Journal of Children s Orthopaedics Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: Springer Verlag

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Other titles SpringerLink
ISSN 1863-2521
OCLC 288981587
Material type Document, Periodical
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Computer File

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Springer Verlag

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Publications in this journal

  • Ziad Harb, Michail Kokkinakis, Hiba Ismail, Gavin Spence
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    ABSTRACT: The management of adolescent hallux valgus (AHV) remains controversial, with reservations about both conservative and surgical treatments. Non-operative management has a limited role in preventing progression. Surgical correction of AHV has, amongst other concerns, been associated with a high prevalence of recurrence of deformity after surgery. We conducted a systematic review to assess clinical and radiological outcomes following surgery for AHV. A comprehensive literature search was performed in the Cochrane Library, CINAHL, EMBASE, Google Scholar and PubMed. The study was performed in accordance with the recommendations of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Demographic data, radiographic parameters and results of validated clinical scoring systems were analysed. The published literature on AHV is largely heterogeneous and retrospective. Nine contemporary studies reporting on 140 patients (201 osteotomies) were included. The female to male ratio was 10:1. The mean age at operation was 14.5 years (range 10.5-22). The mean follow-up was 41.6 months (range 12-134). The mean post-operative American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score was 85.8 (standard deviation, SD ±7.38). The mean AOFAS patient satisfaction showed that 86 % (SD ±11.27) of patients were satisfied or very satisfied with their outcome. On the duPont Bunion Rating Score (BRS), 90 % rated their outcome as good or excellent. There was a statistically significant improvement in the inter-metatarsal angle (IMA, p = 0.0003), hallux valgus angle (HVA, p < 0.0001) and distal metatarsal articular angle (DMAA, p = 0.019). Based on the most current published evidence, contemporary surgical interventions for AHV show excellent clinical and radiological outcomes, with high patient satisfaction. The rates of recurrence and other complications are lower than the historically reported figures. There is a need for high-level, multi-centre collaborative studies with prospective data to establish the long-term outcomes and optimal surgical procedure(s).
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 04/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11832-015-0655-y
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    ABSTRACT: Retrospective database, chart and medical imaging review. To report on the outcome and evaluate possible risk factors for postoperative complications following selective spinal fusion in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). All patients with AIS who underwent either a selective thoracic or selective thoracolumbar/lumbar spinal fusion at our institution from January 2001 to December 2011 inclusive were included in this study. The minimum postoperative follow-up period of all patients was 2 years. During the 11-year study period, 157 patients with AIS underwent surgery for their progressive spinal deformity. Thirty patients (19 %) had a selective spinal fusion, with 16 patients (group A) having a selective thoracic, and 14 patients (group B) having a selective thoracolumbar/lumbar spinal arthrodesis. In both groups the main postoperative complications were adding-on (25 % group A, 36 % group B) and coronal decompensation (25 % group A, 29 % group B). In group A, no statistically significant risk factors for postoperative complications were identified. In group B, global coronal balance was identified as a significant risk factor for adding-on. Patients with adding-on had significantly higher coronal balance scores (mean 3.6) than those who did not experience adding-on (mean 1.9) (p = 0.03). In addition, those with adding-on had a significantly smaller bending lumbar Cobb angle (mean 15) than those without adding-on (mean 31.6) (p = 0.015). None of the patients who underwent selective spinal fusion required revision surgery. Although the complication rate after performing a selective spinal fusion is high, the revision rate remains low and the debate whether or not to perform a selective spinal fusion will continue.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 04/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11832-015-0653-0
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    ABSTRACT: Retrospective, case-control. Knee morphometric risk factors for noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury have been a popular topic with skeletally mature patients. Little research has focused on the skeletally immature, with conflicting conclusions. This study performs a comprehensive analysis of identified parameters thought to predispose to ACL injury in a skeletally immature cohort. A retrospective review of pediatric patients undergoing knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed over a 4-year period. Inclusionary criteria included mid-substance ACL disruption, skeletal immaturity, noncontact injury, without associated ligamentous disruption, and no medical condition associated with ligamentous laxity. MRI studies were analyzed by a pediatric musculoskeletal radiologist, measuring identified bony parameters, and compared with an age-matched control group without ligamentous injury. Data were analyzed using unpaired t-tests and logistic regression. One hundred and twenty-eight patients sustained an ACL disruption, 39 met all inclusionary criteria (66 excluded for associated ligamentous disruption, 23 skeletally mature, three traumatic mechanisms, one with Marfan syndrome). When compared to an age-matched control cohort, the notch width index (NWI) was found to be significantly smaller in the ACL-injured group (p = 0.046). Subgroups analysis demonstrated significant differences in morphometric parameters between subjects with isolated ACL injuries and concomitant medial collateral ligament (MCL) strain. The NWI was significantly smaller in the ACL injury group. Significant differences were noted between isolated ACL injuries and ACL injuries with an MCL strain. This study further highlights the need for incorporating associated injury patterns when investigating the influence of morphometric factors for ACL injury in the skeletally immature. Level III.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 03/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11832-015-0652-1
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    ABSTRACT: Proximal femoral osteotomy is the most common major reconstructive surgery in the region of the hip joint in children and adolescents. Given that it may be required across a wide range of ages and indications, appropriate instrumentation is necessary to ensure a technically satisfactory result. Recent developments in fixation include cannulation of the blade plate and locking screw technology. We conducted a prospective audit of our first 25 patients who had a unilateral or bilateral proximal femoral osteotomy using a recently available system which combines cannulation and locking plate technology. The principal outcome measures were the radiographic position of the osteotomy at the time of union and surgical adverse events. Forty-five proximal femoral osteotomies were performed in 25 patients, mean age 8 years (range 3-17 years), for a variety of indications, the most common of which was hip subluxation in children with cerebral palsy. All osteotomies were soundly united by 6 weeks in children and by 3 months in adolescents, in the position achieved intra-operatively. There were no revision procedures and the technical goals of surgery were achieved in all patients. There was one adverse event, a low-grade peri-prosthetic infection, diagnosed at the time of implant removal. In this prospective audit of our first 25 patients, the new system performed well across a wide range of ages, body weights and surgical indications. Further comparative studies will be required to determine whether it offers additional advantages over more traditional systems.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 03/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11832-015-0649-9
  • Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 03/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11832-015-0650-3
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    ABSTRACT: Crouch gait is a major sagittal plane deviation in children diagnosed with cerebral palsy (CP). It is defined as a combination of excessive ankle dorsiflexion and knee and hip flexion throughout the stance phase. To the best of our knowledge, functional electrical stimulation (FES) has not been used to decrease the severity of crouch gait in CP subjects and assist in achieving lower limb extension. To evaluate the short- and long-term effects of FES to the quadriceps muscles in preventing crouch gait and achieving ankle plantar flexion, knee and hip extension at the stance phase. An 18-year-old boy diagnosed with CP diplegia [Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level II] was evaluated. The NESS L300(®) Plus neuroprosthesis system provided electrical stimulation of the quadriceps muscle. A three-dimensional gait analysis was performed using an eight-camera system measuring gait kinematics and spatiotemporal parameters while the subject walked shod only, with ground reaction ankle foot orthotics (GRAFOs) and using an FES device. Walking with the FES device showed an increase in the patient's knee extension at midstance and increased knee maximal extension at the stance phase. In addition, the patient was able to ascend and descend stairs with a "step-through" pattern immediately after adjusting the FES device. This report suggests that FES to the quadriceps muscles may affect knee extension at stance and decrease crouch gait, depending on the adequate passive range of motion of the hip, knee extension, and plantar flexion. Further studies are needed in order to validate these results.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 03/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11832-015-0651-2
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    ABSTRACT: This study compares clinical and radiographic outcomes of operatively managed pediatric supracondylar humerus fractures between patients treated by pediatric orthopedists (POs) and patients treated by non-pediatric orthopedists (NPOs). A retrospective cohort study of pediatric patients with surgically managed supracondylar humerus fractures was conducted. For clinical outcomes analyses, 3 months of clinical follow-up were required, resulting in a sample size of 90 patients (33 treated by NPOs, 57 by POs). For radiographic outcomes analyses, 3 months of both clinical and radiographic follow-up were required, resulting in a sample size of 57 patients (23 treated by NPOs, 34 by POs). The rate of inadequate fracture fixation was higher for patients treated by NPOs (43.5 %) than for patients treated by POs (14.7 %; p = 0.030), but rates of clinical complications, malreduction, and postoperative loss of reduction did not differ. Treatment with open reduction was more common for patients treated by NPOs (33.3 %) than for patients treated by POs (3.5 %; p < 0.001). Total operating room time was longer for patients treated by NPOs (110.9 min) than for patients treated by POs (82.9 min; p < 0.001). While patients treated by POs differed from patients treated by NPOs with respect to several intermediate outcomes, including having a lower rate of open reduction and a lower rate of inadequate fracture fixation, there were no differences between POs and NPOs in the rates of the more meaningful and definitive outcomes, including clinical complications, malreduction, and postoperative loss of reduction.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 02/2015; 9(1). DOI:10.1007/s11832-015-0642-3
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this investigation was to determine which of the following methods of fixation, percutaneous pinning (PP) or intramedullary nailing (IMN), was more cost-effective in the treatment of displaced pediatric proximal humeral fractures (PPHF). A retrospective cohort of surgically treated PPHF over a 12-year period at a single institution was performed. A decision analysis model was constructed to compare three surgical strategies: IMN versus percutaneous pinning leaving the pins exposed (PPE) versus leaving the pins buried (PPB). Finally, sensitivity analyses were performed, assessing the cost-effectiveness of each technique when infection rates and cost of deep infections were varied. A total of 84 patients with displaced PPHF underwent surgical stabilization. A total of 35 cases were treated with IMN, 32 with PPE, and 17 with PPB. The age, sex, and preoperative fracture angulation were similar across all groups. A greater percentage of open reduction was seen in the IMN and PPB groups (p = 0.03), while a higher proportion of physeal injury was seen in the PPE group (p = 0.02). Surgical time and estimated blood loss was higher in the IMN group (p < 0.001 and p = 0.01, respectively). The decision analysis revealed that the PPE technique resulted in an average cost saving of $4,502 per patient compared to IMN and $2,066 compared to PPB. This strategy remained cost-effective even when the complication rates with exposed implants approached 55 %. Leaving pins exposed after surgical fixation of PPHF is more cost-effective than either burying pins or using intramedullary fixation.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 02/2015; 9(1). DOI:10.1007/s11832-015-0643-2
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    ABSTRACT: Today's society is much more mobile than in the past. This increased mobility has resulted in different marriage/parenting groups. We wished to study the demographics of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in our area and compare/contrast our findings with those in the literature and specifically look for new findings compared to previous studies. A retrospective review of all children with DDH from 2003 through 2012 was performed. The age at first visit, gestational age, pregnancy number, gender, race, and family history of DDH was collected. Statistical significance was a p-value < 0.05. There were 424 children (363 girls, 61 boys). Ethnicity was White in 80.8 %, Hispanic in 13.8 %, Black in 4.0 %, and Indo-Malay and Indo-Mediterranean in 0.7 % each; 66.8 % were unilateral; 14.2 % had a positive family history. The average gestational age was 38.1 weeks; 94.4 % were full term. The child was vertex presentation in 67.6 % and breech in 32.4 %; 52.8 % were delivered vaginally and 47.2 % by Cesarean section. The child was the first-born in 48.3 %. When compared to the birth statistics of our state, there was a higher proportion of Whites and Hispanics with DDH, and a lower, but not inconsequential, proportion of Blacks (p = 0.0018). Mixing of gene pools and infant carrying methods (lack of swaddling or marked abduction) occurring with societal change likely explains the higher than expected proportion of DDH amongst those of Hispanic ethnicity and a lower than expected, but not rare, proportion in those of African ancestry. Level IV-retrospective case series.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 02/2015; 9(1). DOI:10.1007/s11832-015-0636-1
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the most up-to-date theory on the aetiology of Panner's disease, to form a consensus on the assessment of radiographs and to evaluate clinical outcome in order to summarise the best available evidence for diagnosis and treatment. A review of studies to date on Panner's disease. Studies were eligible if: (1) the study provided criteria for defining Panner's disease in order to eliminate confounding data on other radiographic entities that were mistakenly grouped and presented as Panner's disease; (2) original data of at least one patient was presented; (3) manuscripts were written in English, German or Dutch; and (4) a full-text article was available. Animal studies, reviews and expert opinions were not included. Because the majority of the studies were case reports, we did not use an overall scoring system to evaluate methodological quality. Twenty-three articles reporting on Panner's disease were included. Most cases of Panner's disease were unilateral in distribution and occurred in boys during the first decade of life. In general, conservative treatment is advised for Panner's disease. Panner's disease is a self-limiting disease and the majority of patients heal without clinical impairment. Based on the results of this review, Panner's disease should be treated conservatively. Uniform names and descriptions of signs on radiographs would help to make the correct diagnosis. Since Panner's disease is very rare, higher quality studies are not likely to be performed and, thus, this review provides the best level of evidence on the current knowledge about Panner's disease.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 02/2015; 9(1). DOI:10.1007/s11832-015-0635-2
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    ABSTRACT: Background Pediatric pelvic fractures are associated with high-energy trauma and injury to other systems, leading to an increased incidence of complication and mortality. Previous studies analyzed the pediatric population as a whole, including both children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine whether adolescents with pelvic fracture have different complication and mortality rates compared to younger children and adults. Methods Using the National Trauma Data Bank, 37,784 patients below the age of 55 years with pelvic fractures were identified and divided into children (age <13 years), adolescents (age 13–17 years), and adults (age >17 years). Descriptive statistics and bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Results Children had an increased odds of death [odds ratio (OR) 2.29, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.96–2.67] and complications (OR 1.36, 95 % CI 1.20–1.55), whereas adolescents had a decrease in odds of death (OR 0.89, 95 % CI 0.74–1.06) and complications (OR 0.70, 95 % CI 0.61–0.81) compared to the adult population. Conclusions Adolescents with pelvic fractures exhibit a different physiologic response to the children and adult populations. This emphasizes the need to distinguish these subpopulations in future epidemiological research and treatment planning.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 02/2015; 9(1). DOI:10.1007/s11832-015-0634-3
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    ABSTRACT: The manipulations, casts, and Botox(®) method for treating idiopathic clubfoot is an alternative non-surgical treatment method. Botox(®)-induced reversible muscle paralysis of the gastrocsoleus enables a physician to manipulate and cast the clubfoot in greater dorsiflexion. Ultrasound is incorporated during the early treatment stages to monitor the underlying physiology of the muscle-tendon unit following Botox(®). Ultrasonographic evaluation was performed parallel to a double-blind randomized control trial administering Botox(®) or placebo to correct clubfoot. Patients underwent two-dimensional ultrasound to monitor the length changes to the gastrocsoleus and Achilles tendon unit at two time points: pre-injection (baseline) and 6 weeks post-blinded injection. Gastrocsoleus and Achilles tendon length measurements were analyzed among placebo, Botox(®) and contralateral controls using repeated measures ANOVA. The baseline gastrocsoleus length of the clubfoot (322.4 pixels) before blinded injection appears shorter than controls (337.5 pixels), but fails to reach significance (p = 0.05). The complex length within each of the three treatment groups displayed no significant change between baseline and 6 weeks. The complex-tendon ratio and muscle-tendon ratio of the Botox(®) treatment group was significantly decreased compared to controls (p = 0.049 and 0.042, respectively). Briefly, when expressed as a proportion, an increase in Achilles tendon length and decrease in gastrocsoleus is observed when clubfeet are treated with Botox(®). Only in the Botox(®) treatment cohort did the muscle shrink to uncover tendon (seen as a decreased complex-tendon ratio and muscle-tendon ratio) over the 6-week interval to effectively increase tendon length with respect to the unit as a whole.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 01/2015; 9(1). DOI:10.1007/s11832-015-0633-4
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    ABSTRACT: Synovitis-acne-pustulosis-hyperostosis-osteitis (SAPHO) is an acronym for various osteoarticular and dermatological manifestations that can appear in the same patient. It is a rare syndrome, but since its awareness has increased, there have been more and more such reports in the literature. The objectives of this review are to summarize the current state of knowledge on pediatric and adult-onset SAPHO syndrome, and to discuss treatment strategies that should be considered. The SAPHO syndrome can affect patients of any age, and its etiology is still not known. The syndrome has its cognizable radiological characteristics that are most important in making the diagnosis. There are several diagnostic criteria as well, but they need further validation. No standard treatment protocols are available and current treatment options are not evidenced-based due to the rarity of the syndrome. Therapy is empirical and aimed at easing pain and modifying the inflammatory process. It includes nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as the first-line agents. Antibiotics, corticosteroids, disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, biologicals targeting tumor necrosis factor alpha or interleukin-1, and bisphosphonates have all been used with variable success. Surgery is reserved to treat complications. Even though it is a disease with good long-term prognosis, its treatment remains a challenge and the results are known to be disappointing, especially with the skin component of the disease. It is expected that these patients present at the time of diagnosis and the treatment should be as early, effective, and safe as possible in order to prevent osteoarticular progression and to limit the adverse events associated with pharmacological drugs.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 01/2015; 9(1). DOI:10.1007/s11832-014-0627-7
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    ABSTRACT: A systematic review regarding clinical studies on Hegemann's disease and fishtail deformity was performed with the aims to: (1) formulate the most up-to-date theory on aetiology in order to better define these conditions, (2) summarise the most frequent radiographic descriptions on radiographs and (3) give an overview of different treatment options. A systematic review of studies to date on Hegemann's disease and fishtail deformity was performed. Studies were eligible if: (1) the article provides a description of Hegemann's disease or fishtail deformity, (2) original data of at least one patient was available, (3) the article was written in English, German or Dutch and (4) a full manuscript was available. Animal studies, reviews and expert opinions were not included. We included a total of 22 articles: seven regarding Hegemann's disease including eight patients and 15 regarding fishtail deformity including 58 patients. Fishtail deformity and Hegemann's disease seem to be a spectrum of vascular disorders of the distal humerus, varying from a benign mild vascular disorder to a complete avascular necrosis after fractures. Additional imaging is advised to confirm the presence of a fishtail deformity, intra-articular loose bodies and signs of osteoarthritis to decide if, and what, operative treatment is needed. As long as no clear aetiology for both diseases exist and the clinical symptoms and radiographic appearance are difficult to distinguish, both entities should preferably be named as 'vascular disturbance of the trochlear growth plate' to overcome confusing definitions and discussions.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 01/2015; 9(1). DOI:10.1007/s11832-014-0630-z
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    ABSTRACT: Overactivity or contractures of the hamstring muscles in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP) can lead to either a jump gait (knee flexion associated with ankle plantar flexion) or a crouch gait (knee flexion associated with ankle dorsiflexion). Hamstring lengthening is performed to decrease stance knee flexion. However, this procedure carries the potential risk of weakening hip extension power as well as recurrence over time; therefore, surgeons have adopted a modified procedure wherein the semitendinosus and gracilis are transferred above the knee joint, along with lengthening of the semimembranosus and biceps femoris. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the differences between hamstring lengthening alone (HSL group) and hamstring lengthening plus transfer (HST group) in the treatment of flexed knee gait in ambulatory children with CP. We hypothesized that recurrence of increased knee flexion in the stance phase will be less in the HST group at long-term follow-up, and hip extensor power will be better preserved. Fifty children with CP who underwent hamstring surgery for flexed knee gait were retrospectively reviewed. All subjects underwent a pre-operative gait study, a follow-up post-operative gait study, and a long-term gait study. The subjects were divided into two groups; HSL group (18 subjects) or HST group (32 subjects). The mean age at surgery was 9.9 ± 3.3 years. The mean follow-up time was 4.4 ± 0.9 (2.7-6.3) years. On physical examination, both groups showed improvement in straight leg raise, knee extension, popliteal angle, and maximum knee extension in stance at the first post-op study, and maintained this improvement at the long-term follow-up, with the exception of straight leg raise, which slightly worsened in both groups at the final follow-up. Both groups improved maximum knee extension in stance at the initial follow-up, and maintained this at the long-term follow-up. Only the HST group showed significant (p < 0.05) improvement in the peak hip extension power in stance at the first post-op study, and this increased further at the final follow-up. In the HSL group, there was an initial slight decrease in the hip extension power, which subsequently increased to pre-operative values at the long-term study. Only the HST group showed increase of the average anterior pelvic tilt at the long-term follow-up study, although this was small in magnitude. There were two subjects who developed knee recurvatum at the post-op study, and both were in the HST group. There is no clear benefit in regards to recurrence when comparing HST to HSL in the long term. In both HSL and HST, there was reduction of stance phase knee flexion in the long term, with no clear advantage in either group. Longer follow-up is needed for additional recurrence information. There was greater improvement of hip extension power in the HST group, which may justify the additional operative time of the transfer. This study helps pediatric orthopedic surgeons choose between two different techniques to treat flexed knee gait in patients with CP by showing the long-term outcome of both procedures.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 11/2014; 8(6). DOI:10.1007/s11832-014-0626-8