 years) were identified with a total of 142 injuries, ranging from one to six injuries per patient. Most of the injuries were sustained within the early spring and summer months, representing the start of the motocross season; 76 patients required hospital admission, with 60 (42 %) requiring surgical intervention. Conclusion: We present the first epidemiological study of motocross paediatric injuries in the UK. The results from this study highlight the frequency and severity of motocross-related injuries in the paediatric population in the UK. This may assist in providing recommendations and guidelines to governing bodies and to parents. The injuries sustained during motocross have significant resource implications, especially for smaller rural hospitals, as shown by the number of injuries doubling over the past 4 years.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11832-015-0685-5
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To date, polio has not been eradicated and there appears to be a resurgence of the disease. Hence, there is a need to revive decision-making skills to treat the effects of polio. Methods: Here, we outline the aspects of treatment of paralysis following polio based on the literature and personal experience of the authors. The surgical treatment of the lower and upper extremities and the spine have been reviewed. The scope of bracing of the lower limb has been defined. Results: The effects of polio can be mitigated by judicious correction of deformities, restoration of muscle balance, stabilising unstable joints and compensating for limb length inequality. Conclusions: As polio has not been eradicated and there is a risk of resurgence of the disease, paediatric orthopaedic surgeons need to be prepared to deal with fresh cases of polio. Revival of old techniques for managing the effects of paralysis following polio is needed.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11832-015-0678-4
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: A late finding of some hips treated for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is a growth disturbance of the lateral proximal femoral physis, which results in caput valgum and possibly osteoarthritis. Current treatment options include complete epiphysiodesis of the proximal femoral physis or a corrective proximal femoral osteotomy. Alternatively, a transphyseal screw through the inferomedial proximal femoral physis that preserves superolateral growth might improve this deformity. Methods: This study evaluates the effect of such a transphyseal screw on both femoral and acetabular development in patients with caput valgum following open treatment of DDH. These patients were followed clinically and radiographically until skeletal maturity. Preoperative and postoperative radiographs were assessed, measuring the proximal femoral physeal orientation (PFPO), the head-shaft angle (HSA), Sharp's angle and the center edge angle of Wiberg (CE angle). Results: Thirteen hips of 11 consecutive patients were followed prospectively. The age at the time of transphyseal screw placement was between 5 and 14 years. The mean improvement of the PFPO and HSA was 14° (p < 0.01) and 11° (p < 0.001), respectively. The mean improvement of Sharp's angle and CE angle was 4.7° (p < 0.01) and 5.8° (p < 0.02), respectively. Five patients underwent screw revision. Conclusions: A transphyseal screw across the proximal femoral physis improved the proximal femur and acetabular geometry.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11832-015-0681-9
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Patients with neuromuscular disorders often have an increased risk of pneumonia and decreased lung function, which may further be compromised by scoliosis. Scoliosis surgery may improve pulmonary function in otherwise healthy patients, but no study has evaluated its effect on the risk of pneumonia in patients with neuromuscular scoliosis (NMS). Methods: The patient charts of 42 patients (mean age 14.6 years) who had undergone surgery for severe NMS (mean scoliosis 86°) were retrospectively reviewed from birth to a mean of 6.1 years (range 2.8-9.5) after scoliosis surgery. The main outcome was radiographically confirmed pneumonia as a primary cause for hospitalization. We excluded postoperative (3 months) pneumonia from the analyses. Results: The lifetime annual incidence of pneumonia was 8.0/100 before and 13.4/100 after scoliosis surgery (p > 0.10). The mean number of hospital days per year due to pneumonia were 0.59 (SD 2.3) before scoliosis surgery and 2.24 (SD 6.9) after surgery (p > 0.10). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that lifetime risk factors for pneumonia were epilepsy (RR 15.2, 95 % CI 1.3-176.8, p = 0.027), non-cerebral palsy (CP) etiology (RR = 10.2, 95 % CI 3.2-32.7, p < 0.001) and major scoliosis (main curve >70°; RR = 11.3, 95 % CI 1.8-70.7, p = 0.01). Conclusions: Epilepsy, non-CP etiology and major scoliosis are significant risk factors for pneumonia in patients with NMS. Scoliosis surgery does not decrease the incidence of pneumonia in patients with severe NMS. Level of evidence: Retrospective comparative study, Level III.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11832-015-0682-8
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple ostechondromas (MO) is an autosomal dominant inherited disease caused by mutated exostosin genes. It mostly affects the long bones and can lead to growth disturbances, especially disproportionate short stature. Both the local effect on growth plates and the systemic influence of the gene disorder on growth mechanisms might explain the diminished stature. The hypothesis of this study is that the diminished stature in adults with MO is due to a systemic influence, leading to early skeletal maturation and early closure of the growth plate. Therefore, in these patients the skeletal age in adolescence is hypothesized to be higher than the calendar age. Radiographs of the left hand were collected from 50 MO-affected children. The skeletal age was calculated using these radiographs according to the Greulich-Pyle bone scale and was compared to the calendar age at the time of radiography. Children aged 3-12 years had a significantly lower skeletal age compared to their calendar age (p = 0.030). Children aged 12-17 years had a significantly higher skeletal age (p = 0.019), especially boys. Skeletal maturation in children with MO therefore differs from their peers. In this study, the skeletal age in younger children with MO is lower than their calendar age. For adolescents, particularly boys, this is reversed, suggesting an earlier or faster closure of the growth plates. These findings support a systemic influence of the gene defect on growth rate.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11832-015-0680-x
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    ABSTRACT: Brace compliance measurement in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) has been the subject of a few recent studies. Various sensors have been developed to measure compliance. We have developed a temperature-based data logger-the Cricket-specifically for scoliosis braces, with associated custom software, that is embedded directly in the brace. The purpose of this study was to analyze patterns of brace wear and patient compliance among children with AIS using the Cricket. Fifty-five AIS patients prescribed various brace-time regimens were monitored using the Cricket. All subjects were treated with the Wilmington brace. The compliance rate for each group was determined. Overall compliance among subjects was 69.9 ± 31.5 %. Only 14.5 % met or exceeded prescribed brace time. This is consistent with previous compliance monitoring results. The results of this study objectively show the difference between prescribed and actual brace wear time and reaffirm the Cricket sensor as an accurate and comfortable brace-monitoring device.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11832-015-0679-3
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    ABSTRACT: Children with congenital high scapula (CHS) have a cosmetic and functional problem due to limited shoulder abduction. Treatment options include excision of the prominent superior angle, scapular relocation procedures and subtotal scapulectomy. Excision of the superomedial angle results only in cosmetic improvement. Subtotal scapulectomy and relocation procedures are associated with ugly scars, extensive bleeding and high incidence of brachial plexus injuries. Vertical scapular osteotomy (VSO) is another surgical option that provides cosmetic and functional improvement. The aim of this study is to assess medium to long term results of VSO in treatment of CHS. This is a prospective case series study. Seven children with CHS were treated at our unit. Age ranged from 5-13 years with an average of 8.4 years. All children were females with unilateral affection. All children underwent a VSO as described by Campbell. We used the Cavendish grading system together with combined shoulder abduction for assessment. Follow up averaged 4.6 years. All children and parents were extremely satisfied with the results of surgery. All patients experienced an improvement in global shoulder abduction with an average gain in abduction of 52.9°. All patients experienced an improvement in cosmetic appearance with better shoulder levelling. The Cavendish grade improved in all patients. This study emphasizes the results of previous authors demonstrating that CHS can be treated successfully with a VSO. The procedure is simple and its results are reproducible.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11832-015-0676-6
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    ABSTRACT: Most studies on congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia (CPT) report on the short-term union rate and refracture rate but do not take into account the long-term outcome. This review includes patients treated with an Ilizarov bone transport, who all reached skeletal maturity. It describes long-term results and highlights any prognostic factors that could predict the final outcome. The records of patients with CPT treated with an Ilizarov bone transport in our institution were retrospectively evaluated. A total of 12 consecutive patients were studied. The mean follow-up was 24.5 years (range 6-39 years). Primary consolidation was seen in ten patients (83 %). Half of these patients had a refracture. At final follow-up, eight patients experienced union and four remained un-united, of whom one had an amputation. The present data confirm a good primary healing rate. However, tibial union at final follow-up was only seen in 67 %, indicating that refracture is the main issue. United bone is often of inferior biological and mechanical quality, so lifetime protection with intramedullary devices, braces or a combination of both is recommended.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 08/2015; 9(4). DOI:10.1007/s11832-015-0675-7
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    ABSTRACT: Distraction-based spinal growth modulation by growing rods or vertical expandable prosthetic titanium ribs (VEPTRs) is the mainstay of instrumented operative strategies to correct early onset spinal deformities. In order to objectify the benefits, it has become common sense to measure the gain in spine height by assessing T1-S1 distance on anteroposterior (AP) radiographs. However, by ignoring growth changes on vertebral levels and by limiting measurement to one plane, valuable data is missed regarding the three-dimensional (3D) effects of growth modulation. This information might be interesting when it comes to final fusion or, even more so, when the protective growing implants are removed and the spine re-exposed to physiologic forces at the end of growth. The goal of this retrospective radiographic study was to assess the growth modulating impact of year-long, distraction-based VEPTR treatment on the morphology of single vertebral bodies. We digitally measured lumbar vertebral body height (VBH) and upper endplate depth (VBD) at the time of the index procedure and at follow-up in nine patients with rib-to-ileum constructs (G1) spanning an anatomically normal lumbar spine. Nine patients with congenital thoracic scoliosis and VEPTR rib-to-rib constructs, but uninstrumented lumbar spines, served as controls (G2). All had undergone more than eight half-yearly VEPTR expansions. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used for statistical comparison of initial and follow-up VBH, VBD and height/depth (H/D) ratio (significance level 0.05). The average age was 7.1 years (G1) and 5.2 year (G2, p > 0.05) at initial surgery; the average overall follow-up time was 5.5 years (p = 1). In both groups, VBH increased significantly without a significant intergroup difference. Group 1 did not show significant growth in depth, whereas VBD increased significantly in the control group. As a consequence, the H/D ratio increased significantly in group 1 whereas it remained unchanged in group 2. The growth rate for height in mm/year was 1.4 (group 1) and 1.1 (group 2, p = 0.45), and for depth, it was -0.3 and 1.1 (p < 0.05), respectively. VEPTR growth modulating treatment alters the geometry of vertebral bodies by increasing the H/D ratio. We hypothesize that the implant-related deprivation from axial loads (stress-shielding) impairs anteroposterior growth. The biomechanical consequence of such slender vertebrae when exposed to unprotected loads in case of definitive VEPTR removal at the end of growth is uncertain.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 08/2015; 9(4). DOI:10.1007/s11832-015-0677-5
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of our study was to determine the long-term functional outcomes of pin tract infection after percutaneous pinning of displaced supracondylar humeral fractures in children, and to evaluate the potential for intracapsular pin placement based on pin configuration in cadaveric elbows. We conducted a retrospective review of all patients requiring percutaneous pinning in a single institution over a 19-year period. The functional outcome assessment consisted of a telephone interview using the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH)] Outcome Measure and the Patient-Rated Elbow Evaluation (PREE) questionnaires. The risk of intracapsular pin placement was studied in cadaveric elbows for the three most common pin configurations: divergent lateral, parallel lateral, and medial and lateral crossed pins. Of 490 children, 21 (4.3 %) developed pin tract infection. There were 15 (3.1 %) superficial and six (1.2 %) deep infections (osteomyelitis and septic arthritis). Both DASH and PREE scores were excellent at a mean of 18 years post-surgery. The risk of intracapsular pin placement using parallel lateral pins was found to be greater (p < 0.05) than either crossed or divergent lateral pinning configurations. Most infections after pinning of supracondylar humerus fractures are superficial and can be managed with pin removal, oral antibiotics, and local wound care. Septic arthritis and osteomyelitis are rare complications; when they do occur, they seem to be associated with parallel lateral pin configuration, though a causal relationship could not be established from the current study. Satisfactory long-term outcomes of these deep infections can be expected when treated aggressively with surgical debridement and intravenous antibiotics.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 08/2015; 9(4). DOI:10.1007/s11832-015-0674-8
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to consider the peculiarities of forming social and household skills, and the criteria for their evaluation, as well as an assessment of functional capacity, in children with hand defects both before and after surgical treatment and rehabilitation courses using a system of games. We elaborated and implemented a program of social rehabilitation of preschool children with congenital and acquired hand defects for the development of their functional capabilities and the formation of social and household skills after surgical treatment and prosthetics using play therapy methods. As part of this work, 140 preschool children aged 3-7 years underwent social rehabilitation. Most of the children had congenital hand defects-122 children (87 %): 96 children (79 %) with ectrodactylia, adactylia, hypoplasia, aplasia, hand splitting, club hand, or partial gigantism; 26 children (21 %) with congenital syndactylism and constricted bonds and 18 children (13 %) with acquired defects (burn deformity, amputation). 110 children (79 %) had reached the stage of surgical correction; 30 children (21 %) reached the stage of prosthetics. Most of the children participating in the experiment (78 children, 56 %) had defects of fingers on one hand. The program aimed at solving specific rehabilitation tasks: formation and improvement of all possible types of grip under the existing defect including those after surgery and prosthetics; development of tactile sensations in fingers; development of fine motor skills; increase in range of motion in all joints of the damaged hand; development of attention and concentration; formation of social and household skills appropriate to age; and development of the ability to achieve the set task. Analysis of the level of social and household skills of children with hand defects undergoing rehabilitation treatment at the hospital depending on the age prior to medical and social rehabilitation showed that preschool children with hand defects in the age category of 3 years demonstrated the highest results in the level of social and household skills (31 %) as compared with children in other age categories. The indicators for children aged 4 and 5 years were slightly lower, 25 and 26 %, respectively. The lowest values were recorded among children aged 6: 20 %. Statistically significant parameters of the level of functional capacity of hand grip and social and household skills in children with hand defects obtained in the course of the investigation indicated that the use of play therapy measures significantly increased the effect of medical treatment irrespective of the type of defect. These data indicate that play therapy measures given immediately after surgery or prosthetics can significantly increase the efficiency of rehabilitation even in its early stages.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 08/2015; 9(4). DOI:10.1007/s11832-015-0668-6
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    ABSTRACT: Operative fixation of pediatric femur fractures with intramedullary implants has grown in popularity in recent decades. However, risk factors for short-term adverse events and readmission have not been well studied. Pediatric patients who underwent intramedullary nailing of a femur fracture between 2012 and 2013 were identified from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Risk factors for any adverse event (AAE) and readmission after intramedullary nailing were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analysis. A total of 522 pediatric patients who underwent intramedullary nailing of the femur during the study period were identified. The mean age of this patient cohort was 10.2 ± 3.8 years. Review of the cases revealed that 18 (3.4 %) patients had AAE and that 20 (3.8 %) patients were readmitted, of whom 13 (2.5 %) underwent a reoperation. Independent risk factors for AAE were a cardiac comorbidity [odds ratio (OR) 12.7, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.5, 103.7], open fracture (OR 10.2, 95 % CI 1.4, 74.4), and prolonged operative time (OR 17.5, 95 % CI 6.1, 50.5). Independent risk factors for readmission were a central nervous system disorder (OR 4.5, 95 % CI 1.3, 16.2) and a seizure disorder (OR 4.9, 95 % CI 1.0, 23.5). The results of the multivariate analysis suggest that cardiac comorbidities, open fractures, and prolonged operative time increase the risk for AAE and that central nervous system disorders and seizure disorders may increase the risk for readmission. Surgeons should be aware of these risk factors and counsel the families of pediatric patients who undergo intramedullary nailing of femur fractures.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 08/2015; 9(4). DOI:10.1007/s11832-015-0672-x
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the result of a combined single-stage surgery in the treatment of first ray macrodactyly in children. Macrodactyly is a rare congenital abnormality that involves thickening of both the soft tissue and bone of the affected digits. It is more frequent in fingers than toes, where there is less neural involvement. Increased growth is also seen in neurofibromatosis, hemangiomatosis, arteriovenous malformations, congenital lymphedema, and syndromes such as Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome and Proteus syndrome. The goal of treatment is to obtain a pain-free, functional foot that can accommodate normal shoes. Treatment of macrodactyly of the first ray generates numerous difficulties since ray resection, which has been recommended for other toes as a means to of shortening and narrowing the foot, cannot be performed. In addition to this, cosmetic results are better if the nail is preserved. We retrospectively reviewed our cases of first ray macrodactyly treated by a single-stage multiple-technique procedure. We obtained satisfactory results, in that same-sized shoes could be worn on by our patients and patients and family were happy with the outcome. However, one of our cases patients lost the nail 10 months postoperatively. We believe that island-nail transfer in children obtains excellent results.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 08/2015; 9(4). DOI:10.1007/s11832-015-0670-z
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the safety, utility, and efficacy of pin removal prior to radiographs during the postoperative care of surgically treated displaced pediatric supracondylar humerus fractures. Retrospective review of 532 children with supracondylar humerus fractures treated with closed reduction and pinning from 2007 to 2012. Group 1: children who had their splint/cast removed and radiographs prior to pin removal. Group 2: children with radiographs taken after removal. Data recorded and analyzed included: demographic and radiographic data at the time of surgery and at final follow-up, including the number of radiographs taken prior to pin removal and if pins were ever retained after radiographs were performed on the date of intended removal. There was no difference between the groups' demographics. The number of postoperative radiographs taken prior to pin removal ranged from zero to two. No statistically significant change in Baumann's (p = 0.79) or lateral humeral capitellar angles (p = 0.19) was noted between the groups. No children in group 1 (0/438) had their pins retained after radiographs were taken on the date of intended removal. Obtaining postoperative radiographs prior to pin removal, although commonplace, is not necessary. If fracture stability is noted intraoperatively, and there is an uneventful postoperative course, it is safe and effective to discontinue immobilization and remove pins prior to X-ray. This is safely done without change in alignment or clinical sequelae. Doing so can aid in clinic flow, may decrease child anxiety, and limit multiple cast room visits. Level III therapeutic study.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 07/2015; 9(4). DOI:10.1007/s11832-015-0673-9
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    ABSTRACT: Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCPD) is uncommon in girls. The presentation of LCPD in female patients has been reported as later in onset and associated with certain high-impact activities. Our aim is to characterize the presentation of female LCPD at a large center, with particular attention to the clinical and radiographic features of late-onset disease (>ten years of age). We perceived an increasing burden of late-onset disease with adult-like radiographic features. All patients presenting to a single large urban children's hospital from 1990-2014 with a diagnosis of LCPD were reviewed. Demographic, clinical, and radiographic data for all female patients were examined and compared to historical norms. Four-hundred and fifty-one patients presented with LCPD in the study period, of which 82 (18.2 %) were female. The average age at presentation was 6.58 years in girls, which is similar to the classically reported mean age. Fourteen patients participated in high-impact repetitive activities or those with deep flexion and abduction, although few were late presenters. There were four female patients who presented for initial diagnosis >ten years of age. There was a paucity of late-onset LCPD in girls in the study population, and the females with LCPD had a very similar age and character to their presentation as did males. Although their presentation is infrequent, three of four older females with LCPD were engaged in high-level physical activity, and their disease may be attributed to high-impact, repetitive athletics. Case series, Level IV.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 07/2015; 9(4). DOI:10.1007/s11832-015-0671-y
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    ABSTRACT: To test the hypothesis that collecting material for culture from metaphyseal bone of the ilium and proximal femur at the time of a hip aspiration will increase the sensitivity to detect an infectious organism in patients with presumed septic arthritis of the hip. We retrospectively reviewed a series of 36 patients with presumed septic arthritis of the hip, based on clinical exam and serum inflammatory markers, who underwent aspirations of hip synovial fluid as well as blood from the ilium and proximal femur. Culture results from aspirates of synovial fluid and bone and tissue from capsule were compared to determine the sensitivities and specificities of a synovial aspirate alone versus synovial aspirate plus aspirates of the ilium and proximal femur to detect infection. The sensitivity of hip synovial fluid aspirates to detect infection via positive culture was only 63 %, though this increased significantly to 100 % when the results of cultures of aspirates of the ilium and proximal femur were included. The specificities were equivalent in both modalities (≥90 %). We conclude that obtaining aspirates of the ilium and proximal femur at the time of hip synovial fluid aspiration increases the likelihood that the procedure will return an infectious organism. Positive cultures from a child with a septic hip or peri-articular hip infection help to efficiently and effectively guide antibiotic treatment. The child with a septic hip or peri-articular hip infection and positive cultures is likely to receive more narrow-spectrum therapy, potentially decreasing the overuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics. DIAGNOSTIC STUDY LEVEL III: Development of diagnostic criteria on the basis of a series of non-consecutive patients (with universally applied reference "gold standard").
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 07/2015; 9(4). DOI:10.1007/s11832-015-0669-5