Landscape and Ecological Engineering (Landsc Ecol Eng)
Landscape and Ecological Engineering is published by the International Consortium of Landscape and Ecological Engineering (ICLEE) in the interests of protecting and improving the environment in the face of biodiversity loss, desertification, global warming, and other environmental conditions. The journal invites original papers, reports, reviews and technical notes on all aspects of conservation, restoration, and management of ecosystems. It is not limited to purely scientific approaches, but welcomes technological and design approaches that provide useful and practical solutions to today's environmental problems. The journal's coverage is relevant to universities and research institutes, while its emphasis on the practical application of research will be important to all decision makers dealing with landscape planning and management problems.
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Publications in this journal
Article: Satoyama management in the twenty-first century: the challenge of sustainable use and continued biocultural diversity in rural cultural landscapesLandscape and Ecological Engineering 05/2012; 7(2):161-162.
Article: Erratum to: Growth and photosynthetic response of Fagus crenata seedlings to ozone and/or elevated carbon dioxideLandscape and Ecological Engineering 05/2012; 6(2):191-191.
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ABSTRACT: Green space is particularly indispensable for proper functioning of the ecosystem in an urban environment. This study was an attempt to dynamically map and monitor green spaces in Greater Dhaka of Bangladesh. Both primary and secondary data were acquired to document the spatial–temporal dynamics of green spaces in the study area. Using a supervised classification algorithm, multi-temporal land use/cover data were extracted from a set of satellite images. A number of spatial metrics were employed to understand the landscape condition in a multi-temporal manner. In addition, 50 key informants along with focus group discussion and observation techniques were used to document existing management aspects of green spaces and their conservation policies. The analysis revealed that green spaces in Greater Dhaka are rapidly disappearing over the course of time even though they provide a number of natural, economic and social benefits. The disappearance of green spaces was primarily attributed to a rapid increase in the urban population, mainly driven by rural–urban migration. As a result, the landscape became highly fragmented and less connected. A substantial reduction of green patches is also leading to deterioration of the ecological condition of the landscape. The drastic reduction of green spaces in Greater Dhaka has been attributed to a lack of policy, low political motivation, and poor management. In order to ensure sustainability of green spaces and proper functioning of the city’s ecosystem, there is an urgent need for strategic green space planning. KeywordsGreen space–Remote sensing–Matrix–Green space benefits–Green space destructionLandscape and Ecological Engineering 05/2012; 8(1):45-58.
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ABSTRACT: We determined the reduction factor for the woody part of culm for one of the largest bamboo species, Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel ex Houz. The determined reduction factor enables us to convert the cross-sectional area of the whole culm into that of the culm wall. We collected 650 cross-cutting sample culms from a stand of P. pubescens in Mt. Toshima, Kumamoto Prefecture, western Japan. For the cut-end surface, the external culm diameter and culm wall thickness were measured, and then the cross-sectional area of the whole culm and the culm wall were computed. The cross-sectional area of the culm wall was strongly correlated with that of the whole culm. The regression analysis between these cross-sectional area indicated that the reduction factor for P. pubescens was 0.311, independent of the magnitude of the cross-sectional area. The independence implied that the determined reduction factor could be directly applied to convert the apparent culm volume into wood volume. Implications of the reduction factor for estimating transpiration and carbon stock of P. pubescens stands were discussed. The Monte Carlo simulation revealed that at least, but not more than, 60–70 cross-cutting culms collected from 20 culms are necessary for the reduction factor when estimating the stand level transpiration and carbon stock. KeywordsApparent culm volume–Carbon stock–Monte Carlo simulation–Stand transpiration–Wood volumeLandscape and Ecological Engineering 05/2012; 7(1):153-157.
Article: Soil moisture condition and soil nitrogen dynamics in a pure Alnus japonica forest in Korea[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to examine the influences of soil-moisture conditions on soil nitrogen (N) dynamics, including in situ soil N mineralization, N availability, and denitrification in a pure Alnus japonica forest located in Seoul, central Korea. The soil N mineralization, N availability, and denitrification were determined using the buried bag incubation method, ion exchange resin bag method, and acetylene block method, respectively. The annual net N mineralization rate (kgNha−1year−1) and annual N availability (mgNbag−1) were 40.26 and 80.65 in the relatively dry site, −5.43 and 45.39 in the moist site, and 7.09 and 39.17 in the wet site, respectively. The annual net N mineralization rate and annual N availability in the dry site were significantly higher than those in the moist and wet sites, whereas there was no significant difference between the moist and wet sites. The annual mean denitrification rate (kgNha−1year−1) in the dry, moist, and wet sites was 2.37, 2.76, and 1.59, respectively. However, there was no significant difference among sites due to the high spatial and temporal variations. Our results indicate that soil-moisture condition influenced the in situ N mineralization and resin bag N availability in an A. japonica forest, and treatments of proper drainage for poorly drained sites would increase soil N mineralization and N availability and consequently be useful to conserve and manage the A. japonica forest. KeywordsDenitrification–Nitrogen availability–Nitrogen mineralizationLandscape and Ecological Engineering 05/2012; 7(1):93-99.
Article: Differences in bird communities in postfire silvicultural practices stands within pine forest of South Korea[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We examined differences in bird communities in relation to characteristics of habitat structure in a pine forest, Samcheok, South Korea. An unburned stand, a stand burned 7years earlier and then naturally restored, and a stand where Japanese red pine Pinus densiflora seedlings were planted after the fire were used for the survey. Habitat structure was dramatically changed by postfire silvicultural practices. Number of stand trees, shrubs, seedlings, snags, and vegetation coverage were significantly different among study stands. We made 1,421 detections of 46 bird species during 23 separate line transect surveys per stand between February 2007 and December 2008. The mean number of observed bird species and individuals, bird species diversity index (H′), and Simpson’s diversity index (D s) were highest in the unburned stand and lowest in the pine seedling stand. There were more species and individuals of forest-dwelling birds in the unburned stand than both burned stands. Canopy and cavity nesters, foliage searchers, bark gleaners, and timber drillers were significantly higher in the unburned stand. In the pine seedling stand, densities of birds that prefer open field and shrub cover were higher. Stand structure was simplified in the pine seedling stand by postfire practices. Because of differences in habitat structure and bird communities, postfire practices in the burned stand should be re-evaluated. Also, management strategies for pine forest after forest fires are needed based on results of long-term experiments. KeywordsBurned stand–Fire–Forest-dwelling birds–Forest structureLandscape and Ecological Engineering 05/2012; 7(1):137-143.
Article: Nitrogen stocks in a riparian area invaded by N-fixing black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.)[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Fixation of river flow passages and riverbed degradation may facilitate the development of higher floodplains with the establishment of exotic species such as black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.). We quantitatively evaluated the relationship between nitrogen (N) levels in black locust trees and in sediments under different flood disturbance regimes in a riparian area of the Chikuma River. In this study, allometric equations were developed for relating leaf N content to diameter at breast height of black locust. The amount of leaf N in black locust increased with distance from the river, reaching 159kgNha−1 at 180m from the river. There was a small difference in N content between green and fallen leaves (0.2%), and so the leaf N was almost equivalent to N input to riparian sediments. Fine sediments accumulated on the riparian area, where the amount of sediments N increased with distance from the river, ranging from 1091±767 to 4953±2953kgNha−1. The N accumulation rates also increased with distance from the river, corresponding with the amount of leaf N in black locust per unit area, but the former exceeded the latter. The sediment N accumulation might be accelerated by sediment trapping effect due to riparian vegetation itself. A large input of N provided by invaded black locust might alter nutrient dynamics and native plant community structure in the riparian area. KeywordsAllometry–Exotic species–Floodplain–Nitrogen dynamics–Riparian vegetationLandscape and Ecological Engineering 05/2012; 7(1):109-115.
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ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to evaluate site-specific allometric equations and biomass expansion factors (BEF) of Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora S. et Z.) at five sites in the Hadong, Hamyang, Jinju, Sancheong, and Uiryeong regions, situated in the western part of Gyeongnam province, Korea. Biomass in each tree component, i.e., needle, branch, stem wood, and stem bark, was quantified by destructive tree harvesting. Site-specific as well as generalized allometric equations were developed for each tree component across the entire sites. Both allometric regression equations were significant (P<0.05), with diameter at breast height (DBH) accounting for 69–99% of the variation (as indicated by coefficients of determination, r 2) in aboveground biomass. The stem densities at different sites were significantly different (P<0.05) from each other, but no significant difference was observed for stem bark density. The aboveground BEFs also showed a significant variation (P<0.05) at a landscape scale and ranged from 1.19 to 1.46 among the sites. The results suggest that application of site-specific allometric equations and aboveground BEFs are likely to improve the reliability of biomass estimates on the local level. KeywordsBiomass equations–Carbon stocks–Forest inventory– Pinus densifloraLandscape and Ecological Engineering 05/2012; 7(2):283-289.
Article: What prevents Musculista senhousia from constructing byssal thread mats in estuarine environments? A case study focusing on Lake Shinji and nearby estuarine waters[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Musculista senhousia is a marine mytilid mussel native to Japan that constructs byssal thread mats (hereafter “mats”) that destroy local fisheries, and so it is regarded as a biofouling species. To elucidate the factors that prevent the formation of mats of M. senhousia, we first observed the seasonal changes in the populations of M. senhousia in two rivers with similar salinities. Then we compared the condition of Lake Nakaumi, which is covered with dense mats at present, with the condition of the same lake before the decline of the eelgrass beds. The results showed that a particular set of conditions (in terms of salinity, dissolved oxygen concentration and sediment type) did not lead to the dense habitation of M. senhousia in one river, while mat construction was observed in another river with a similar set of conditions. Together with the past description of Lake Nakaumi, we conclude that larvae of M. senhousia head upstream all year round, and can settle as far upstream as the salinity remains within its range of tolerance. Whether it constructs mats depends on the presence of its predators.Landscape and Ecological Engineering 05/2012; 6(1):23-28.
Article: Structure and diversity of remnant natural evergreen broad-leaved forests at three sites affected by urbanization in Chongqing metropolis, Southwest China[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Evergreen broad-leaved forests (EBLFs, lucidophyllous forests) are vegetation types characteristic of East Asia. The extent of EBLFs has decreased significantly due to long-term anthropogenic disturbance, and remnant EBLFs in urban area are rare and important landscape types contributing to biodiversity and sustainable development. This study focuses on remnant EBLFs on Mt. Gele (GL), Mt. Tieshanping (TSP), and Mt. Jinyun (JY), located from the inner city to outskirts of Chongqing metropolis, Southwest China. Species of Theaceae, Lauraceae, Symplocaceae, and other families, which are essential floristic components of primary EBLFs, were still the main components at the three sites. GL and JY showed higher biodiversity, with richer heliophytes and shade-tolerant species, respectively. Castanopsis carlesii var. spinulosa was the sole dominant species at all three sites in woody layer, with codomination by Pinus massoniana and Cinnamomum camphora at GL and by Machilus pingii and Castanopsis fargesii at JY; these evergreen broad-leaved trees all showed inverse-J or sporadic-shaped size distribution with large numbers of small stems, but the conifer tree Pinus massoniana showed unimodal distribution with small stems at GL. The height growth of tree species, especially Castanopsis carlesii var. spinulosa, was increasingly restricted from JY to TSP to GL. Sprouting is an important life history strategy at community and population level, and differences were exhibited from GL to TSP to JY. A rural–urban gradient from JY to TSP to GL was indicated in this study. Species composition, biodiversity, and stand structure of these remnant EBLFs showed obvious differences along this gradient, and conservation responses to address the effects of urbanization need to be carefully considered. KeywordsLandscape–Conservation–Heliophyte–Inherent component–Sprouting–FragmentationLandscape and Ecological Engineering 05/2012;
Article: A forest-structure-based analysis of rain flow into soil in a dense deciduous Betula ermanii forest with understory dwarf bamboo[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The relationship between rain flow into the soil and forest structure was investigated in a dense deciduous Betula ermanii forest in northern Japan. The forest floor was covered with dwarf bamboo Sasa kurilensis. Observation was conducted from mid-July to late October in 1998. Leaf fall of Betula started in early September and ended in late October. Stemflow was proportional to rainfall and tree size [diameter at breast height (DBH)], and for the same rainfall, stemflow increased with leaf fall. On the contrary, throughfall decreased with leaf fall. Throughfall was intercepted also by Sasa in proportion to its leaf area. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that stemflow and throughfall of Betula and Sasa were predictable as functions of rainfall and forest structural characteristics, such as DBH, tree density, and stand leaf mass. The rain interception by plants tended to decrease from summer to autumn, but the difference in the interception was about 2% between July (fully expanded leaves) and late October (lack of leaves). About 96 and 87% of rainfall reached the above- and below-Sasa layers, respectively. Thus, this study showed that understory Sasa is a major component of rain interception within the stand and that rain flow into the soil can be estimated by using rainfall and the forest structural parameters, such as DBH, tree density and stand leaf mass. Keywords Betula ermanii –Forest structure–Rain interception– Sasa –Stemflow–ThroughfallLandscape and Ecological Engineering 05/2012; 7(1):101-108.
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ABSTRACT: Wetlands mitigation for any activity can be applied to avoid or minimize damage and restore, enhance, or create wetlands as well. New tools for mitigating and creating wetlands are available, including the Wetland Impact Assessment. This article explores many current issues in wetland mitigation and mitigation strategies, using case studies for illustration. We include some general guidelines for successful wetland mitigation based primarily on existing literature review in several cities. We use comparison and analyses on biodiversity improvement and various wetland functions, including flood-risk management, linking people to nature through urban regeneration, and connecting with the natural environment. Also, restoration, enhancement, mitigation, and creation analyses are included. KeywordUrban wetland restorationLandscape and Ecological Engineering 05/2012; 7(1):27-32.
Article: Reed community restoration projects with citizen participation: an example of the practical use of Satoyama landscape resources in Shiga Prefecture, Japan[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Today, Japan strives to preserve some of its rural Satoyama landscapes in a sustainable way in order to ensure the survival of some well-functioning rural ecosystems in the face of continuing urbanization on the one hand and the neglect of such landscapes on the other. In the Lake Biwa watershed area in Shiga Prefecture, Satoyama landscapes comprise woodlands, grasslands, dry and wet fields, residential areas, and the lakeshore. The area today faces two major challenges: first, how to use local natural resources in a sustainable way to avoid further neglect or destruction of Satoyama landscapes; and second, how to reorganize the management of Satoyama forest and lakeshore resources. The results of our investigation showed how solutions to the above issues were found in the context of lakeshore projects aimed at restoring reed (Phragmites communis) communities, which are important component of the Lake Biwa Satoyama landscape. Since 2002, four such projects have been successfully undertaken through the efficient use of local forest resources, mainly wood and bamboo, in wave dissipation structures and jetties which facilitate the expansion of reed communities. Management was reorganized and now consists of stakeholders which include the original Satoyama management communities, governmental bodies, resident and nonresident citizens, and nongovernmental and nonprofit organizations. The projects are a unique attempt to revive Satoyama watershed landscapes, and may serve as models in other watershed areas. KeywordsSatoyama–Rural landscape–Local resources–Local community–Restoration–Lake BiwaLandscape and Ecological Engineering 05/2012; 7(2):217-222.
Article: Stand structure and natural regeneration of degraded forestland in the northern mountainous region of Vietnam[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Vietnam experienced significant alterations of forest environments during the last half of the twentieth century, and reforestation efforts have increased since the 1990s. This study developed comparisons of naturally regenerated and plantation forestlands in northern Vietnam in order to gain a better understanding of reforestation options for the dual objectives of biodiversity and commercial tree production. Stand structure of secondary natural forest after logging and shifting cultivation were investigated at two study sites (Hoa Binh Province and Phu Tho Province). Natural regeneration of seedlings between the secondary natural forests and nearby mixed species plantations were measured and compared. The dominant tree species consisted of Aporosa villosa, Ficus racemosa, Machilus bonii and Vernicia montan at the Hoa Binh site and Cinnamomum parthenoxylum, Ormosia balabsae and Lithocarpus gigantophyllus at the Phu Tho site, which are mostly pioneer species. The secondary natural forests had higher abundance and diversity indices of seedlings than the mixed species plantations. Soil fertility of the secondary natural forests was better than that of the mixed species plantations (P<0.05). An important finding is that, for the study sites examined, secondary natural forest resulted in more diverse and better-stocked forests than plantation forestry, implying that in areas where reforestation is undertaken the silvicultural potential of natural regeneration should not be underestimated. KeywordsSecondary natural forest–Reforestation–Degradation–Natural regeneration–Plantation forestryLandscape and Ecological Engineering 05/2012; 7(2):251-261.
Article: Nitrate and phosphate removal potentials of three willow species and a bald cypress from eutrophic aquatic environment[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study was aimed at examining nitrate (NO3) and phosphate (PO4) removal potentials of rosegold pussy willow (Salix gracilistyla), giant pussy willow (Salix chaenomeloides), Korean willow (Salix koreensis), and bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) from eutrophic aquatic environment. These plants were replanted in rubber pots 35-cm high and 30-cm diameter without holes in the bottom. Water of different concentration levels in NO3 (5, 10, 20ppm) or PO4 (0.5, 1, 2ppm) was funneled into the pots, and the residence time of inflow was controlled ranging from 1 to 4h. Nitrate abatement of 58.9% was observed in the giant pussy willow pots with 20ppm concentration and 4h residence. The rosegold pussy willow pots showed the highest PO4 removal at 20.2% at 0.5ppm concentration and 4h residence. Removal potentials of NO3 and PO4 were also investigated on the supposition that the polluted water would reside in wetlands or treatment facilities for longer than 5days. Except that the residence time of inflow ranged from 5 to 20days, the same experimental conditions were kept. The percentage of NO3 removal in the rosegold pussy willow pots was higher than in those of the other two willow species, and bald cypress showed the lowest NO3 abatement. Highest PO4 removal was observed in giant pussy willow pots and lowest in rosegold pussy willow pots. Keywords Salix gracilistyla - Salix chaenomeloides - Salix koreensis - Taxodium distichum -Residence time-Removal of nitrogen and phosphorusLandscape and Ecological Engineering 05/2012; 6(2):211-217.
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ABSTRACT: Potentially, golf courses could act as wildlife refuges under adequate golf course management. We assessed the impacts of golf course managements on arthropod communities by analyzing arthropod community data. Arthropods were collected using a sweeping-net method from turf areas. Information of management applied in each golf course such as frequency of chemical use, length of grass was obtained by field measurements and also from interviews based on management records with green keepers. In total, 92 invertebrate families were collected. Of 44 frequently appearing families, the number of individuals in 22 arthropods families such as Delphacidae and Deltocephalidae were associated with some kind of course management features. Length of grass was the most influential factor to those families. After removing the effect of the grass length by regression analysis, herbicide affected six families. The effects of frequency of the use of fungicide and insecticide were not detected in this study.Landscape and Ecological Engineering 05/2012; 4(2):133-138.
Article: Distribution of Cladophora glomerata in the riffle with reference to the stability of streambed substrata[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The relationship of the patchy distribution of an attached green alga, Cladophora glomerata, with stability of streambed substrata under flood conditions was investigated in riffles of the Tama River, Japan. The effect of the size distribution of streambed stones on the development of this alga was particularly examined. Several new stones from each of sixdiameter classes were marked with colored paint and submerged in a limited area. We recorded the number of stones moved out of the original area after a flood with reference to the difference in substrate size and the presence of C. glomerata. The distribution of this alga was markedly restricted to the large stones in riffles. The proportion of stones moved out by the current increased in correspondence with the increase in flow discharge. Small stones were more easily moved than large stones. On the 71stday, all stones less than 10cm in diameter had been moved out by moderately high flood three times. On all remaining stones greater than 20cm in diameter, C. glomerata was observed. Furthermore, the proportion of stones with C. glomerata to the remaining stones with diameters of <15cm, 15.1–20cm, and >20cm were 0%, 66%, and 100%, respectively. The stable duration of streambed substrata, which is strongly correlated with stone size, is important for development and distribution of C. glomerata.Landscape and Ecological Engineering 05/2012; 3(1):15-20.
Article: The biocultural link: isolated trees and hedges in Satoyama landscapes indicate a strong connection between biodiversity and local cultural features[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Lone trees, rows of trees, groves, and hedges (in this study called “isolated trees and hedges”) dot many Satoyama landscapes in Japan. They have traditionally played an important role in agriculture and horticulture, in the production of firewood, and as windbreaks, boundaries, and screens. Through this investigation of a suburban Satoyama landscape in western Japan, which includes old and new residential areas, public space, farmland, and abandoned land, we aimed to show how isolated trees and hedges are connected with local traditional cultural features, and how this link has impacted their distribution and species composition. By examining land categories, shape patterns, and species compositions of isolated trees and hedges in both traditional and newly developed regions of the study area, we showed how the presence or absence of related traditional cultural features has influenced biodiversity. We further examined the role of traditional management techniques and cultural features in maintaining high numbers of local native species in isolated trees and hedges. Based on our results, we argue that awareness and promotion of the biocultural link in isolated trees and hedges will play an important role in future efforts to preserve the unique local identity and biodiversity of this cultural landscape. KeywordsSuburban Satoyama landscape–Biodiversity–Cultural diversity–Land use–Local identityLandscape and Ecological Engineering 04/2012; 7(2):195-206.
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ABSTRACT: Despite the appearance of an enormous number of publications about urban ecology and species diversity, many issues are simply opened up rather than explained. The ecological complexity of urban areas, i.e., the variety of determinants and the spatial and temporal dynamic of cities, preclude simple starting points and lines of explanation. Therefore, we lack sufficient comparisons between various cities, especially comparisons on a global level. If cities are to be compared by appropriate indicators, and if they are to be evaluated with respect to urban biodiversity, then models are necessary that help us understand and mirror the causal relationships between urban areas and biological diversity. Three approaches, also representing a multiscaled view of urban areas, are presented that are suitable for developing applicable models and indicators for monitoring ecological systems: the embedded city, the urban matrix, and urban patches. The embedded city represents a globally useful concept, because the relationship between cities and their regions can be applied as an indicator to all regions. The lack of sufficient description of the urban matrix makes comparisons between cities difficult and causes scientists to underestimate the importance and function of the matrix for urban biodiversity. Urban patches are often investigated in urban studies about plants and animals. Therefore, much existing data can be used, and several criteria describing the functions of patches for biodiversity are available. In particular, the first two approaches should be researched more intensively. KeywordsUrban biodiversity–Embedded city–Regional species pool–Urban matrix–Urban patches–Urban habitatsLandscape and Ecological Engineering 04/2012; 7(2):231-240.
Article: Keep it alive, don’t freeze it: a conceptual perspective on the conservation of continuously evolving satoyama landscapes[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In recent years, efforts to conserve and restore satoyama landscapes have become increasingly prevalent throughout Japan. These efforts have conserved threatened landscapes, protected biodiversity and engaged civil society in land-use planning and management. However, the conservation of satoyama continues to present a paradox familiar to landscape planners and ecologists: how can we conserve, but avoid freezing, landscapes of dynamic change? This article works through this paradox by examining the dynamic and continually evolving history of satoyama woodlands. The history of satoyama presented here demonstrates that these landscapes have been, and continue to be, produced in tandem with the evolving needs of successive generations. Accordingly, it is imperative to consider how satoyama landscapes might mesh with present day social needs and values. Faced with curbing global climate change, we suggest that present day social needs and values are well aligned with utilizing satoyama woodlands as a source of renewable biomass energy to reduce carbon emissions and realize associated multifunctional woodland values. Thus, the conceptual perspective advanced here is that resolution of the continuing conservation paradox lies in taking the freeze off satoyama woodlands—and by extension other vernacular landscapes—and thereby letting them live. KeywordsCultural landscape–Continuing landscape–Woody biomass–Working woodlandsLandscape and Ecological Engineering 04/2012; 7(2):207-216.
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