Journal of Children s Orthopaedics Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: Springer Verlag

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Current impact factor: 0.00

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Other titles SpringerLink
ISSN 1863-2521
OCLC 288981587
Material type Document, Periodical
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Computer File

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Springer Verlag

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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cervical spine fractures with spinal cord injury (CFSCI) can be devastating. We describe the epidemiology of children and adolescents with CFSCI. Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database, we identified 4418 patients (≤18 years old) who had CFSCI from 2000 through 2010. Outcomes of interest were patient characteristics (age, sex), injury characteristics [fracture location, spinal cord injury (SCI) pattern], economic variables (duration of hospital stay, total hospital charges), and mortality. Upper cervical fractures (UCFs) occurred half as often (31.4 %) as lower cervical fractures (LCFs; 68.8 %). Among patients <8 years old, 73.6 % had UCFs; among patients ≥8 years old, 72.3 % had LCFs. Overall, 68.7 % had incomplete SCI, 22.4 % had complete SCI, 6.6 % had central cord syndrome, and 2.3 % had anterior cord syndrome. Patients with complete SCI had the longest hospital stays and highest hospital charges. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 7.3 %, with a sixfold higher rate in patients <8 (30.6 %) vs. those ≥8 (5.1 %) years old (p < 0.001). There was a threefold higher mortality rate in patients with upper (13.5 %) vs. lower (4.3 %) cervical fractures (p < 0.001). Patients with complete SCI had a 1.85-fold higher mortality rate than patients with other cord syndromes (p < 0.001). Patients <8 years old were more likely than older patients to sustain UCFs. Patients with UCFs had a significantly higher mortality rate than those with LCFs. Patients with complete SCI had the longest duration of hospital stay and highest hospital charges and in-hospital mortality rate.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 05/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11832-015-0657-9
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    ABSTRACT: The management of adolescent hallux valgus (AHV) remains controversial, with reservations about both conservative and surgical treatments. Non-operative management has a limited role in preventing progression. Surgical correction of AHV has, amongst other concerns, been associated with a high prevalence of recurrence of deformity after surgery. We conducted a systematic review to assess clinical and radiological outcomes following surgery for AHV. A comprehensive literature search was performed in the Cochrane Library, CINAHL, EMBASE, Google Scholar and PubMed. The study was performed in accordance with the recommendations of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Demographic data, radiographic parameters and results of validated clinical scoring systems were analysed. The published literature on AHV is largely heterogeneous and retrospective. Nine contemporary studies reporting on 140 patients (201 osteotomies) were included. The female to male ratio was 10:1. The mean age at operation was 14.5 years (range 10.5-22). The mean follow-up was 41.6 months (range 12-134). The mean post-operative American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score was 85.8 (standard deviation, SD ±7.38). The mean AOFAS patient satisfaction showed that 86 % (SD ±11.27) of patients were satisfied or very satisfied with their outcome. On the duPont Bunion Rating Score (BRS), 90 % rated their outcome as good or excellent. There was a statistically significant improvement in the inter-metatarsal angle (IMA, p = 0.0003), hallux valgus angle (HVA, p < 0.0001) and distal metatarsal articular angle (DMAA, p = 0.019). Based on the most current published evidence, contemporary surgical interventions for AHV show excellent clinical and radiological outcomes, with high patient satisfaction. The rates of recurrence and other complications are lower than the historically reported figures. There is a need for high-level, multi-centre collaborative studies with prospective data to establish the long-term outcomes and optimal surgical procedure(s).
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 04/2015; 9(2). DOI:10.1007/s11832-015-0655-y
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    ABSTRACT: Retrospective database, chart and medical imaging review. To report on the outcome and evaluate possible risk factors for postoperative complications following selective spinal fusion in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). All patients with AIS who underwent either a selective thoracic or selective thoracolumbar/lumbar spinal fusion at our institution from January 2001 to December 2011 inclusive were included in this study. The minimum postoperative follow-up period of all patients was 2 years. During the 11-year study period, 157 patients with AIS underwent surgery for their progressive spinal deformity. Thirty patients (19 %) had a selective spinal fusion, with 16 patients (group A) having a selective thoracic, and 14 patients (group B) having a selective thoracolumbar/lumbar spinal arthrodesis. In both groups the main postoperative complications were adding-on (25 % group A, 36 % group B) and coronal decompensation (25 % group A, 29 % group B). In group A, no statistically significant risk factors for postoperative complications were identified. In group B, global coronal balance was identified as a significant risk factor for adding-on. Patients with adding-on had significantly higher coronal balance scores (mean 3.6) than those who did not experience adding-on (mean 1.9) (p = 0.03). In addition, those with adding-on had a significantly smaller bending lumbar Cobb angle (mean 15) than those without adding-on (mean 31.6) (p = 0.015). None of the patients who underwent selective spinal fusion required revision surgery. Although the complication rate after performing a selective spinal fusion is high, the revision rate remains low and the debate whether or not to perform a selective spinal fusion will continue.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 04/2015; 9(2). DOI:10.1007/s11832-015-0653-0
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    ABSTRACT: Retrospective, case-control. Knee morphometric risk factors for noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury have been a popular topic with skeletally mature patients. Little research has focused on the skeletally immature, with conflicting conclusions. This study performs a comprehensive analysis of identified parameters thought to predispose to ACL injury in a skeletally immature cohort. A retrospective review of pediatric patients undergoing knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed over a 4-year period. Inclusionary criteria included mid-substance ACL disruption, skeletal immaturity, noncontact injury, without associated ligamentous disruption, and no medical condition associated with ligamentous laxity. MRI studies were analyzed by a pediatric musculoskeletal radiologist, measuring identified bony parameters, and compared with an age-matched control group without ligamentous injury. Data were analyzed using unpaired t-tests and logistic regression. One hundred and twenty-eight patients sustained an ACL disruption, 39 met all inclusionary criteria (66 excluded for associated ligamentous disruption, 23 skeletally mature, three traumatic mechanisms, one with Marfan syndrome). When compared to an age-matched control cohort, the notch width index (NWI) was found to be significantly smaller in the ACL-injured group (p = 0.046). Subgroups analysis demonstrated significant differences in morphometric parameters between subjects with isolated ACL injuries and concomitant medial collateral ligament (MCL) strain. The NWI was significantly smaller in the ACL injury group. Significant differences were noted between isolated ACL injuries and ACL injuries with an MCL strain. This study further highlights the need for incorporating associated injury patterns when investigating the influence of morphometric factors for ACL injury in the skeletally immature. Level III.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 03/2015; 9(2). DOI:10.1007/s11832-015-0652-1
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    ABSTRACT: Proximal femoral osteotomy is the most common major reconstructive surgery in the region of the hip joint in children and adolescents. Given that it may be required across a wide range of ages and indications, appropriate instrumentation is necessary to ensure a technically satisfactory result. Recent developments in fixation include cannulation of the blade plate and locking screw technology. We conducted a prospective audit of our first 25 patients who had a unilateral or bilateral proximal femoral osteotomy using a recently available system which combines cannulation and locking plate technology. The principal outcome measures were the radiographic position of the osteotomy at the time of union and surgical adverse events. Forty-five proximal femoral osteotomies were performed in 25 patients, mean age 8 years (range 3-17 years), for a variety of indications, the most common of which was hip subluxation in children with cerebral palsy. All osteotomies were soundly united by 6 weeks in children and by 3 months in adolescents, in the position achieved intra-operatively. There were no revision procedures and the technical goals of surgery were achieved in all patients. There was one adverse event, a low-grade peri-prosthetic infection, diagnosed at the time of implant removal. In this prospective audit of our first 25 patients, the new system performed well across a wide range of ages, body weights and surgical indications. Further comparative studies will be required to determine whether it offers additional advantages over more traditional systems.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 03/2015; 9(2). DOI:10.1007/s11832-015-0649-9
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    ABSTRACT: I read with interest the article “Combined double tarsal wedge osteotomy and transcuneiform osteotomy for correction of resistant club foot deformity (the bean-shaped foot) by Elgeidi and Abulsaad [1]. I would, however, like to draw attention to some errors in their description of the double osteotomy technique.In their article the authors mention that the procedure described by Jawish [2] in his 1994 article was the sole opening wedge osteotomy of the first cuneiform technique. This is not correct, and in fact in this article the author describes a single medial osteotomy for the foot with primus varus, as well as a double osteotomy for feet with resistant metatarsus adductus observed in the clubfoot and Z-shaped-foot. To quote part of the abstract of Jawish’s [2] article: “in resistant metatarsus adductus, closed wedge osteotomy of the cuboid has been added to correct the varus deformity of the fore foot, it allows lateral swing of the fore foot: the bone excised from the cuboid is u ...
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 03/2015; 9(2). DOI:10.1007/s11832-015-0650-3
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    ABSTRACT: Crouch gait is a major sagittal plane deviation in children diagnosed with cerebral palsy (CP). It is defined as a combination of excessive ankle dorsiflexion and knee and hip flexion throughout the stance phase. To the best of our knowledge, functional electrical stimulation (FES) has not been used to decrease the severity of crouch gait in CP subjects and assist in achieving lower limb extension. To evaluate the short- and long-term effects of FES to the quadriceps muscles in preventing crouch gait and achieving ankle plantar flexion, knee and hip extension at the stance phase. An 18-year-old boy diagnosed with CP diplegia [Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level II] was evaluated. The NESS L300(®) Plus neuroprosthesis system provided electrical stimulation of the quadriceps muscle. A three-dimensional gait analysis was performed using an eight-camera system measuring gait kinematics and spatiotemporal parameters while the subject walked shod only, with ground reaction ankle foot orthotics (GRAFOs) and using an FES device. Walking with the FES device showed an increase in the patient's knee extension at midstance and increased knee maximal extension at the stance phase. In addition, the patient was able to ascend and descend stairs with a "step-through" pattern immediately after adjusting the FES device. This report suggests that FES to the quadriceps muscles may affect knee extension at stance and decrease crouch gait, depending on the adequate passive range of motion of the hip, knee extension, and plantar flexion. Further studies are needed in order to validate these results.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 03/2015; 9(2). DOI:10.1007/s11832-015-0651-2
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was two-fold: (1) to determine if radiographic measures can be reliably made in infants being treated with the Ponseti method and (2) to document radiographic changes before and after Achilles tenotomy. A retrospective radiographic and chart review was performed on children with clubfoot treated by the Ponseti method at a single institution over a 10-year period. Five independent reviewers measured a series of angles from a lateral forced dorsiflexion radiograph taken prior to and following Achilles tenotomy. These measures were taken in triplicate to determine the intra- and inter-reader reliability of dorsiflexion, tibio-calcaneal, talo-calcaneal, and talo-first metatarsal angles. Thirty-six subjects (56 feet) were treated with the Ponseti method and met the inclusion criteria. The median (range) age of patients at the time of tenotomy was 52 (34-147) days. The intra-reader reliability [intra-rater correlation coefficient (ICC)] for each of the measured angles pre- and post-tenotomy ranged from 0.933 to 0.995 and 0.864 to 0.995, respectively. Similarly, the inter-reader reliabilities (ICC) ranged from 0.727 for the pre-tenotomy (talo-calcaneal) to 0.950 for the post-tenotomy (talo-first metatarsal) angles. The mean differences between pre- and post-tenotomy radiographs were: dorsiflexion increase of 17°, tibio-calcaneal angle increase of 19°, talo-calcaneal angle increase of 9°, and talo-first metatarsal angle increase of 10° (p-value ≤0.001 for all measurements except the talo-first metatarsal angle, with a p-value of 0.001). Reliable radiographic measures can be made from lateral dorsiflexion radiographs of clubfeet treated with the Ponseti method before and after Achilles tenotomy.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 03/2015; 9(2). DOI:10.1007/s11832-015-0647-y
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    ABSTRACT: Cartilage hair hypoplasia (CHH) is a rare metaphyseal chondrodysplasia characterized by short stature and short limbs, found primarily in Amish and Finnish populations. Cartilage hair hypoplasia is caused by mutations in the RMRP gene located on chromosome 9p13.3. The disorder has several characteristic orthopaedic manifestations, including joint laxity, limited elbow extension, ankle varus, and genu varum. Immunodeficiency is of concern in most cases. Although patients exhibit orthopaedic problems, the orthopaedic literature on CHH patients is scant at best. The objective of this study was to characterize the orthopaedic manifestations of CHH based on the authors' unique access to the largest collection of CHH patients ever reported. The authors examined charts and/or radiographs in 135 cases of CHH. We analyzed the orthopaedic manifestations to better characterize and further understand the orthopaedic surgeon's role in this disorder. In addition to describing the clinical characteristics, we report on our surgical experience in caring for CHH patients. Genu varum, with or without knee pain, is the most common reason a patient with CHH will seek orthopaedic consultation. Of the cases reviewed, 32 patients had undergone surgery, most commonly to correct genu varum. This paper characterizes the orthopaedic manifestations of CHH. Characterizing this condition in the orthopaedic literature will likely assist orthopaedic surgeons in establishing a correct diagnosis and appreciating the orthopaedic manifestations. It is important that the accompanying medical conditions are appreciated and evaluated.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 03/2015; 9(2). DOI:10.1007/s11832-015-0646-z
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    ABSTRACT: This study compares clinical and radiographic outcomes of operatively managed pediatric supracondylar humerus fractures between patients treated by pediatric orthopedists (POs) and patients treated by non-pediatric orthopedists (NPOs). A retrospective cohort study of pediatric patients with surgically managed supracondylar humerus fractures was conducted. For clinical outcomes analyses, 3 months of clinical follow-up were required, resulting in a sample size of 90 patients (33 treated by NPOs, 57 by POs). For radiographic outcomes analyses, 3 months of both clinical and radiographic follow-up were required, resulting in a sample size of 57 patients (23 treated by NPOs, 34 by POs). The rate of inadequate fracture fixation was higher for patients treated by NPOs (43.5 %) than for patients treated by POs (14.7 %; p = 0.030), but rates of clinical complications, malreduction, and postoperative loss of reduction did not differ. Treatment with open reduction was more common for patients treated by NPOs (33.3 %) than for patients treated by POs (3.5 %; p < 0.001). Total operating room time was longer for patients treated by NPOs (110.9 min) than for patients treated by POs (82.9 min; p < 0.001). While patients treated by POs differed from patients treated by NPOs with respect to several intermediate outcomes, including having a lower rate of open reduction and a lower rate of inadequate fracture fixation, there were no differences between POs and NPOs in the rates of the more meaningful and definitive outcomes, including clinical complications, malreduction, and postoperative loss of reduction.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 02/2015; 9(1). DOI:10.1007/s11832-015-0642-3
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this investigation was to determine which of the following methods of fixation, percutaneous pinning (PP) or intramedullary nailing (IMN), was more cost-effective in the treatment of displaced pediatric proximal humeral fractures (PPHF). A retrospective cohort of surgically treated PPHF over a 12-year period at a single institution was performed. A decision analysis model was constructed to compare three surgical strategies: IMN versus percutaneous pinning leaving the pins exposed (PPE) versus leaving the pins buried (PPB). Finally, sensitivity analyses were performed, assessing the cost-effectiveness of each technique when infection rates and cost of deep infections were varied. A total of 84 patients with displaced PPHF underwent surgical stabilization. A total of 35 cases were treated with IMN, 32 with PPE, and 17 with PPB. The age, sex, and preoperative fracture angulation were similar across all groups. A greater percentage of open reduction was seen in the IMN and PPB groups (p = 0.03), while a higher proportion of physeal injury was seen in the PPE group (p = 0.02). Surgical time and estimated blood loss was higher in the IMN group (p < 0.001 and p = 0.01, respectively). The decision analysis revealed that the PPE technique resulted in an average cost saving of $4,502 per patient compared to IMN and $2,066 compared to PPB. This strategy remained cost-effective even when the complication rates with exposed implants approached 55 %. Leaving pins exposed after surgical fixation of PPHF is more cost-effective than either burying pins or using intramedullary fixation.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 02/2015; 9(1). DOI:10.1007/s11832-015-0643-2
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    ABSTRACT: Today's society is much more mobile than in the past. This increased mobility has resulted in different marriage/parenting groups. We wished to study the demographics of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in our area and compare/contrast our findings with those in the literature and specifically look for new findings compared to previous studies. A retrospective review of all children with DDH from 2003 through 2012 was performed. The age at first visit, gestational age, pregnancy number, gender, race, and family history of DDH was collected. Statistical significance was a p-value < 0.05. There were 424 children (363 girls, 61 boys). Ethnicity was White in 80.8 %, Hispanic in 13.8 %, Black in 4.0 %, and Indo-Malay and Indo-Mediterranean in 0.7 % each; 66.8 % were unilateral; 14.2 % had a positive family history. The average gestational age was 38.1 weeks; 94.4 % were full term. The child was vertex presentation in 67.6 % and breech in 32.4 %; 52.8 % were delivered vaginally and 47.2 % by Cesarean section. The child was the first-born in 48.3 %. When compared to the birth statistics of our state, there was a higher proportion of Whites and Hispanics with DDH, and a lower, but not inconsequential, proportion of Blacks (p = 0.0018). Mixing of gene pools and infant carrying methods (lack of swaddling or marked abduction) occurring with societal change likely explains the higher than expected proportion of DDH amongst those of Hispanic ethnicity and a lower than expected, but not rare, proportion in those of African ancestry. Level IV-retrospective case series.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 02/2015; 9(1). DOI:10.1007/s11832-015-0636-1
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    ABSTRACT: Background Pediatric pelvic fractures are associated with high-energy trauma and injury to other systems, leading to an increased incidence of complication and mortality. Previous studies analyzed the pediatric population as a whole, including both children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine whether adolescents with pelvic fracture have different complication and mortality rates compared to younger children and adults. Methods Using the National Trauma Data Bank, 37,784 patients below the age of 55 years with pelvic fractures were identified and divided into children (age <13 years), adolescents (age 13–17 years), and adults (age >17 years). Descriptive statistics and bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Results Children had an increased odds of death [odds ratio (OR) 2.29, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.96–2.67] and complications (OR 1.36, 95 % CI 1.20–1.55), whereas adolescents had a decrease in odds of death (OR 0.89, 95 % CI 0.74–1.06) and complications (OR 0.70, 95 % CI 0.61–0.81) compared to the adult population. Conclusions Adolescents with pelvic fractures exhibit a different physiologic response to the children and adult populations. This emphasizes the need to distinguish these subpopulations in future epidemiological research and treatment planning.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 02/2015; 9(1). DOI:10.1007/s11832-015-0634-3
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    ABSTRACT: The manipulations, casts, and Botox(®) method for treating idiopathic clubfoot is an alternative non-surgical treatment method. Botox(®)-induced reversible muscle paralysis of the gastrocsoleus enables a physician to manipulate and cast the clubfoot in greater dorsiflexion. Ultrasound is incorporated during the early treatment stages to monitor the underlying physiology of the muscle-tendon unit following Botox(®). Ultrasonographic evaluation was performed parallel to a double-blind randomized control trial administering Botox(®) or placebo to correct clubfoot. Patients underwent two-dimensional ultrasound to monitor the length changes to the gastrocsoleus and Achilles tendon unit at two time points: pre-injection (baseline) and 6 weeks post-blinded injection. Gastrocsoleus and Achilles tendon length measurements were analyzed among placebo, Botox(®) and contralateral controls using repeated measures ANOVA. The baseline gastrocsoleus length of the clubfoot (322.4 pixels) before blinded injection appears shorter than controls (337.5 pixels), but fails to reach significance (p = 0.05). The complex length within each of the three treatment groups displayed no significant change between baseline and 6 weeks. The complex-tendon ratio and muscle-tendon ratio of the Botox(®) treatment group was significantly decreased compared to controls (p = 0.049 and 0.042, respectively). Briefly, when expressed as a proportion, an increase in Achilles tendon length and decrease in gastrocsoleus is observed when clubfeet are treated with Botox(®). Only in the Botox(®) treatment cohort did the muscle shrink to uncover tendon (seen as a decreased complex-tendon ratio and muscle-tendon ratio) over the 6-week interval to effectively increase tendon length with respect to the unit as a whole.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 01/2015; 9(1). DOI:10.1007/s11832-015-0633-4
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    ABSTRACT: Synovitis-acne-pustulosis-hyperostosis-osteitis (SAPHO) is an acronym for various osteoarticular and dermatological manifestations that can appear in the same patient. It is a rare syndrome, but since its awareness has increased, there have been more and more such reports in the literature. The objectives of this review are to summarize the current state of knowledge on pediatric and adult-onset SAPHO syndrome, and to discuss treatment strategies that should be considered. The SAPHO syndrome can affect patients of any age, and its etiology is still not known. The syndrome has its cognizable radiological characteristics that are most important in making the diagnosis. There are several diagnostic criteria as well, but they need further validation. No standard treatment protocols are available and current treatment options are not evidenced-based due to the rarity of the syndrome. Therapy is empirical and aimed at easing pain and modifying the inflammatory process. It includes nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as the first-line agents. Antibiotics, corticosteroids, disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, biologicals targeting tumor necrosis factor alpha or interleukin-1, and bisphosphonates have all been used with variable success. Surgery is reserved to treat complications. Even though it is a disease with good long-term prognosis, its treatment remains a challenge and the results are known to be disappointing, especially with the skin component of the disease. It is expected that these patients present at the time of diagnosis and the treatment should be as early, effective, and safe as possible in order to prevent osteoarticular progression and to limit the adverse events associated with pharmacological drugs.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 01/2015; 9(1). DOI:10.1007/s11832-014-0627-7