Journal of Civil Engineering and Management


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Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: Defects can have a significant impact on construction performance. Numerous studies have attempted to identify their root causes, contending that the prevention of defects could be achieved by eliminating the root causes. Yet, their direct causes also need to be considered in order to identify the sequence of events leading to defects. This study aims to classify the defective acts that are directly linked to the occurrence of a defect, in order to provide insights about the nature and the impact of different types of direct causes. The study involves investigation into 272 defects from 81 disputes that occurred in the Dubai residential construction industry in 2009. Results from this study reveal that the majority of construction defects are driven by a violation of practices or workers’ lack of skill and competence. While it is difficult to prevent deliberate violations, increased effort toward growing skills and competencies would be effective in reducing defects, and therefore improving construction performance. Also, classification of defective acts is envisioned as a platform toward a more thorough causal tracking of construction defects, facilitating the identification of latent conditions resulting in defects.
    Journal of Civil Engineering and Management 04/2014; 20(2):175-185.
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    ABSTRACT: A great part of energy produced in Europe is consumed by old residential buildings. Consequently, it is necessary to retrofit energetically non-efficient buildings. However, there is a mass financial gap between cost effective retrofitting and upgrading to nearly zero energy building levels. The efficiency of apartment building modernization under current requirements applicable in Lithuania and the requirements for 2020 was analysed, focusing on thermal insulation of external walls. Six cases of residential building modernization in Lithuania were studied estimating criteria that are among the most important for implementation of apartment building modernization, such as the total cost of the external wall modernization, simple payback period, work duration, and other parameters related to the characteristics of thermal insulation systems. The weights of the criteria were calculated after an expert survey and using integrated SWARA-TODIM multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) method the best alternatives were ranked. After analyzing the differences between the current situation and upcoming requirements for rendered and ventilated type of façades, it can be stated that the final result depends more on price, duration of works, payback period, energy losses and water vapour diffusion than on the type of façade or insulation requirements applied at present or future.
    Journal of Civil Engineering and Management 03/2014; 20(1):103-110.
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    ABSTRACT: The article focuses on the method for evaluation of ultimate bearing capacity for a vibratory pile having acceleration data recorded during the tests. The simulation vibratory pile installation test was performed in the testing stand. Accelerations were recorded on the top of the simulation vibratory pile during the test. The static test was performed for the installed pile. After the review of rheological models of the base, the Smith rheological model was chosen for determination of bearing capacity of the vibratory pile as this model, the rigidity of the final element of the spring is modelled as the finite rigidity of the base. Between the base of the modelled pile and the soil, a finite interface element is used. The interface element transfers only compression but it does not transfer tension to the base rheological model. The general stiffness of spring's finite element in the chosen rheological model is determined from experimental data of the static pile test. During the modelling, the damping coefficients and the ultimate displacements (responses) of the pile's shaft and base, to which the friction element became active, were determined so that the modelled pile accelerations and displacement (response) would coincide as much as possible with measured accelerations and their calculated response. The modelled and measured accelerations and responses showed high similarity.
    Journal of Civil Engineering and Management 03/2014; 20(1):142-148.
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    ABSTRACT: Construction project control attempts to obtain real-time as-built schedule information and to eliminate project delays by effectively enhancing dynamic schedule control and management. Suitable platforms for enhancing an as-built schedule visually during the construction phase are necessary and important for general contractors. As the application of building information modeling (BIM) becomes more common, schedule management integrated with the BIM approach becomes essential to enhance visual construction management implementation for the general contractor during the construction phase. To enhance visualization of the updated as-built schedule for the general contractor, this study presents a novel system called the Construction BIM-assisted Schedule Management (ConBIM-SM) system for general contractors in Taiwan. The primary purpose of this study is to develop a web ConBIM-SM system for the general contractor to enhance visual as-built schedule information sharing and efficiency in tracking construction as-built schedule. Finally, the ConBIM-SM system is applied to a case study of a commerce building project in Taiwan to verify its efficacy and demonstrate its effectiveness during the construction phase. The advantages of the ConBIM-SM system lie in improved project control and management efficiency for general contractors, and in providing BIM-assisted as-built schedule tracking and management, to access the most current as-built schedule information through a web browser. The case study results show that the ConBIM-SM system is an effective visual as-built schedule management platform integrated with the BIM approach for general contractors in a construction project.
    Journal of Civil Engineering and Management 03/2014; 20(1):47-58.
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    ABSTRACT: The process of Portland cement production is associated with high consumption of energy and resources. Therefore, there is a need to replace the Portland cement with environmental friendly materials. This study was conducted to determine the feasibility of using ground dune sand as cement replacement materials under different curing conditions. Portland cement was replaced by ground dune sand at five levels of replacement (0–40% by weight). The compressive strength of mortar under standard and autoclave curing conditions and the influence of different autoclave temperatures and durations were investigated. The microstructure of selected mixtures was analyzed by XRD and SEM. Results showed that the compressive strength under the standard curing decreased as the level of replacement increased. However, under autoclave curing compressive strength increased as the content of ground dune sand increased. XRD and SEM revealed the absence of calcium hydroxide and the formation of secondary calcium silicate hydrate. The improvement of compressive strength and the absence of calcium hydroxide under autoclave curing indicated that the pozzolanic reaction between silica of dune sand and calcium hydroxide occurred.
    Journal of Civil Engineering and Management 03/2014; 20(1):32-37.
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents laboratory test data on 21 joint seals: 10 field-moulded sealants (FMS; 1- and 2-components polyurethanes, polysulphides, silicones, etc.) and 11 preformed seals (neoprene, silicone, high-density open-cell and low-density closed-cell foams, etc.). The aim was to evaluate their performance in submerged, partially submerged and essentially dry conditions in extremely severe climates. These seals were tested on cement mortar substrates as well as on steel substrates. The tests carried out on FMS were: adhesion-in-peel strength, compression-extension cycling at severe temperatures, Shore A hardness, weatherability and modulus of elasticity, etc. On preformed seals, the tests conducted were weatherability, % recovery and load deformation behaviour, etc. Conclusions, recommendations and the specific suitability of joint seals with cement mortar and steel substrates are reported. The general conclusion is that even though the joint seals evaluated had similar base chemical constituents, they showed variable results. Their properties and characteristics differ from one manufacturer to others, indicating that prior knowledge about their performance is essential to the user. Furthermore, the published data on the performance of seals used in hydraulic structures situated in severe climatic conditions is sparse. It is recommended that utilities publish as much information as possible to help others.
    Journal of Civil Engineering and Management 03/2014; 20(1):38-46.
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, to study the influence of stack effect on fire in the compartment adjacent to a stairwell, a set of experiments were conducted by varying the pool size, top vent state and bottom vent size in a 1/3 scaled 12-layer-stairwell configuration. The phenomenon of methanol flame tilting in the fire room was observed and studied. Results showed that the flame tilt angle increases with an increase of Ri-1. The temperatures of hot gases in the fire room decrease due to the cooling effect of fresh air induced by stack effect. The mass loss rate of methanol fuel is influenced by fresh air flow sucked into fire room due to stack effect. On the basis of the experimental results, we conclude that the velocity of air flow into fire room is proportional to 1/3 power of the heat release rate in the stairwell.
    Journal of Civil Engineering and Management 03/2014; 20(1):121-131.
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    ABSTRACT: Sustainable building design has become a wide and multidisciplinary research endeavor including mechanical, electrical, electronic, communication, acoustic, architectural, and structural engineering. It involves the participation of owners, contractors, suppliers and building users. There has been a lot of talk about sustainable buildings in the past few years. Most of the published research is concerned with saving energy and water and making the buildings more environmentally friendly by, say, reducing the carbon emissions. In this article, sustainable building design is reviewed from the viewpoint of structural engineering. Different strategies presented in the literature are summarized. Finally, the authors argue that the next big leap in sustainable building design should come from the integration of the smart structure technology including the use of hybrid and semi-active vibration controllers that can result in substantially lighter and more efficient structures.
    Journal of Civil Engineering and Management 03/2014; 20(1):1-10.
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    ABSTRACT: This paper considers the influence of phase composition on the parameters of non-isothermal moisture transfer in unsaturated sandy soils. The technique of study options non-isothermal moisture transfer to disperse soil of disturbed structure. The exploratory procedure of the parameters in disperse soils having disturbed structure in the wide range of their phase composition using triangular diagrams is expounded. Shown that the parameters non-isothermal moisture transfer depend on moisture content and soil composition density. Established that for the sandy soil there is the “optimal” range of moisture content and density at which the non-isothermal moisture transfer is most efficient. The dynamics of the field moisture content of sand in time is identified.
    Journal of Civil Engineering and Management 03/2014; 20(1):95-102.
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    ABSTRACT: A type-based system is widely used for cost and schedule control in the NATM (New Austrian Tunnelling Method) tunnel. This study raises several limitations of the type-based system: a broad level of control, a distributed approach to cost and schedule data, ad hoc management, and difficulty in deriving meaningful data. Integrated cost and schedule control promises a myriad of benefits on both information flow and construction management. Nevertheless, the integrated approach still seems to be a long way from common use in the construction industry because it requires considerable overhead effort to acquire, track, and analyze the integrated data. The objective of this study is to propose a new method to automate the required processes for implementing cost and schedule integration. We propose an operational-level automatic data processing system for cost and schedule integration. The proposed system consists of a real-time location system for detecting equipment locations, a wireless mesh network for transmitting the location signals to a field office, and a prototype model for transforming the signals to cost and schedule data. Technical feasibility is analyzed through a pilot project. The study offers a new approach to facilitating sensor technologies for cost and schedule integration.
    Journal of Civil Engineering and Management 03/2014; 20(1):132-141.
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    ABSTRACT: The renovation of multi-storey residential buildings reduces heat consumption intensity and decreases heat demand, which may have a harmful effect on a district heating supply system. The paper analyses the heat loss change in four district heating distribution networks (DHNs) of Kaunas at the various scenarios of buildings and DHN renovation stages. A bundle of genetic algorithm software package was used to carry out the districts’ distribution network hydraulic calculations in the case of building renovation without changing the hydrodynamic and network routes. The experimental data were used to calculate heat loss for old and new pipes. The computer data of networks used to summarise the cost of DHN then for the renovation of buildings as well as for renovation progress will go evenly with DHN refurbishment. Network optimization results were summarised by functional dependence. The comparison of the projects’ efficiency was analysed in the following cases: the diameters of pipes of DHN were not changed, new diameters of pipes were integrated partly after partial residential buildings renovation and after a complete renovation of residential building and optimisation of pipeline diameters. The efficiency of separate guidelines of the DHN refurbishment project was summarised by performing sensitivity analysis.
    Journal of Civil Engineering and Management 03/2014; 20(1):11-20.
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    ABSTRACT: Over the years the European Foundation for Quality Management Excellence model (EFQM) has become a popular performance management tool and representation of Total Quality Management (TQM) in Europe. Although the model has been tested and supported by many questionnaire surveys, EFQM has never been validated on real self-assessment scores obtained from companies. Therefore this study validates the model on scores from 34 construction companies in South Eastern Europe. The analysis shows that: a) there is an enabler excellence construct that is obtained by each enabler criteria; b) there is a result excellence construct that is obtained by each result criteria; and c) the EFQM model is most suitable for Contractor type organizations. Furthermore, we have found that the EFQM weights do not entirely correspond with the construction industry. Therefore we present new weights for the better use in the construction. Although this study proves EFQM to be a good representation of TQM in the construction industry, further improvements are needed. This is especially evident within investor and consultant type organization, where the criteria of Policy and Strategy, Leadership and Processes, People results and Client results showed certain limitations.
    Journal of Civil Engineering and Management 03/2014; 20(1):70-81.
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents the results of both analytical and experimental study on the repair effectiveness of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) sheets for RC beams with different levels of pre-repair damage severity. It highlights the effect of fixing CFRP sheets to damaged beams on the load capacity, mid-span deflection, the steel strain and the CFRP strain and failure modes. The analytical study was based on a Finite Element (FE) model of the beam using brick and embedded bar elements for the concrete and steel reinforcement, respectively. The CFRP sheets and adhesive interface were modelled using shell elements with orthotropic material properties and incorporating the ultimate adhesive strain obtained experimentally to define the limit for debonding. In order to validate the analytical model, the FE results were compared with the results obtained from laboratory tests conducted on a control beam and three other beams subjected to different damage loads prior to repair with CFRP sheets. The results obtained showed good agreement, and this study verified the adopted approach of modelling the adhesive interface between the RC beam and the CFRP sheets using the ultimate adhesive strains obtained experimentally.
    Journal of Civil Engineering and Management 03/2014; 20(1):21-31.
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    ABSTRACT: Tunnels are artificial underground spaces that provide a capacity for particular goals such as storage, under-ground transportation, mine development, power and water treatment plants, civil defence. This shows that the tunnel construction is a key activity in developing infrastructure projects. In many situations, tunnelling projects find themselves involved in the situations where unexpected conditions threaten the continuity of the project. Such situations can arise from the prior knowledge limited by the underground unknown conditions. Therefore, a risk analysis that can take into account the uncertainties associated with the underground projects is needed to assess the existing risks and prioritize them for further protective measures and decisions in order to reduce, mitigate and/or even eliminate the risks involved in the project. For this reason, this paper proposes a risk assessment model based on the concepts of fuzzy set theory to evaluate risk events during the tunnel construction operations. To show the effectiveness of the proposed model, the results of the model are compared with those of the conventional risk assessment. The results demonstrate that the fuzzy inference system has a great potential to accurately model such problems.
    Journal of Civil Engineering and Management 03/2014; 20(1):82-94.
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    ABSTRACT: Accurate prediction of buildings’ lifecycle energy consumption is a critical part in lifecycle assessment of residential buildings. Longitudinal variations in building conditions, weather conditions and building's service life can cause significant deviation of the prediction from the real lifecycle energy consumption. The objective is to improve the accuracy of lifecycle energy consumption prediction by properly modelling the longitudinal variations in residential energy consumption model using Markov chain based stochastic approach. A stochastic Markov model considering longitudinal uncertainties in building condition, degree days, and service life is developed: 1) Building's service life is estimated through Markov deterioration curve derived from actual building condition data; 2) Neural Network is used to project periodic energy consumption distribution for each joint energy state of building condition and temperature state; 3) Lifecycle energy consumption is aggregated based on Markov process and the state probability. A case study on predicting lifecycle energy consumption of a residential building is presented using the proposed model and the result is compared to that of a traditional deterministic model and three years’ measured annual energy consumptions. It shows that the former model generates much narrower distribution than the latter model when compared to the measured data, which indicates improved result.
    Journal of Civil Engineering and Management 01/2014; 19:S161-S171.
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    ABSTRACT: Building information modelling (BIM) represents the process of development and use of a computer generated model to simulate the planning, design, construction and operation of a building. The utilisation of building information models has increased in recent years due to their economic benefits in design and construction phases and in building management. BIM has been widely applied in the design and construction of new buildings but rarely in the management of existing ones. The point of creating a BIM model for an existing building is to produce accurate information related to the building, including its physical and functional characteristics, geometry and inner spatial relationships. The case study provides a critical appraisal of the process of both collecting accurate survey data using a terrestrial laser scanner combined with a total station and creating a BIM model as the basis of a digital management model. The case study shows that it is possible to detect and define facade damage by integration of the laser scanning point cloud and the creation of the BIM model. The paper will also give an overview of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), total station surveying, geodetic survey networks and data processing to create a BIM model.
    Journal of Civil Engineering and Management 01/2014; 19:S23-S32.
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    ABSTRACT: Ensuring occupants’ safety in building fires is one of the most important aspects for fire safety engineering. Many uncertainties are inevitably introduced when estimating the occupant safety level, due to the high complexity of fire dynamics and the human behaviour in fires. Safety factor methods are traditionally employed to deal with such uncertainties. This kind of methods is easy to apply but leaves fire safety engineers unsure of the margin by which the design has failed. A method of linking safety factor and probability of failure in fire safety engineering is proposed in this study. An event tree is constructed to analyse potential fire scenarios that arise from the failure of fire protection systems. Considering uncertainties related to fire dynamics and evacuation, the traditional deterministic safety factor is considered as a random variable. Because there is no target probability of failure accepted by the whole fire safety engineering community, the concept of expected risk to life (ERL) is integrated to determine the target probability of failure. This method employs a Monte Carlo Simulation using Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) to calculate the required safety factor. A practical case study is conducted using the method proposed in this study.
    Journal of Civil Engineering and Management 01/2014; 19:S212-S221.