Zoonoses and Public Health (ZOONOSES PUBLIC HLTH )

Publisher: Blackwell Publishing


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    Zoonoses and public health (Online)
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Antimicrobial resistance continues to grow and antimicrobial use in food animal production and to a lesser extent in human patients is under fire. Much of the criticism has to do with the misapplication of these drugs in both settings. Research indicates that patients, food animal producers, physicians and veterinarians have all played a part in misusing antimicrobials, often because of mistaken beliefs. This paper reviews this research and introduces a theoretical perspective, the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), which broadens our understanding of the motivations for misuse. In particular this approach shows that individuals making decisions about antimicrobial use take into account social pressures from and a sense of obligation to significant others in their social networks. Our own work summarized in this paper indicates that both feedlot veterinarians and feedlot managers' antimicrobial decisions are influenced by both expectations from and obligations to a variety of actors in the feedlot network (other veterinarians, feedlot clients, consumers, pharmaceutical companies, and regulatory bodies). Generally across 4 circumstances of antimicrobial use (for acutely sick cattle, chronically-sick cattle, at-risk cattle, high-risk cattle), it is largely the perception that peers and clients expect feedlot veterinarians to use antimicrobials and feedlot veterinarians sense of obligation to these groups that have the most influence on their decisions to recommend antimicrobials. Based on these findings, the question of engaging in changing the choices made by those working with food animals must start with those who influence the decision to proscribe or use antimicrobials. As our data come from the United States and may be unique relative to other countries, these efforts should begin by ascertaining who influences these decisions. The next step is to then change the beliefs of these significant others. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
    Zoonoses and Public Health 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence, antimicrobial resistance patterns, phenotypic and genotypic relatedness of Salmonella enterica recovered from captive wildlife host species and in the environment in Ohio, USA. A total of 319 samples including faecal (n = 225), feed (n = 38) and environmental (n = 56) were collected from 32 different wild and exotic animal species in captivity and their environment in Ohio. Salmonellae were isolated using conventional culture methods and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility with the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Salmonella isolates were serotyped, and genotyping was performed using the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Salmonella was detected in 56 of 225 (24.9%) faecal samples; six of 56 (10.7%) environmental samples and six of 38 (15.8%) feed samples. Salmonella was more commonly isolated in faecal samples from giraffes (78.2%; 36/46), cranes (75%; 3/4) and raccoons (75%; 3/4). Salmonella enterica serotypes of known public health significance including S. Typhimurium (64.3%), S. Newport (32.1%) and S. Heidelberg (5.3%) were identified. While the majority of the Salmonella isolates were pan-susceptible (88.2%; 60 of 68), multidrug-resistant strains including penta-resistant type, AmStTeKmGm (8.8%; six of 68) were detected. Genotypic diversity was found among S. Typhimurium isolates. The identification of clonally related Salmonella isolates from environment and faeces suggests that indirect transmission of Salmonella among hosts via environmental contamination is an important concern to workers, visitors and other wildlife. Results of this study show the diversity of Salmonella serovars and public health implications of human exposure from wildlife reservoirs.
    Zoonoses and Public Health 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Multistate outbreaks of salmonellosis associated with live poultry contact have been occurring with increasing frequency. In 2013, multistate outbreaks of salmonellosis were traced back to exposure to live poultry, some of which were purchased at a national chain of farm stores (Farm store chain Y). This study was conducted at 36 stores of Farm store chain Y and was concurrent with the timing of exposure for the human outbreaks of salmonellosis in 2013. We used environmental swabs of arriving shipment boxes of hatchling poultry and shipment tracking information to examine the distribution, diversity and anti-microbial resistance of non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) across farm stores and hatcheries. Isolates recovered from shipment boxes underwent serotyping, anti-microbial resistance (AMR) testing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Postal service tracking codes from the shipment boxes were used to determine the hatchery of origin. The PFGE patterns were compared with the PFGE patterns of NTS causing outbreaks of salmonellosis in 2013. A total of 219 hatchling boxes from 36 stores in 13 states were swabbed between 15 March 2013 and 18 April 2013. NTS were recovered from 59 (27%) of 219 hatchling boxes. Recovery was not significantly associated with species of hatchlings, number of birds in the shipment box, or the presence of dead, injured or sick birds. Four of the 23 PFGE patterns and 23 of 50 isolates were indistinguishable from strains causing human outbreaks in 2013. For serotypes associated with human illnesses, PFGE patterns most frequently recovered from shipment boxes were also more frequent causes of human illness. Boxes positive for the same PFGE pattern most frequently originated from the same mail-order hatchery. Only one of 59 isolates was resistant to anti-microbials used to treat Salmonella infections in people. This study provides critical information to address recurrent human outbreaks of salmonellosis associated with mail-order hatchling poultry.
    Zoonoses and Public Health 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Campylobacter spp. are the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide and have been isolated from a wide number of different hosts and environmental sources. Waterfowl is considered a natural reservoir for this zoonotic bacterium and may act as a potential infection source for human campylobacteriosis. In this study, faecal samples from 924 barnacle geese were tested for the presence of C. jejuni and C. coli. The resulting C. jejuni and C. coli populations were characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), structure analysis by BAPS and phylogenetic analysis based on full genome sequences. The prevalences of C. jejuni in barnacle geese faeces were 11.5% and 23.1% in 2011 and 2012, respectively, and only 0.2% of the samples were positive for C. coli in both years. Furthermore, a possible adaption of the clonal complexes (CCs) ST-702 and ST-1034 to the barnacle geese reservoir was found, as these two CCs represented the majority of the typed isolates and were repeatedly isolated from different flocks at several time-points. Further core genome phylogenetic analysis using ClonalFrame revealed a formation of a distinct monophyletic lineage by these two CCs, suggesting a certain degree of clonality of the C. jejuni population adapted to barnacle geese. Therefore, although STs also commonly found in humans patients (e.g. ST-45) were among the barnacle geese C. jejuni isolates, this reservoir is probably an infrequent source for human campylobacteriosis.
    Zoonoses and Public Health 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Variant influenza viruses are swine-origin influenza A viruses that cause illness in humans. Surveillance for variant influenza A viruses, including characterization of exposure settings, is important because of the potential emergence of novel influenza viruses with pandemic potential. In Minnesota, we have documented variant influenza A virus infections associated with swine exposure at live animal markets.
    Zoonoses and Public Health 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Salmonella enterica serovar Rissen has been recognized as one of the most common serovar among humans and pork production systems in different parts of the world, especially Asia. In the United States, this serovar caused outbreaks but its epidemiologic significance remains unknown. The objectives of this study were to compare the phenotypic (antimicrobial susceptibility) and genotypic attributes of Salmonella Rissen isolated in Thailand (Thai) and the United States (US). All the Thai isolates (n = 30) were recovered from swine faecal samples. The US isolates (n = 35) were recovered from swine faecal samples (n = 29), cattle (n = 2), chicken (n = 2), dog (n = 1) and a ready-to-eat product (n = 1). The antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates was determined using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method with a panel of 12 antimicrobials. Pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to determine the genotypic diversity of isolates. All Thai isolates showed multidrug resistance (MDR) with the most frequent antibiotic resistance shown against ampicillin (100%), sulfisoxazole (96.7%), tetracycline (93.3%), streptomycin (90%) and chloramphenicol (30%). About half of the isolates of USA origin were pan-susceptible and roughly 30% were resistant to only tetracycline (R-type: Te). Salmonella Rissen isolated from Thailand and the USA in this study were found to be clonally unrelated. Genotypic analyses indicated that isolates were clustered primarily based on the geographic origin implying the limited clonality among the strains. Clonal relatedness among different host species within the same geography (USA) was found. We found genotypic similarity in Thai and US isolates in few instances but with no epidemiological link. Further studies to assess propensity for increased inter-regional transmission and dissemination is warranted.
    Zoonoses and Public Health 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Reptile-associated salmonellosis (RAS) occurs when Salmonella is transmitted from a reptile to a human. This study describes the epidemiology of RAS in Minnesota during 1996-2011. All Minnesotans with confirmed Salmonella infections are reported to the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH). Case patients are interviewed about illness characteristics and risk factors, including foods eaten, drinking and recreational water exposures, contact with ill people, and animal contact. Willing RAS case patients can submit stool from the reptile for culture. Serotype and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) subtype of Salmonella isolates from reptiles and case patients are compared. Of 8389 sporadic (not associated with an outbreak) non-typhoidal salmonellosis case patients in Minnesotans during 1996-2011, 290 (3.5%) reported reptile exposure. The median age of case patients with reptile exposure was 11 years, 31% were under the age of 5 years and 67% were under the age of 20 years; 50% were female. The median illness duration was 8 days; 23% required hospitalization. The most commonly reported reptile exposures were lizard (47%), snake (20%), turtle (19%) and a combination of reptile types (14%). Eighty-four per cent of isolates from case patients who reported reptile exposure were Salmonella enterica subspecies I. The three most common serotypes were Typhimurium (15%), Enteritidis (7%) and subspecies IV serotypes (7%). Of 60 reptiles testing positive for Salmonella, 36 (60%) yielded the same Salmonella serotype as the human isolate. Twenty-six of 27 reptile isolates that were subtyped by PFGE were indistinguishable from the human isolate. Of these, 88% were subspecies I; the most common serotypes were Enteritidis (12%), Typhimurium (8%), and Bareilly (8%). RAS accounts for approximately 3.5% of salmonellosis cases in Minnesota, primarily affecting children. The majority of isolates from case patients and reptiles belonged to Salmonella subspecies I, suggesting that reptiles are a source of human infection with serotypes not traditionally considered to be reptile-associated.
    Zoonoses and Public Health 06/2014;
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    Zoonoses and Public Health 06/2014; 61 Suppl S1:2.
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    ABSTRACT: This article is the first in a series of six articles related to systematic reviews in animal agriculture and veterinary medicine. In this article, we overview the methodology of systematic reviews and provide a discussion of their use. Systematic reviews differ qualitatively from traditional reviews by explicitly defining a specific review question, employing methods to reduce bias in the selection and inclusion of studies that address the review question (including a systematic and specified search strategy, and selection of studies based on explicit eligibility criteria), an assessment of the risk of bias for included studies and objectively summarizing the results qualitatively or quantitatively (i.e. via meta-analysis). Systematic reviews have been widely used to address human healthcare questions and are increasingly being used in veterinary medicine. Systematic reviews can provide veterinarians and other decision-makers with a scientifically defensible summary of the current state of knowledge on a topic without the need for the end-user to read the vast amount of primary research related to that topic.
    Zoonoses and Public Health 06/2014; 61 Suppl S1:3-9.
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    Zoonoses and Public Health 06/2014; 61 Suppl S1:1.
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    ABSTRACT: This is the fifth in a series of six articles describing systematic reviews in animal agriculture and veterinary medicine. The previous articles in this series overviewed the development of a review protocol and the initial steps in conducting a systematic review: identification of a structured question to be answered and conducting a comprehensive literature search to find potentially relevant original research to address the review question. This article describes relevance screening of literature identified in the search to determine which of the original research articles are relevant to the review question, data extraction from primary research studies, the use of standardized procedures to assess the risk of bias in the relevant research studies, presenting the results of the body of research identified and interpreting these results.
    Zoonoses and Public Health 06/2014; 61 Suppl S1:39-51.
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    ABSTRACT: This article is the fourth of six articles addressing systematic reviews in animal agriculture and veterinary medicine. Previous articles in the series have introduced systematic reviews, discussed study designs and hierarchies of evidence, and provided details on conducting randomized controlled trials, a common design for use in systematic reviews. This article describes development of a review protocol and the first two steps in a systematic review: formulating a review question, and searching the literature for relevant research. The emphasis is on systematic reviews of questions related to interventions. The review protocol is developed prior to conducting the review and specifies the plan for the conduct of the review, identifies the roles and responsibilities of the review team and provides structured definitions related to the review question. For intervention questions, the review question should be defined by the PICO components: population, intervention, comparison and outcome(s). The literature search is designed to identify all potentially relevant original research that may address the question. Search terms related to some or all of the PICO components are entered into literature databases, and searches for unpublished literature also are conducted. All steps of the literature search are documented to provide transparent reporting of the process.
    Zoonoses and Public Health 06/2014; 61 Suppl S1:28-38.
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    ABSTRACT: This article is the sixth in a series of six articles describing systematic reviews of interventions in animal agriculture and veterinary medicine. The first article provided an overview of systematic reviews, followed by an article on building evidence across study designs, and an article describing criteria for validity in randomized controlled trials. The fourth article in this series overviewed the initial steps in conducting a systematic review: development of a review protocol, identification of the structured question to be addressed and conducting a comprehensive literature search to identify potentially relevant research to address the review question. The fifth article introduced relevance screening of literature to identify and include research that is relevant to the review question, the use of standardized checklists and procedures to assess the risk of bias in the relevant research, data extraction from primary research studies and summarizing the results of the body of research identified. Many systematic reviews of interventions aim to use a quantitative method to combine the results of multiple studies and provide a more precise estimate of the effect of the intervention on the outcome, that is, a summary effect measure. The objective of this article was to describe general approaches that are available for quantitative synthesis of data. Specific details of all meta-analysis statistical approaches are beyond the capacity of this article.
    Zoonoses and Public Health 06/2014; 61 Suppl S1:52-63.
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    ABSTRACT: Scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy are fatal neurodegenerative diseases caused by the accumulation of a misfolded protein (PrP(res) ), the pathological form of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C) ). For the last decades, prion research has greatly progressed, but many questions need to be solved about prion replication mechanisms, cell toxicity, differences in genetic susceptibility, species barrier or the nature of prion strains. These studies can be developed in murine models of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, although development of cell models for prion replication and sample titration could reduce economic and timing costs and also serve for basic research and treatment testing. Some murine cell lines can replicate scrapie strains previously adapted in mice and very few show the toxic effects of prion accumulation. Brain cell primary cultures can be more accurate models but are difficult to develop in naturally susceptible species like humans or domestic ruminants. Stem cells can be differentiated into neuron-like cells and be infected by prions. However, the use of embryo stem cells causes ethical problems in humans. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be isolated from many adult tissues, including bone marrow, adipose tissue or even peripheral blood. These cells differentiate into neuronal cells, express PrP(C) and can be infected by prions in vitro. In addition, in the last years, these cells are being used to develop therapies for many diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases. We review here the use of cell models in prion research with a special interest in the potential use of MSCs.
    Zoonoses and Public Health 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The Caucasus is a region of geopolitical importance, in the gateway between Europe and Asia. This geographical location makes the region equally important in the epidemiology and control of transboundary infectious diseases such as rabies. Azerbaijan is the largest country in the Caucasus, and although rabies is notifiable and considered endemic, there is little information on the burden of human and animal rabies. Here, we describe a cross-disciplinary international collaboration aimed at improving rabies control in Azerbaijan. Partial nucleoprotein gene sequences were obtained from animal rabies cases for comparison with those from surrounding areas. Reported human and animal rabies cases between 2000 and 2010 were also reviewed and analysed by region and year. Comparison of rabies virus strains circulating in Azerbaijan demonstrates more than one lineage of rabies virus circulating concurrently in Azerbaijan and illustrates the need for further sample collection and characterization. Officially reported rabies data showed an increase in human and animal rabies cases, and an increase in animal bites requiring provision of post-exposure prophylaxis, since 2006. This is despite apparently consistent levels of dog vaccination and culling of stray dogs.
    Zoonoses and Public Health 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: New members of the influenza A virus genus have been detected recently in bats from South America. By molecular investigations, using a generic real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) that detects all previously known influenza A virus subtypes (H1-H16) and a newly developed RT-qPCR specific for the South American bat influenza-like virus of subtype H17, a total of 1571 samples obtained from 1369 individual bats of 26 species from Central Europe were examined. No evidence for the occurrence of such influenza viruses was found. Further attempts towards a more comprehensive evaluation of the role of bats in the ecology and epidemiology of influenza viruses should be based on more intense monitoring efforts. However, given the protected status of bats, not only in Europe, such activities need to be embedded into existing pathogen-monitoring programs.
    Zoonoses and Public Health 05/2014;