Crop and Pasture Science

Publisher: Commonwealtlh Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (Australia); Australian Academy of Science, CSIRO Publishing

Description

Crop & Pasture Science (continuing Australian Journal of Agricultural Research) is an international scientific journal publishing significant outcomes of research into product quality and sustainability of crop and pasture systems. The journa´s primary focus is broad-scale cereals, grain legumes, oil seeds, tree crops, and pastures. Papers are encouraged that advance understanding in plant-based agricultural systems through the use of well-defined and original aims, innovative and rigorous experimental design, and strong interpretation. The journal embraces experimental approaches from molecular to whole systems level. The target readership of Crop & Pasture Science is agricultural scientists and plant biologists, industry, administrators, policy-makers, and others with an interest in the challenges and opportunities facing agricultural production. To facilitate accessibility and clarity, papers should address a hypothesis, and the Abstract should define the novel outcomes.

  • Impact factor
    1.13
  • 5-year impact
    1.44
  • Cited half-life
    2.70
  • Immediacy index
    0.72
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.40
  • Website
    Crop & Pasture Science website
  • Other titles
    Crop & pasture science (Online), Crop and pasture science, Crop and pasture science
  • ISSN
    1836-0947
  • OCLC
    318550290
  • Material type
    Document, Government publication, National government publication, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

CSIRO Publishing

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • On author's personal repository or institutional repository
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Less prevalent viruses of family Poaceae are usually excluded from the focus of interest, even though they represent a possible threat to agricultural production. We designed and validated a set of primer pairs suitable for detection and quantification of five RNA viruses, Lolium latent virus (LoLV), Oat necrotic mottle virus (ONMV), Ryegrass mosaic virus (RgMV), Soil-borne cereal mosaic virus (SBCMV), and Spartina mottle virus (SpMV), by means of one-step RT-qPCR based on SYBR Green I. These primers were used together with primers for Brome mosaic virus (BMV) and Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) described elsewhere to screen grass and cereal samples from the Czech Republic. The results revealed a high prevalence of WSMV and RgMV, which pointed to possible local epidemics. We also make the first report of LoLV presence in the Czech Republic.
    Crop and Pasture Science 10/2014;
  • Crop and Pasture Science 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The need for continual improvement in water productivity of rice farming has led to the development of delayed permanent (continuous) water (DPW) irrigation practice for drill-sown rice in south-eastern Australia. Current rice-growing practices have the crop flooded for most, or all, of its growing period, whereas DPW has reduced the period of flooding during the vegetative phase, resulting in significant water savings. The changed water-management practice required nitrogen (N) management practices to be investigated, because traditional N application timings and rates may no longer be suitable. Six experiments were conducted over three rice-growing seasons, 2010–11, 2011–12 and 2012–13, on two soil types in south-eastern Australia. Nitrogen applications at sowing, early tillering, mid-tillering and pre-PW were investigated at different rates and split-timing combinations. In the third season, three current commercial semi-dwarf rice varieties, Reiziq, Sherpa and Langi, were investigated for their growth and grain yield using different N treatments under DPW management. Nitrogen applied with the seed at sowing increased vegetative plant growth but did not increase grain yield, whereas N applied at early tillering had no significant impact on plant growth or grain yield. Nitrogen applied at mid-tillering often increased plant growth but did not lead to increased grain yield over treatments that received all N before PW application at 18–22 days before panicle initiation. When rice is managed under DPW, all N should be applied in one application, before the application of PW. The results from this research show that applying 100 kg N ha–1 before PW for rice grown under DPW was the best N-management option for the experimental fields. All three varieties grew and yielded well under the practice of DPW and responded similarly to N application rates and timings.
    Crop and Pasture Science 08/2014; 65(9):878-887.
  • Crop and Pasture Science 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This study assessed the flooding tolerance of tropical grasses Chloris gayana and Panicum coloratum, at different moments of the year: (i) late winter flooding for 50 days (WF), (ii) early spring flooding (SF) for 20 days, and (iii) long-term flooding covering both periods (WF+SF, 70 days). A growth-period under well watered conditions was allowed after each flooding event to assess plant species recovery. Plants were harvested after each flooding event, and at the end of the recovery period. P. coloratum had higher tolerance to WF than C. gayana. WF did not affect biomass in P. coloratum while it reduced biomass of flooded plants by 38% in C. gayana. SF did not differentiate species’ tolerance as both registered similar and moderate reduction in their growth (20 to 30%). Under long-term flooding (WF+SF), C. gayana showed additional reduction in its growth to that observed when subjected separately to either WF or SF, while P. coloratum did not. Remarkably, both species displayed outstandingly fast recovery from flooding when temperatures rose during early summer, attaining equivalent biomass to that of non-flooded plants in only one month after water subsided. So, although P. coloratum appears as slightly more tolerant during flooding than C. gayana, both species look promising to be introduced in temperate lowland grasslands.
    Crop and Pasture Science 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: White clover (Trifolium repens L.) is a widely used and highly valued temperate legume; however, its productivity and survival are restricted under dryland and drought conditions. This study investigated whether drought resistance of white clover could be improved by interspecific hybridisation with Trifolium uniflorum L. After almost four months without irrigation in a rain-shelter facility, shoot dry weight (DW) decreased significantly less in first-generation backcross (BC1) hybrids (-47%) than second-generation backcross (BC2) hybrids (-68%) and white clover (-69%). Stolon morphological parameters such as internode length and leaf lamina area also decreased less under water stress in the BC1 hybrids than in BC2 and white clover. There was also lower senescence in BC1 under water stress than in the other clover types. Genotypes with smaller changes in leaf lamina area, internode length, senescence and lateral spread had smaller changes in shoot DW, and there were significant correlations between constitutive levels of some characteristics and the effect of water stress on shoot DW. Under water stress, the growth form of the BC1 hybrids was compact, dense and prostrate, whereas white clover was more spreading and open. Increased allocation of dry matter to roots under drought, and greater root diameter, may also have influenced the ability of BC1 hybrids to maintain water uptake and key physiological processes. Overall, the data confirm that the drought resistance of white clover can be improved through hybridisation with T. uniflorum.
    Crop and Pasture Science 07/2014; 65:911-921.
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    ABSTRACT: Subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.) is the most widely sown pasture legume in southern Australia and resistance to important diseases and pests has been a major plant-breeding objective. Kabatiella caulivora, the cause of clover scorch, is the most important foliar fungal pathogen, and several cultivars have been developed with resistance to both known races. Screening of advanced breeding lines has been conducted to prevent release of cultivars with high susceptibility to other important fungal foliar disease pathogens, including rust (Uromyces trifolii-repentis), powdery mildew (Oidium sp.), cercospora (Cercospora zebrina) and common leaf spot (Pseudopeziza trifolii). Several oomycete and fungal species cause root rots of subterranean clover, including Phytophthora clandestina, Pythium irregulare, Aphanomyces trifolii, Fusarium avenaceum and Rhizoctonia solani. Most breeding efforts have been devoted to resistance to P. clandestina, but the existence of different races has confounded selection. The most economically important virus diseases in subterranean clover pastures are Subterranean clover mottle virus and Bean yellow mosaic virus, while Subterranean clover stunt virus, Subterranean clover red leaf virus (local synonym for Soybean dwarf virus), Cucumber mosaic virus, Alfalfa mosaic virus, Clover yellow vein virus, Beet western yellows virus and Bean leaf roll virus also cause losses. Genotypic differences for resistance have been found to several of these fungal, oomycete and viral pathogens, highlighting the potential to develop cultivars with improved resistance. The most important pests of subterranean clover are redlegged earth mite (RLEM) (Halotydeus destructor), blue oat mite (Penthaleus major), blue-green aphid (Acyrthosiphon kondoi) and lucerne flea (Sminthurus viridis). New cultivars have been bred with increased RLEM cotyledon resistance, but limited selection has been conducted for resistance to other pests. Screening for disease and pest resistance has largely ceased, but recent molecular biology advances in subterranean clover provide a new platform for development of future cultivars with multiple resistances to important diseases and pests. However, this can only be realised if skills in pasture plant pathology, entomology, pre-breeding and plant breeding are maintained and adequately resourced. In particular, supporting phenotypic disease and pest resistance studies and understanding their significance is critical to enable molecular technology investments achieve practical outcomes and deliver subterranean clover cultivars with sufficient pathogen and pest resistance to ensure productive pastures across southern Australia.
    Crop and Pasture Science 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The agronomic performance of Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz (camelina or false flax) sown in autumn and spring over two consecutive years was tested in northern Italy. Seven C. sativa genotypes were tested and compared with rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). The main phenological stages and biometric traits were recorded, along with seed yield. In general, camelina showed a seed yield similar to that of rapeseed cultivated in the same locality and in the last decade in Italy. On average, the grain yields of camelina and rapeseed grown in the same location and conditions were ~1340 and 1625 kg ha–1, respectively. The agronomic performance of camelina varied, with climatic events having a greater effect than sowing season or genotypes. Among the investigated genotypes, however, C. sativa accession CAM 40 was the most adaptable to unfavourable environmental conditions and CAM 172 to favourable conditions. With regard to the two sowing seasons, autumn planting allowed for better performance than spring planting during the second cultivation year. The phenotypic plasticity of camelina was estimated for the first time in the present work. Branching capability was the most plastic trait under favourable yielding conditions. Among the tested genotypes, CAM 40 showed limited yield plasticity and CAM 172 demonstrated high plasticity for the same trait, offering a greater potential for future genetic improvement.
    Crop and Pasture Science 06/2014; 65(5):453.
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    ABSTRACT: Phosphorus (P) fertilisers are important for productivity in many grassland systems. Phosphorus is a non-renewable and finite resource, and there are environmental and economic reasons for using P more effectively. We review the P balance of temperate pastures to identify the factors contributing to inefficient use of P fertiliser and discuss ways to improve P-balance efficiency. Immediate gains can be made by ensuring that P fertiliser inputs are managed to ensure that the plant-available P concentrations of soil do not exceed the minimum concentration associated with maximum pasture production. Unnecessarily high soil P concentrations are associated with greater potential for P loss to the wider environment, and with higher rates of P accumulation in soils that have a high P-sorption capacity. Soil microorganisms already play a crucial role in P cycling and its availability for pasture growth, but are not amenable to management. Consequently, plants with lower critical P requirements, particularly because of better root foraging, will be an important avenue for improving the P-balance efficiency of fertilised pastures. Traits such as long fine roots, branching, root hairs, and mycorrhizal associations all contribute to improved root foraging by pasture plants; some of these traits are amenable to breeding. However, progress in breeding for improved P efficiency in pasture plants has been minimal. It is likely that traditional plant breeding, augmented by marker-assisted selection and interspecific hybridisation, will be necessary for progress. There are practical limits to the gains that can be made by root foraging alone; therefore, plants that can ‘mine’ sparingly available P in soils by producing organic anions and phosphatases are also needed, as are innovations in fertiliser technology.
    Crop and Pasture Science 06/2014; 65:556-575.
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies in sand culture suggested that some white clover (Trifolium repens) × T. uniflorum interspecific hybrids were more tolerant than white clover of low external phosphate (P) supply. Here, P acquisition and growth responses were determined in soil for two T. repens × T. uniflorum backcross hybrids and their parental white clover cultivar, grown in a glasshouse pot experiment at Olsen P of 6, 7, 9, 14, or 20 mg P kg–1 soil. Growth of all of the clover entries responded strongly to increasing soil P levels, and one hybrid clover grew, on average, 17% better than the white clover control cultivar at Olsen soil P 9–20 mg kg–1. Internal P concentrations and shoot growth per unit P absorbed did not differ among the clovers. Instead, improved growth of the hybrid resulted from a greater ability to acquire soil P. This hybrid had the longest, most frequently branched roots. Frequent branching and growth of root tips into fresh soil would reduce the limitations to P uptake imposed by slow diffusion of P to the root surface. The results confirm previous observations that interspecific hybridisation is a useful strategy for increasing the range of P responsiveness in breeding populations for white clover.
    Crop and Pasture Science 05/2014; 65:382-387.