Journal of Children s Orthopaedics

Publisher: Springer Verlag

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  • Other titles
    SpringerLink
  • ISSN
    1863-2521
  • OCLC
    288981587
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Computer File

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Springer Verlag

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Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: Overactivity or contractures of the hamstring muscles in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP) can lead to either a jump gait (knee flexion associated with ankle plantar flexion) or a crouch gait (knee flexion associated with ankle dorsiflexion). Hamstring lengthening is performed to decrease stance knee flexion. However, this procedure carries the potential risk of weakening hip extension power as well as recurrence over time; therefore, surgeons have adopted a modified procedure wherein the semitendinosus and gracilis are transferred above the knee joint, along with lengthening of the semimembranosus and biceps femoris. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the differences between hamstring lengthening alone (HSL group) and hamstring lengthening plus transfer (HST group) in the treatment of flexed knee gait in ambulatory children with CP. We hypothesized that recurrence of increased knee flexion in the stance phase will be less in the HST group at long-term follow-up, and hip extensor power will be better preserved. Fifty children with CP who underwent hamstring surgery for flexed knee gait were retrospectively reviewed. All subjects underwent a pre-operative gait study, a follow-up post-operative gait study, and a long-term gait study. The subjects were divided into two groups; HSL group (18 subjects) or HST group (32 subjects). The mean age at surgery was 9.9 ± 3.3 years. The mean follow-up time was 4.4 ± 0.9 (2.7-6.3) years. On physical examination, both groups showed improvement in straight leg raise, knee extension, popliteal angle, and maximum knee extension in stance at the first post-op study, and maintained this improvement at the long-term follow-up, with the exception of straight leg raise, which slightly worsened in both groups at the final follow-up. Both groups improved maximum knee extension in stance at the initial follow-up, and maintained this at the long-term follow-up. Only the HST group showed significant (p < 0.05) improvement in the peak hip extension power in stance at the first post-op study, and this increased further at the final follow-up. In the HSL group, there was an initial slight decrease in the hip extension power, which subsequently increased to pre-operative values at the long-term study. Only the HST group showed increase of the average anterior pelvic tilt at the long-term follow-up study, although this was small in magnitude. There were two subjects who developed knee recurvatum at the post-op study, and both were in the HST group. There is no clear benefit in regards to recurrence when comparing HST to HSL in the long term. In both HSL and HST, there was reduction of stance phase knee flexion in the long term, with no clear advantage in either group. Longer follow-up is needed for additional recurrence information. There was greater improvement of hip extension power in the HST group, which may justify the additional operative time of the transfer. This study helps pediatric orthopedic surgeons choose between two different techniques to treat flexed knee gait in patients with CP by showing the long-term outcome of both procedures.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The management of proximal femoral deformity in fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a challenge to the orthopaedic surgeon. The purpose of this study was to analyze the various presentations of FD of proximal femur and the results of the various treatment modalities for the same. This is a retrospective cohort study of 23 patients (24 femora) with FD who underwent surgery for the proximal femur. The study sample included 14 males, nine females. Ten patients had a monostotic disease, eight patients had polyostotic disease, and five patients had McCune-Albright syndrome. Group 1: shepherd crook deformity-included five patients who underwent femoral neck osteotomy. Four patients had intramedullary (IM) nailing with neck cross-pinning and all patients showed union. One patient was stabilized with external fixation, which failed. Group 2: nine patients (ten femora) presented with frank pathological fracture. Nine underwent fixation with IM nailing, one with locking plate and screws. Three patients had to undergo more than one procedure and all fractures showed good union. Group 3: nine patients who presented with bone cyst and pain. All patients underwent biopsy; four of them had curettage with bone graft. Shepherd crook deformity can be treated by a well-planned osteotomy and fixation with intramedullary implants with neck cross-pinning. Frank pathological fractures fixation with an intramedullary nail has excellent results even if not accompanied by resolution of the fibrodysplastic lesion. More than one procedure may be required. External fixation is not an optimal choice for fixation of femoral osteotomies in FD.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We assessed the radiographic changes of the acetabulum during the course of Perthes' disease and investigated whether they were associated with femoral head sphericity 5 years after diagnosis. We studied 123 children with unilateral Perthes' disease, femoral head necrosis more than 50 % and age at diagnosis 6 years or older. Pelvic radiographs were taken at onset, 1 year and 5 years after diagnosis. Sharp's angle, acetabular depth-to-width ratio (ADR) and lateral acetabular inclination were measured. Compared to the unaffected hips, the Perthes' hips developed significantly higher Sharp's angles (p < 0.001) and a higher proportion with an upward-sloping lateral acetabular margin (Perthes' hips: 49 %, unaffected hips 1 %). The mean ADR values were significantly lower on the affected side at all stages (p < 0.001). ADR values at diagnosis were associated with a more spherical femoral head at the 5-year follow-up [odds ratio (OR) 1.012, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.002-1.022, p = 0.016]. None of the other acetabular parameters were significantly associated with the femoral head shape 5 years after diagnosis. The acetabulum developed an increasingly dysplastic shape in the course of Perthes' disease. Early dysplastic changes of the acetabulum were not associated with a poor radiological outcome 5 years after diagnosis. Routine measurement and monitoring of acetabular changes in plain radiographs were of little prognostic value and can, therefore, hardly be recommended in clinical practice.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Supracondylar fractures of the humerus are the most common fracture of the elbow in children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in terms of outcomes and complications, Gartland type III pediatric supracondylar humerus fractures treated at a pediatric level-one trauma center over a 7-year period, specifically addressing the impact of time to surgery on the incidence of complications and conversion to open reduction.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: There is limited literature on nonoperative treatment of open type I pediatric fractures. Our purpose was to evaluate the rate of infection in pediatric patients with type I open fractures treated nonoperatively at our institution without admission from the emergency department (ED).
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Variation in rib numbering has been noted in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), but its effect on the reporting of fusion levels has not been studied. We hypothesized that vertebral numbering variations can lead to differing documentation of fusion levels.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is the most common congenital musculoskeletal abnormality. Recourse to definitive surgical treatment is not typically taken until over the age of 18-24 months. International consensus regarding age at surgery, degree of dysplasia requiring surgery and type of osteotomy is not available in the literature.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Management of gap nonunion of tibia is technically difficult, time consuming, physically and psychologically demanding for the patient with unpredictable results. Various techniques have been described in literature for the treatment of gap nonunions, but each one has its own limitations.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is common, and the term encompasses a spectrum of anatomical abnormalities of the hip in which the femoral head displaces from the acetabulum. These abnormalities may be congenital or develop during infancy and/or childhood. Neither the prenatal and postnatal factors that predispose to hip instability nor the determinants of its resolution or persistence are well characterised. A multifactorial pathogenesis of DDH is commonly accepted and identified risk factors include a family history, being first born, breech presentation, female gender, high birth weight and oligohydramnios 1. Further to genetic factors, a number of nutritional, hormonal and mechanical influences on ligament laxity have been hypothesised.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Between 1959 and 1962, several children with multiple malformations were born after maternal intake of thalidomide during pregnancy, known as thalidomide embryopathy (TE).
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The "bean-shaped foot" exhibits forefoot adduction and midfoot supination, which interfere with function because of poor foot placement. The purpose of the study is a retrospective evaluation of patients who underwent a combined double tarsal wedge osteotomy and transcuneiform osteotomy to correct such a deformity.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Several studies have claimed ultrasound to be useful and accurate in assessing the healing phase of Achilles tendons after tenotomy during Ponseti treatment for clubfoot deformity. The purpose of our study was to assess the healing process of Achilles tendons ultrasonographically after tenotomy as part of Ponseti clubfoot management and to assess the effects of previously not considered ultrasound properties (anisotropy, partial volume effect), and whether these practical considerations affect accurate measurements which have been claimed possible in previous studies.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is one of the most commonly diagnosed and treated paediatric orthopaedic conditions.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The surgical treatment of paediatric fractures is increasing. Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) with plates and screws is long established, whilst the use of elastic stable intramedullary nailing (ESIN) has become increasingly popular. This study quantifies, in terms of the energy required to produce a fracture, the biomechanical sequelae of both techniques post removal of metalwork, to provide clinicians with evidence to guide post-operative advice.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Diaphyseal forearm fractures are common in children and adolescents. Intramedullary fixation with flexible nails has a high success rate. Complications related to the insertion of the radial nail include injury to the superficial branch of the radial nerve and rupture of the extensor pollicis longus (EPL) tendon.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 08/2014;