European annals of allergy and clinical immunology

Publisher: Associazione allergologi immunologi territoriali e ospedalieri; Associazione italiana allergologi territoriali e ospedalieri


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Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: Anaphylaxis is a rapid onset serious allergic reaction which may be fatal. It is usually triggered by an agent such as a food, insect sting, or medication, through a mechanism involving immunoglobulin E (IgE) and the high-affinity IgE receptor on mast cells or basophils. Anaphylaxis has been rarely described which results from pollen antigen exposure. Here, we present unusual anaphylaxis, which results from inhaled pollen antigen in a 15-year-old boy.
    European annals of allergy and clinical immunology 01/2015; 47(1):20-1.
  • European annals of allergy and clinical immunology 01/2015; 47(1):22-4.
  • European annals of allergy and clinical immunology 01/2015; 47(1):27-32.
  • European annals of allergy and clinical immunology 01/2015; 47(1):25-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory, chronically relapsing and highly pruritic skin disorder that considerably effects patients' life. Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) is often applied in clinical research in order to evaluate the impact of AD on daily performance of patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the long-term effect of allergen specific immunotherapy (ASIT) on the quality of life in AD patients. 15 patients suffering from AD, allergic to house dust mites or grass pollen allergens, who were previously treated with ASIT participated in the study. Our treatment with allergy vaccinations was performed during the time period between 1995 and 2001. DLQI questionnaires have been filled by the patients before the treatment, after termination of ASIT and after 2 - 12 years of the observational period. The statistical tests revealed a significant difference between the DLQI before ASIT was introduced and after termination of ASIT. Every answer except two (describing the influence of skin condition on preventing from working or studying and on sexual life) of these periods also disclosed statistically significant difference. As for the relation between the DLQI after ASIT and the actual one the tests revealed non significant difference, also regarding to every single answer of the questionnaire. In relation to improvement of quality of life in AD patients, this study confirms the effectiveness of ASIT and it discloses the persistence of its results in long-term aspect.
    European annals of allergy and clinical immunology 01/2015; 47(1):5-9.
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    ABSTRACT: During subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT), injections should be separated from vaccinations against infectious diseases by at least 1 week, because it is assumed that adverse reactions can result from the additional activation of the immune system. Data of a total of 875 individuals receiving SCIT and/or vaccination in one ENT-practice were included and analyzed retrospectively. 444 individuals had received vaccination against infectious diseases, 336 allergic patients received only SCIT. Moreover, 79 allergic patients had received vaccination and SCIT injections simultaneously on one day in different locations, while 16 patients inadvertently received SCIT injections within up to 4 days after vaccination. Some of the patients were observed for consecutive years receiving several vaccinations parallel to SCIT. Systemic reactions (SRs) during SCIT were classified according to the WAO (World Allergy Organization) grading. Patients exclusively receiving vaccinations did not report any drug-related SR. One SR third grade and two SRs second grade occurred in 3 asthmatic patients exclusively receiving SCIT. The patients simultaneously receiving vaccination and SCIT did not have any SR. This was also the case for the subjects consecutively receiving parallel SCIT and vaccination for up to 5 years. The international guidelines for allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) recommend an intermission of at least one week between SCIT and the administration of vaccines. However, these findings demonstrate the possibility to shorten or abolish this interval without increasing the risk of SRs.
    European annals of allergy and clinical immunology 01/2015; 47(1):10-4.
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    ABSTRACT: Hypereosinophilic syndromes are characterized by sustained overproduction of eosinophils, leading to eosinophilic infiltration, mediator release and multi-organ damage. A 67 year old male was referred to our Department for investigation of a persistent mild-to-moderate eosinophilia, identified 10 years previously and unresponsive to corticosteroid treatment. No other alterations were present in his differential blood count and physical examination was unremarkable. Allergic, rheumatologic and iatrogenic causes of eosinophilia were excluded by clinical history, skin-prick tests and blood and stool analysis. Iliac crest bone marrow aspiration and biopsy were performed, revealing normal cellularity with an increased eosinophil count (6%). RT-PCR of the aspirate revealed the presence of transcripts of ETV6/PDGFR-beta t(5;12) gene fusion. Karyotype analysis was normal and no mutation in PDFGR-alpha was identified. There was no evidence in analytic or imaging studies of cardiac, skin, neurologic, pulmonary or splenic involvement. A skin biopsy showed no evidence of pathologic infiltration. Initially the patient was treated with a 100 mg daily dose of imatinib mesylate, a specific inhibitor of the tyrosine-kinase domain of PDGFR. Subsequently, the daily dosage was increased to 200 mg/day to obtain eosinophil count normalization. Currently, he is under monthly hematologic and hepatic function screening. No drug side effects have been reported. This patient was diagnosed with a rare myeloproliferative variant of hypereosinophilic syndrome due to a t(5;12) ETV6/PDGFR-beta translocation. Imatinib mesylate, previously used successfully in syndromes associated with PDFGR-alpha mutations, showed efficacy in the context of this mutation as well.
    European annals of allergy and clinical immunology 01/2015; 47(1):15-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Forecasting symptoms of pollen-related allergic rhinoconjunctivitis at the level of individual patients would be useful to improve disease control and plan pharmacological intervention. Information Technology nowadays facilitates a more efficient and easier monitoring of patients with chronic diseases. We aimed this study at testing the efficiency of a model to short-term forecast symptoms of pollen-AR at the "individual" patient level. We analysed the data prospectively acquired from a group of 21 Italian children affected by pollen-related allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and recorded their symptoms and medication "Average Combined Score" (ACS) on a daily basis during April-June 2010-2011 through an informatics platform (Allergymonitor™). The dataset used for prediction included 15 variables in four categories: (A) date, (B) meteo-climatic, (C) atmospheric concentration of 5 pollen taxa, and (D) intensity of the patient's IgE sensitization. A Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis approach was used in order to predict ACS values above a fixed threshold value (0.5). The best performing predicting model correctly classified 77.8% ± 10.3% and 75.5% ± 13.2% of the recorded days in the model and test years, respectively. In this model, 9/21 patients showed ≥ 80% correct classification of the recorded days in both years. A better performance was associated with a higher degree of patient's atopic sensitization and a time lag > 1. Symptom forecasts of seasonal allergic rhinitis are possible in highly polysensitised patients in areas with complex pollen exposure. However, only predictive models tailored to the individual patient's allergic susceptibility are accurate enough. Multicenter studies in large population samples adopting the same acquisition data system on smart phones are now needed to confirm this encouraging outcome.
    European annals of allergy and clinical immunology 11/2014; 46(6):216-225.
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    ABSTRACT: During the last years, along with the growing knowledge about the role and importance of the intestinal flora, interest remarkably increased in probiotic bacteria supplementation. It has indeed been demonstrated that the intestinal microbiota is very important in the regulation of several functions of the organism, even those far from the gastro-enteric system. Among them, great interest was stimulated by the proven capability of the intestinal microbiota to regulate the immune system, in particular to rebalance the TH1/Th2 ratio. Consequence thereof is the assumption that the administration of probiotic bacteria may induce clinical benefits in allergic pathologies. Many clinical studies have been carried out that considered the possibility of preventing allergic sensitizations, and preventing and treating atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis. Many studies demonstrated that the administration of probiotics is able to prevent the onset of allergic sensitizations and improve the symptoms of atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis; however, studies were published, too, that achieved negative outcomes. The overall evaluation of results is, however, difficult, as the strains used and the study design are markedly heterogeneous. Future investigations with a better standardization will be able to better explain the role of the intestinal flora in atopy, and the role of probiotics in the treatment of allergic diseases.
    European annals of allergy and clinical immunology 11/2014; 46(6):196-200.
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    ABSTRACT: Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), also known as Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS), is a systemic vasculitis affecting almost exclusively patients with asthma. Neuropathy is the presenting feature in 55-75 % of cases. An increased incidence of the syndrome has been reported in asthmatics treated with leukotriene antagonists (LTAs). The causal relation is still debated. We retrospectively examined clinical, biochemical, histological features, and outcome of patients referred between 1990 and 2006 for sural nerve biopsy affected by neuropathy related to EGPA. We identified 24 patients, 6 treated with LTA montelukast (T-group) and 18 not treated (NT-Group). All had chronic asthma; in T-group neuropathy developed from 1 to 150 days after starting montelukast. Demographic features as well as asthma duration and pre-onset treatment were remarkably similar, with the only exception of a statistically nonsignificant larger involvement of the nasal mucosa in T group. Nerve biopsy revealed in both group an axonal neuropathy. At follow-up, all within the T-group and most within the NT-group improved clinically; neurophysiological parameters remained stable, improved or worsened in the same proportion within the two groups. Only 2 NT and no T-patient had stopped steroid treatment before the appearance of the peripheral neuropathy, making withdrawal overall unlikely as a causative factor of the onset of neuropathy. In summary, the temporal relationship between montelukast administration and the onset of neuropathy, would make the latter more likely as an "adverse drug reaction". Despite this, no significant clinical neither neurophysiological differences were noted between the two groups.
    European annals of allergy and clinical immunology 11/2014; 46(6):201-209.
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic urticaria (CU) is one of the most puzzling clinical entities confronted by the medical profession. It is a common motive for consultation, and in a sizable proportion of patients no identifiable cause is evident. Since there are relatively few publications regarding CU in developing countries, we performed a prospective 3-year study on the demographic and clinical features of patients with CU. Four hundred and twenty-three subjects were studied, 52 children and 371 adults, 295 females (69.7%), with a mean age of 38.4 ± 17.8 years. More often, wheals and angioedema (AE) were present on the head, upper and lower limbs and the trunk. AE was present in 162 patients (38.4%). The most frequent subtypes were chronic spontaneous urticaria, aspirin-exacerbated cutaneous disease, dermographic urticaria, and combinations of various subtypes. A better understanding of the characteristics of patients suffering CU is helpful for clinicians dealing with this ailment, and provides guidance for new investigations on its pathogenesis, which will hopefully result in a better management of this vexing condition.
    European annals of allergy and clinical immunology 11/2014; 46(6):210-215.
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    ABSTRACT: Under the broad heading of "vasomotor" rhinitis two big groups can be distinguished: allergic rhinitis (IgE-mediated), and nonallergic rhinitis. Since they are two separate nosological entities, they can co-exist in the same patient, classifying themselves in the group of "overlapped" rhinitis (OR). Although not absolutely rare (indeed it is estimated a 15-20% incidence among all vasomotor rhinopathies), this condition is not investigated and diagnosed, with significant implications in the clinical-diagnostic and therapeutic field.
    European annals of allergy and clinical immunology 11/2014; 46(6):234-236.
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    ABSTRACT: Little is known about the prevalence and clinical relevance of sensitization to shrimp allergens other than tropomyosin.
    European annals of allergy and clinical immunology 09/2014; 46(5):172-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) is one of the most common causes of Primary Immunodeficiency Disorders (PIDs) and of Primary Hypogammaglobulinemia in adulthood. Clinical features include variable combinations of infectious diseases, autoimmune diseases, lymphoproliferative disorders and gastrointestinal diseases. In this case report, delayed detection of the disease had a negative prognostic impact, despite prompt antibiotic and replacement therapy. The unfavourable prognosis was due to multi-organ failure (namely lungs, heart and liver) and to a number of chronic and acute infectious diseases.
    European annals of allergy and clinical immunology 09/2014; 46(5):184-8.
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    ABSTRACT: In this report we describe a case of respiratory allergy induced by an unusual occupational exposure to rabbit. The patient worked as a part-time magician in theatres and private parties and the most popular performance of his show was to pull out a white rabbit from a top hat. Unfortunately, a few minutes after the extraction of rabbit from top hat, the patient experienced the onset of upper and lower airway symptoms, and in some occasions he was forced to stop the show and to use short acting β2 agonists and intramuscular steroids. The results of SPT and evaluation of serological specific IgE (ImmunoCAP and ImmunoCAP ISAC IgE) revealed allergic sensitization to rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) dander as well as to Parietaria and dust mites. ImmunoCAP ISAC IgE excluded allergic sensitization to other cross-reacting animal allergens. Rabbit constitutes a reliable risk factor for allergic sensitization in individuals working as professional / part-time magicians or as animators in some recreational settings (resorts, parties, charity shows, etc).
    European annals of allergy and clinical immunology 09/2014; 46(5):178-80.