Acta Pharmaceutica

Publisher: De Gruyter Open

Journal description

Acta Pharmaceutica (AP) publishes articles primarily from the fields of medicinal chemistry, biopharmacy, pharmaceutical technology and drug design, toxicology, cellular biology and genetics, pharmacognosy, medicine, including both diagnostics and therapy, social pharmacy, analytics of drugs. Types of articles published are original research papers, short communications, preliminary communications (notes), review articles. Book reviews are also published.

Current impact factor: 1.03

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2011 Impact Factor 0.912

Additional details

5-year impact 0.00
Cited half-life 6.50
Immediacy index 0.08
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.00
ISSN 1846-9558

Publisher details

De Gruyter Open

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • On authors' personal website or institutional repository
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to journal homepage with DOI
    • Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No-Derivatives License
    • Publisher's version/PDF may be used
    • NIH Authors articles will be automatically submitted to PubMed Central upon online publication
    • If required by funding agency, authors may use a Creative Commons Attribution License
    • All titles are open access journals
    • Publisher last contacted on 27/03/2014
    • 'De Gruyter Open' is an imprint of 'De Gruyter'
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Heparin is widely used as an anticoagulant for the treatment and prevention of various thrombotic diseases. However, due to its high anionic charge, heterogeneity in size distribution and high polarity, its analysis is very challenging. In this paper, a novel method based on size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) for quantitative determination of intact heparin in pharmaceuticals is presented. Analyses were performed on a BioSep-SEC-S 2000 column with L-arginine solution at pH 6.5 as mobile phase and UV detection at 210 nm. The proposed method was found to be selective, linear (R2 > 0.997) over the concentration range of 3.1 to 1222 µg mL–1, with a limit of detection of 1.0 µg mL–1. Intra-day and inter-day precision were below 5.1 % and inaccuracy expressed as bias did not exceed 6.5 %. The reported method is simple, selective, sensitive, and requires no laborious sample preparation, which makes it appropriate for routine quantitative analysis of heparin in pharmaceuticals.
    Acta Pharmaceutica 03/2015; 65(1):43-52. DOI:10.1515/acph-2015-0010
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, a new drug product containing activated charcoal was designed and developed. The excipient levels in the pharmaceutical formulation were optimized using a mixture design approach. The adsorption power of the activated charcoal suspension was selected as the critical quality attribute influencing the efficacy of medical treatment. Significant prognostic models (p < 0.05) were obtained to describe in detail the interrelations between excipient levels and the adsorption power of the formulation. Liquid flavour had a critical impact on the adsorption power of the suspension. Formulations containing the largest amount of liquid flavour showed the lowest adsorption power. Sorbitol was not adsorbed onto activated charcoal so strongly as liquid flavour. A slight increase in the content of carboxymethylcellulose sodium led to a marked decrease in adsorption power. The obtained mathematical models and response surface allowed selection of the optimal composition of excipients in a final drug product.
    Acta Pharmaceutica 03/2015; 65:83-90. DOI:10.1515/acph-2015-0005
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract It is essential to identify the expectations of physicians and nurses regarding clinical pharmacy (CP) services before its introduction in a hospital, because it is known that their expectations can substantially differ from the pharmacists' point of view. Agreement of leading physicians, nurses and clinical pharmacists about the importance of CP activities in the hospital was evaluated using five point Likert scale questionnaire. Two groups of CP activities were set; the activities related to the hospital system (first group) and the activities connected with an individual patient (second group). Total mean score of agreement of physicians with the first and second group of CP activities is 4.28 and 3.73, respectively, while these scores are lower for nurses (3.87 and 3.38 for the first and second group, respectively). Pharmacists' total mean scores are highest, 4.57 and 4.23 for the first and second group, respectively.
    Acta Pharmaceutica 12/2014; 64(4):447-61. DOI:10.2478/acph-2014-0034
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Due to severe toxicity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, their quantification in medicinal products is very important. The idea of this research was to use retrorsine as a surrogate reference compound instead of lycopsamine reference or lycopsamine isolated from comfrey. A method for the analysis of lycopsamine in extracts of comfrey roots was developed and validated, employing thin layer chromatography, derivatisation with Dann-Mattocks reagent followed by densitometric analysis. The new method showed linearity within 0.70 to 7.0 μg of lycopsamine per application of 10 μL of a solution. It has also been proven to be specific and precise (repeatability RSD 2-4 % within the plate). The method was successfully employed for quantification of lycopsamine in comfrey root and comfrey root medicinal products such as ointments.
    Acta Pharmaceutica 12/2014; 64(4):503-508. DOI:10.2478/acph-2014-0031
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Available tablets or capsules for adults are often used to prepare extemporaneously formulated medicines appropriate for children. The most acceptable drug forms in pediatric population are oral liquids and pharmacists use commercial dispersing media to compound syrups from an active substance or from tablets available on the market. In many countries ready-to-use dispersing media are not available or refunded, but pharmacists can use other compounded media, providing their compatibility and stability are proven. The aim of this study was to formulate and evaluate the stability of syrups with candesartan cilexetil (1 mg mL-1) and valsartan (4 mg mL-1) extemporaneously prepared using commercial tablets (Diovan® and Atacand®). The following three different suspending media, which could be easily made in a pharmacy, were investigated: V1 - with xanthan gum (0.5 %), V2 - the USP/NF vehicle for oral solution and V3 - the medium based on a simple sucrose syrup. The stability of preparations was studied during 35 days of storage in a dark place at controlled temperature of 25 and 4 °C. During the study, microscopic observation was carried out and pH, viscosity, and concentration of candesartan cilexetil and valsartan were analyzed. Syrups with valsartan prepared with V2 and V3 media were stable for 3 or 4 weeks when stored at 25 °C, while syrups with candesartan were stable for as long as 35 days. For syrups prepared using V1 medium, the 14-day expiry date was not achieved because of microbial deterioration.
    Acta Pharmaceutica 12/2014; 64(4):463-74. DOI:10.2478/acph-2014-0037
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Significant inhibition of the coagulant and hemorrhagic effects of Bothrops asper venom was demonstrated by ethanolic extract prepared from the leaves of Brownea rosademonte. In vitro experiments preincubating 5.5 mg of extract kg-1 b.m. for 30 min with a minimum hemorrhagic dose of venom (273.8 ± 16.1 μg of venom kg-1 b.m.) lowered the hemorrhagic activity of the venom alone in CD-1 mice by 51.5 ± 2.6 %. Additionally, 1.7 mg extract L-1 plasma prolonged 5.1 times the plasma coagulation time. Fractionation of the extract led to the isolation of two compounds: ononitol (1) and quercetrin (2). The structure of compounds 1 and 2 was established by spectroscopic analyses, including APCI-HRMS and NMR (1H, 13C, HSQC, HMBC and COSY). A quercetrin concentration of 0.11 μmol L-1 prolonged the plasma coagulation time 2.6 times demonstrating that this compound was one of the active constituents of the Brownea rosademonte extract.
    Acta Pharmaceutica 12/2014; 64(4):475-83. DOI:10.2478/acph-2014-0033
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder often associated with cognitive impairment and affective, mainly depressive, symptoms. Antipsychotic medication is the primary intervention for stabilization of acute psychotic episodes and prevention of recurrences and relapses in patients with schizophrenia. Typical antipsychotics, the older class of antipsychotic agents, are currently used much less frequently than newer atypical antipsychotics. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of antipsychotic drugs is the specific method of clinical pharmacology, which involves measurement of drug serum concentrations followed by interpretation and good cooperation with the clinician. TDM is a powerful tool that allows tailor-made treatment for the specific needs of individual patients. It can help in monitoring adherence, dose adjustment, minimizing the risk of toxicity and in cost-effectiveness in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. The review provides complex knowledge indispensable to clinical pharmacologists, pharmacists and clinicians for interpretation of TDM results.
    Acta Pharmaceutica 12/2014; 64(4):387-401. DOI:10.2478/acph-2014-0036
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract A novel series of thiophenes having biologically active sulfonamide 2-11, 3-methylisoxazole 12, 4-methoxybenzo[d] thiazole 13, quinoline 14, 15, benzoylphenylamino 16, and anthracene-9,10-dione 17 moieties were prepared. Structures of the newly synthesized compounds were established by elemental analysis and spectral data. All newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vitro anticancer activity against human breast cancer cell line (MCF7). Most of the screened compounds showed cytotoxic activities compared to doxorubicin as a positive control. Compounds 6, 7, 9 and 13 (IC50 values 10.25, 9.70, 9.55 and 9.39 μmol L-1) revealed higher cytotoxic activities than that of doxorubicin (IC50 = 32.00 μmol L-1). Also, compounds 5, 8 and 10 were found nearly as active as doxorubicin (IC50 28.85, 23.48 and 27.51 μmol L-1).
    Acta Pharmaceutica 12/2014; 64(4):419-31. DOI:10.2478/acph-2014-0035
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and second-order derivative spectrophotometry have been used for simultaneous determination of pravastatin (PS) and fenofibrate (FF) in pharmaceutical formulations. HPLC separation was performed on a phenyl HYPERSIL C18 column (125 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm particle diameter) in the isocratic mode using a mobile phase acetonitrile/0.1 % diethyl amine (50:50, V/V, pH 4.5) pumped at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min-1. Measurement was made at 240 nm. Both drugs were well resolved on the stationary phase, with retention times of 2.15 and 5.79 min for PS and FF, respectively. Calibration curves were linear (R = 0.999 for PS and 0.996 for FF) in the concentration range of 5-50 and 20-200 µg mL-1 for PS and FF, respectively. Pravastatin and fenofibrate were quantitated in combined preparations also using the second-order derivative response at 237.6 and 295.1 nm for PS and FF, respectively. Calibration curves were linear, with the correlation coefficient R = 0.999 for pravastatin and fenofibrate, in the concentration range of 5-20 and 3-20 µg mL-1 for PS and FF, respectively. Both methods were fully validated and compared, the results confirmed that they were highly suitable for their intended purpose.
    Acta Pharmaceutica 12/2014; 64(4):433-46. DOI:10.2478/acph-2014-0039
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The objective of the study was to enhance the solubility of carvedilol phosphate and to formulate it into non-effervescent floating tablets using swellable polymers. Solid dispersions (SD) of carvedilol were prepared with hydrophilic carriers such as polyvinylpyrrolidone and poloxamer to enhance solubility. Non-effervescent floating tablets were prepared with a combination of optimized solid dispersions and release retarding polymers/swellable polymers such as xanthan gum and polyethylene oxide. Tablets were evaluated for physicochemical properties such as hardness, thickness and buoyancy. SD prepared with the drug to poloxamer ratio of 1:4 by melt granulation showed a higher dissolution rate than all other dispersions. Formulations containing 40 mg of polyethylene oxide (C-P40) and 50 mg xanthan gum (C-X50) were found to be best, with the drug retardation up to 12 hours. Optimized formulations were characterized using FTIR and DSC and no drug and excipient interactions were detected.
    Acta Pharmaceutica 09/2014; 64(4):485-494. DOI:10.2478/acph-2014-0038
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Catechins may influence both desirable and undesirable effects of many drugs. In this study, the in vitro effect of (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, (-)-epigallocatechin, (-)-epicatechin gallate, and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on the efficacy of anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) was studied in HCT-8 cancer cells. Rat hepatocytes were used to study the influence of EGCG on DOX hepatotoxicity. Cell proliferation and viability were studied by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol- 2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide and neutral red uptake test assays. Formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was determined using the dichlorofluorescein assay. All of the studied catechins (1-25 μmol L-1) had no effect on the proliferation of intestinal cancer cells and did not affect the antiproliferative effect of DOX (1-8 μmol L-1) in these cells. Moreover, EGCG at 25 μmol L-1 increased the viability of isolated hepatocytes and significantly protected these cells against DOX-induced toxicity and ROS production. Consumption of EGCG during DOX therapy seems to be safe and beneficial, since EGCG does not decrease DOX anticancer efficacy and could ameliorate DOX hepatotoxicity.
    Acta Pharmaceutica 06/2014; 64(2):199-209. DOI:10.2478/acph-2014-0018
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract There are a number of compounds that can modify the activity of ABC (ATP-binding cassette) and SLC (solute carrier) transporters in the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of natural and synthetic substances on the expression level of genes encoding transporters present in the BBB (mdr1a, mdr1b, mrp1, mrp2, oatp1a4, oatp1a5 and oatp1c1). Our results showed that verapamil caused the greatest reduction in the mRNA level while other synthetic (piracetam, phenobarbital) and natural (codeine, cyclosporine A, quercetin) substances showed a selective inhibitory effect. Further, the extract from the roots of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer exhibited a decrease of transcription against selected transporters whereas the extract from Ginkgo biloba L. leaves resulted in an increase of the expression level of tested genes, except for mrp2. Extract from the aerial parts of Hypericum perforatum L. was the only one to cause an increased mRNA level for mdr1 and oatp1c1. These findings suggest that herbs can play an important role in overcoming the BBB and multidrug resistance to pharmacotherapy of brain cancer and mental disorders, based on the activity of selected drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters located in the BBB.
    Acta Pharmaceutica 06/2014; 64(2):223-232. DOI:10.2478/acph-2014-0020
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The aim of the study was to examine the effect of topical vehicles on the in vivo human stratum corneum penetration of the antioxidant and skin photoprotective agent (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Model oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion and gel formulations containing 1 % (m/m) EGCG were prepared and subjected to photodegradation studies in order to select excipients that minimize the light instability of EGCG. The optimized emulsion and gel were applied to human volunteers and the EGCG percutaneous permeation was evaluated in vivo by the tape- -stripping technique. No significant differences in the percentage of the applied EGCG dose diffused into the stratum corneum were observed between the o/w emulsion (36.1 ± 7.5 %) and gel (35.5 ± 8.1 %) preparations. However, the amount of EGCG permeated into the deeper region of human stratum corneum was significantly larger for the o/w emulsion compared to the gel. Therefore, the emulsion represents a suitable vehicle for topical delivery of EGCG.
    Acta Pharmaceutica 06/2014; 64(2):257-265. DOI:10.2478/acph-2014-0017
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract In the present study, a capsule formulation composed of enteric coated granules of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4962 was developed using Eudragit L30D-55 as enteric polymer. Optimization of the capsule formulation was achieved with a maximum viable cell count after 2 h of incubation in acid medium and disintegration time of 1 h in buffer pH 6.8. The amount of Eudragit L30D-55 in the capsules correlated with gastric juice resistance. The best protective qualities against artificial gastric juice were observed when capsules were prepared from granules composed of L. acidophilus, corn starch, lactose monohydrate, polyvinylpyrrolidone and coated with 12.5 % (m/V) of Eudragit L30D-55. Capsule formulation of L. acidophilus in edible broth medium suspension serves as a cheap alternative to the expensive freeze-drying procedure for preparing L. acidophilus. In addition, the enteric coating using Eudragit L30D-55 could protect probiotics from the acidic gastric environment and enhance the bioactivity of probiotics along with replacement of pathogenic microbes in human intestine.
    Acta Pharmaceutica 06/2014; 64(2):247-256. DOI:10.2478/acph-2014-0011
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract To improve the stability and oral bioavailability of Z-ligustilide (LIG), the inclusion complex of LIG with hydroxypropyl- β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) was prepared by the kneading method and characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis (DTA) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. LIG is capable of forming an inclusion complex with HP-b-CD and the stoichiometry of the complex was 1:1. Stability of the inclusion complex against temperature and light was greatly enhanced compared to that of free LIG. Further, oral bioavailability of LIG and the inclusion complex in rats were studied and the plasma drug concentration-time curves fitted well with the non-compartment model to estimate the absolute bioavailability, which was 7.5 and 35.9 %, respectively. In conclusion, these results show that LIG/HP-β-CD complexation can be of great use for increasing the stability and biological efficacy of LIG.
    Acta Pharmaceutica 06/2014; 64(2):211-222. DOI:10.2478/acph-2014-0012
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The aim of the present study was to evaluate chitosan as a vaginal mucoadhesive gel base for econazole nitrate and miconazole nitrate. To this aim, different types of chitosan with different molecular masses and viscosity properties [low molecular mass chitosan (viscosity: 20,000 mPa s), medium molecular mass chitosan (viscosity: 200,000 mPa s), high molecular mass chitosan (viscosity: 800,000 mPa s)] have been used. First, rheological studies were conducted on chitosan gels. Mechanical, syringeability and mucoadhesive properties of chitosan gels were determined. Release profiles of econazole nitrate and miconazole nitrate from chitosan gels were obtained and evaluated kinetically. In addition, anticandidal activities of formulations were determined. Finally, vaginal retention of chitosan gels in rats was evaluated by in vivo distribution studies. Based on the results, it can be concluded that gels prepared with medium molecular mass chitosan might be effectively used for different antifungal agents in the treatment of vaginal candidiosis, since it has high mucoadhesiveness, suitable mechanical and release properties with good vaginal retention.
    Acta Pharmaceutica 06/2014; 64(2):139-156. DOI:10.2478/acph-2014-0013