Revista brasileira de anestesiologia

Publisher: Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia

Journal description

Publication of the Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia aims at disclosing articles to its members and interested physicians, thus fostering progress, enhancement and spread of Anesthesiology, intensive care, pain relief and cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

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Website Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia website
Other titles Revista brasileira de anestesiologia (Online)
ISSN 1806-907X
OCLC 53995156
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Kinsbourne syndrome is a rare neurological disorder that primarily affects children previously healthy and aged between 6 and 36 months. It is characterized by opsoclonus (rapid, irregular, horizontal and vertical eye movements) and myoclonus that may affect trunk, limbs or face, and cerebellar ataxia. It may be considered a paraneoplastic syndrome by association with neuroblastomas, hepatoblastomas and, rarely, ganglioneuromas. The aim of this paper was to present the most relevant aspects of Kinsbourne syndrome, as well as the technique used for resection of mediastinal tumor in a child with this syndrome. CASE REPORT: Child, 1 year and 5 months, with a diagnosis of posterior mediastinal tumor and Kinsbourne syndrome. Premedicated with oral midazolam. Anesthesia induced with sevofl urane, nitrous oxide, fentanyl, and rocuronium. Maintenance of anesthesia with sevofl urane, nitrous oxide, fentanyl, and rocuronium. Neuromuscular block reversal with neostigmine combined with atropine. Postoperative analgesia with the use of dipyrone, morphine, and ketoprofen. Taken to the intensive care unit extubated, with stable hemodynamic and respiratory parameters. ICU discharge four days after surgery and hospital discharged on the seventh postoperative day without complications. Anatomopathological examination revealed ganglioneuroblastoma. CONCLUSIONS: Kinsbourne syndrome is a rare neurological disorder. The drugs used in our patient proved safe and allowed an uneventful anesthesia. Drugs that trigger or aggravate opsoclonus and myoclonus, such as ketamine and etomidate, should be avoided in these patients.
    Revista brasileira de anestesiologia 06/2013; 63(3):287-289. DOI:10.1016/S0034-7094(13)70232-0
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate the clinic effectiveness, safety and feasibility of Narcotrend® monitor for evaluation of depth of anesthesia in congenital heart disease (CHD) infants undergoing cardiac surgery. METHODS: A total of 80 infants receiving general anesthesia in selective surgery were randomly selected. Infants were assigned into two groups (n=40 per group). In the Narcotrend group, the depth of anesthesia was monitored with the Narcotrend monitor. In the standard group, the depth of anesthesia was controlled according to the experience. The mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were determined, as well as the dose of fentanyl, muscle relaxant, recovery time and extubation time were recorded. RESULTS: In both groups, vital signs were stable during the surgery. When compared with the standard group, the MAP and HR were more stable, the total dose of fentanyl and muscle relaxant were significantly reduced and the recovery time and extubation time were markedly shortened in the Narcotrend group. CONCLUSION: The application of Narcotrend monitor was beneficial to the control of the depth of anesthesia in CHD infants receiving total intravenous anesthesia, in which small amount of narcotics can achieve optimal anesthesia. Moreover, the recovery time and extubation time are reduced and the harmful consequence such as intraoperative awareness can be avoided.
    Revista brasileira de anestesiologia 06/2013; 63(3):273-278. DOI:10.1016/S0034-7094(13)70230-7
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    Revista brasileira de anestesiologia 06/2013; 63(3):308. DOI:10.1016/S0034-7094(13)70237-X
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Palpation has been shown to be rather inaccurate at identifying lumbar interspinous spaces in neuraxial anesthesia. The aim of this study is to assess the accuracy of the determination of the lumbar interspinous spaces by anesthesiologist's palpation using postoperative X-rays in obstetric patients. METHODS: We reviewed the anesthetic record and the post-operative abdominal X-rays of the cesarean sections. We indwelled the epidural catheter for post-operative one-shot analgesia. We included combined spinal and epidural anesthesia cases and compared the interspinous level which the anesthesiologist recorded and the epidural catheter insertion level confirmed by abdominal X-ray for each case. We also evaluated the factors (age, body weight, height, Body Mass Index, gestational age, and the type of surgery [planned / emergency]) leading to misidentification of interspinous level. RESULTS: Nine hundred and sixty seven cesarean sections were performed and a total of 835 cases were evaluated. The levels of the puncture documented by the anesthesiologists were in agreement with the actual catheter insertion levels in 563 (67%) cases. When the anesthesiologists aimed at L2-3 level, we found the catheter insertion at L1-2 in 5 cases (4.9%), none of which had any post-operative neurological deficits. No variables evaluated were significantly associated with misidentification of interspinous level by the anesthesiologists. CONCLUSIONS: There was a discrepancy between the anesthesiologists' estimation by palpation and the actual catheter insertion level shown in X-rays. It seems to be safer to choose the interspinous level L3-4 or lower in spinal anesthesia.
    Revista brasileira de anestesiologia 06/2013; 63(3):245-248. DOI:10.1016/S0034-7094(13)70224-1
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although the incidence of difficult laryngoscopy is similar in obese and non-obese patients, there are more reports of difficult intubation in obese individuals. Alternatives for the diagnosis and prediction of difficult intubation in the preoperative period may help reduce anesthetic complications in obese patients. The aim of this study was to identify predictors for the diagnosis of difficult airway in obese patients, correlating with the clinical methods of pre-anesthetic evaluation and polysomnography. We also compared the incidence of difficult facemask ventilation and difficult laryngoscopy between obese and non-obese patients, identifying the most prevalent predictors. METHODS: Observational, prospective and comparative study, with 88 adult patients undergoing general anesthesia. In the preoperative period, we evaluated a questionnaire on the clinical predictors of the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and anatomical parameters. During anesthesia, we evaluated difficult facemask ventilation and laryngoscopy. Descriptive statistics and correlation test were used for analysis. RESULTS: Patients were allocated into two groups: obese group (n=43) and non-obese group (n=45). Physical status, prevalence of snoring, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, neck circumference, and Mallampati index were higher in the obese group. Obese patients had a higher incidence of difficult facemask ventilation and laryngoscopy. There was no correlation between anatomical or clinical variable and difficult facemask ventilation in both groups. In obese patients, the diagnosis of OSAS showed strong correlation with difficult laryngoscopy. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical and polysomnographic diagnosis of OSA proved useful in the preoperative diagnosis of difficult laryngoscopy. Obese patients are more prone to difficult facemask ventilation and laryngoscopy.
    Revista brasileira de anestesiologia 06/2013; 63(3):262-266. DOI:10.1016/S0034-7094(13)70228-9
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    Revista brasileira de anestesiologia 06/2013; 63(3):307. DOI:10.1016/S0034-7094(13)70236-8
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a pharmacogenetic skeletal muscle disorder characterized by a hypermetabolic state after anesthesia with succinylcholine and/ or volatile anesthetics. Various neuromuscular syndromes are associated with susceptibility; however, Moebius syndrome has not been reported. Dantrolene is the drug of choice for treatment. Recurrence may occur in up to 20% of cases after the initial event treatment. CASE REPORT: Male infant, fi rst twin, 7 months old, weighing 6.5kg and presenting with Moebius syndrome was admitted for clubfoot repair. The patient had MH after exposure to sevoflurane and succinylcholine, which was readily reversed with dantrolene maintained for 24 hours. Ten hours after dantrolene discontinuation, there was recrudescence of MH that did not respond satisfactorily to treatment, and the patient died. DISCUSSION: Musculoskeletal disorders in children are associated with increased risk of developing MH, although Moebius syndrome has not yet been reported. Dantrolene is the drug of choice for treating this syndrome; prophylaxis is indicated during the fi rst 24-48 hours of the episode onset. The main risk factors for recurrence are muscular type, long latency after anesthetic exposure, and increased temperature. The child had only one risk factor. This case leads us to reflect on how we must be attentive to children with musculoskeletal disease and maintain treatment for 48 hours.
    Revista brasileira de anestesiologia 06/2013; 63(3):296-300. DOI:10.1016/S0034-7094(13)70234-4
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA) for upper limb surgeries with traditional high dose of lidocaine can lead to life threatening side effects. In order to avoid these potential life threatening side effects, many modified techniques of IVRA have been attempted by using a low dose of lidocaine, muscle relaxant and opioid. METHOD: The present study is carried out in sixty unpremedicated ASA Class 1 and 2 patients to compare the sensory and motor characteristics, cardio-respiratory parameters and side-effects during intra-operative and post-tourniquet deflation period between the patients who received 40mL of 0.5% lidocaine alone (n=30) and those who received a combination of 40mL of 0.25% lidocaine with 0.05mg fentanyl and 0.5mg vecuronium (n=30) in IVRA for upper limb orthopedic surgeries. The results were analyzed for statistical significance using a paired student t test. RESULTS: The difference between the two groups regarding the mean time of onset and complete sensory and motor block was statistically significant. But 15 minutes after the injection of anesthetic solution, there was complete sensory and motor block in both groups. CONCLUSION: Although the short delay observed in the onset and attainment of complete sensory and motor block may theoretically delay the start of surgery for 10-15 minutes but clinically that time will be spent in the preparation of surgical field. So this combination can be used safely and effectively in intravenous regional anesthesia for upper limb orthopedic surgeries with reduced chance of local anesthetic toxicity.
    Revista brasileira de anestesiologia 06/2013; 63(3):254-257. DOI:10.1016/S0034-7094(13)70226-5
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Preeclampsia is a multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) for its typical and atypical manifestations including hypertension, proteinuria, HELLP syndrome, hypertensive encephalopathy and coagulopathy. Optimal management for such patients is determined from an assessment of the balance between benefits and risks of anesthetic and obstetric therapeutic strategies. CASE REPORT: A 35-year-old pregnant woman, with one past uncomplicated pregnancy presented at 29 weeks to our medical institute as an emergency with dizziness, chest distress, palpitation, blurred vision and vaginal bleeding. After physical examination and laboratory tests, the patient was diagnosed with severe preeclampsia, HELLP syndrome, placental abruption, and MODS. The patient also presented spinal and pelvic deformity, fixation of articulus mandibularis, and tracheal displacement because of a traffic accident 11 years ago. Therefore, urgent cesarean section was performed under general anesthesia with nasal tracheal intubation using a guide wire. The patient was discharged directly home from the obstetric intensive care unit on the 7(th) postoperative day with normal blood pressure and full recovery of organic function. CONCLUSIONS: This case merits further discussion on the anesthesia considerations concerning how to make a clinical decision when treating such a patient. Neuraxial block is the first choice for preeclampsia patients undergoing cesarean section when a moderate but not progressive thrombocytopenia exists. When general anesthesia is decided, adequate sedation and analgesia is needed to better control the stress response to intubation especially in patients with neurological signs, and to prevent major cerebral complications.
    Revista brasileira de anestesiologia 06/2013; 63(3):290-295. DOI:10.1016/S0034-7094(13)70233-2
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the effects of epidural injection with levobupivacaine or serum physiologic, epidural volume extension (EVE), when using combined spinal-epidural anesthesia (CSEA) for cesarean delivery. METHODS: One-hundred and thirty-eight patients with a full-term pregnancy of 37-42 weeks that were scheduled for cesarean delivery were included. Group 1 (n=48) received single-shot spinal anesthesia (SSS), group 2 (n=45) received CSEA-EVE with saline, group 3 received CSEA-EVE with levobupivacaine. The characteristics of motor and sensory block, the effects on maternal hemodynamic changes and the effects on the newborn were compared. RESULTS: Time to reach maximum sensory block was significantly shorter in groups 3 than in group 1 and 2 (p<0.05). Two-segment regression time of sensory block was significantly shorter in group 1, whereas it was significantly longer in group 3 than in group 2 (p<0.05). Time to onset of motor block was significantly longer in group 1 than in groups 2 and 3 (p<0.05). Time to reach maximum motor block was significantly shorter in group 3 than in groups 1 and 2 (p<0.05). Time to recovery of motor block was significantly longer in group 3 than in groups 1 and 2 (p<0.05). The time to first analgesic was significantly longer in group 3 (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Sufficient and rapid motor and sensory block was achieved in all the patients in the present study; however, motor and sensory block had faster onset, lasted longer, and was of a higher level in groups 2 and 3; these effects were more pronounced in the group 3.
    Revista brasileira de anestesiologia 06/2013; 63(3):267-272. DOI:10.1016/S0034-7094(13)70229-0
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of prophylactic administration of normal saline against the hypotensive effect of propofol in female patients booked for gynecological procedures. METHOD: Sixty nine ASA (I, II) patients were randomly allocated into two groups, group 1 received 5mL.kg(-1) of 0.9% normal saline 10 minutes before induction, whereas group 2 received nothing (control). Anesthesia was induced with propofol and fentanyl then maintained with propofol and remifentanil. We measured hemodynamic variables pre and post general anesthesia induction. RESULTS: Both groups had significant drops in post induction mean arterial blood pressure (P<0.001). Also both groups had significant drops in post induction heart rate ((P<0.02 in sample group and P<0.001 in control group), and 35% of patients in the control group had more than 25% drop in the pre induction mean arterial blood pressure, compared with only 17% of patients in the saline group (P<0.04). CONCLUSION: The prophylactic administration of normal saline could decrease the percentage of patients who had a significant drop in their blood pressure after propofol induction of general anesthesia.
    Revista brasileira de anestesiologia 06/2013; 63(3):258-261. DOI:10.1016/S0034-7094(13)70227-7
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Different drugs, including hypnotics, may influence the pharmacodynamic effects of neuromuscular blockers (NMB). The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of propofol and etomidate on cisatracurium-induced neuromuscular blockade. METHOD: We included 60 patients, ASA I and II, undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia in the study and randomly allocated them into two groups, according to their hypnotic drug: GI (propofol) and GII (etomidate). Patients received intramuscular (IM) midazolam (0.1mg.kg(-1)) as premedication and we performed induction with propofol (2.5mg.kg(-1)) or etomidate (0.3mg.kg(1)), preceded by fentanyl (250mg) and followed by cisatracurium (0.1mg.kg(-1)). The patients were ventilated with 100% oxygen until obtaining a reduction of 95% or more in the adductor pollicis response amplitude, with subsequent laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation. Neuromuscular function was monitored by acceleromyograhpy. We evaluated the onset of action of cisatracurium, tracheal intubation conditions, and hemodynamic repercussions. RESULTS: The mean time and standard deviations of cisatracurium onset were: GI (86.6±14.3s) and GII (116.9±11.6s), with a significant difference (p<0, 0001). Intubation conditions were acceptable in 100% of GI and 53.3% of GII patients (p<0.0001). CONCLUSION: Induction of neuromuscular blockade with cisatracurium was faster, with better intubation conditions in patients receiving propofol compared to those receiving etomidate, without hemodynamic repercussions.
    Revista brasileira de anestesiologia 05/2013; 63(3):249-253. DOI:10.1016/S0034-7094(13)70225-3
  • Revista brasileira de anestesiologia 03/2013; 18(2):156-167.
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    ABSTRACT: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) during pregnancy is a rare event, and about half the cases are due to arteriovenous malformations (AVM). The authors describe the anesthetic approach of a 39 week pregnant patient scheduled for cesarean section, with a history of SAH due to AVM at 22 week gestation. 39 week pregnant patient, healthy prior to pregnancy, with a history of SAH at 22 week gestation, manifested by headache, vomiting, and dizziness without loss of consciousness or other defi cits on admission to the emergency room. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a left frontal AVM. After a short hospital stay for stabilization and diagnosis, the fi nal medical decision was to maintain the pregnancy and a multidisciplinary follow-up by neurosurgery and high-risk obstetric consultation. An elective cesarean section was performed at 39 weeks under epidural anesthesia. During the intraoperative period, an episode of hypotension rapidly reversed with phenylephrine occurred. The newborn Apgar score was 10/10. An epidural catheter was used for postoperative analgesia, also uneventful. There are very few published cases of anesthetic approach for pregnant women with symptomatic AVM. All decisions made by the multidisciplinary team, from choosing to continue the pregnancy to the ideal time for AVM intervention and type of anesthesia and analgesia, were weighted according to the risk of brain damage. Regarding the anesthetic procedure, the authors emphasize the need for hemodynamic stability.
    Revista brasileira de anestesiologia 03/2013; 63(2):223-6. DOI:10.1016/S0034-7094(13)70220-4