Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology

Publisher: Sage Publications, inc, SAGE Publications


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    Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology (En ligne)
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    Periodical, Internet resource
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    Internet Resource, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

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SAGE Publications

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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), comprised of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, is believed to develop as a result of a deregulated inflammatory response to environmental factors in genetically susceptible individuals. Despite advances in understanding the genetic risks of IBD, associated single nucleotide polymorphisms have low penetrance, monozygotic twin studies suggest a low concordance rate, and increasing worldwide IBD incidence leave gaps in our understanding of IBD heritability and highlight the importance of environmental influences. Operating at the interface between environment and heritable molecular and cellular phenotypes, microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous, small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression. Studies to date have identified unique miRNA expression profile signatures in IBD and preliminary functional analyses associate these deregulated miRNAs to canonical pathways associated with IBD pathogenesis. In this review, we summarize and discuss the miRNA expression signatures associated with IBD in tissue and peripheral blood, highlight miRNAs with potential future clinical applications as diagnostic and therapeutic targets, and provide an outlook on how to develop miRNA based therapies.
    Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology 01/2015; 8(1):4-22.
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    ABSTRACT: Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are characterized by periods of symptomatic relapse and remission. Diagnosis and assessment of inflammatory bowel disease has so far been based on clinical evaluation, serum parameters, radiology and endoscopy. Faecal markers such as calprotectin or lactoferrin have emerged as new diagnostic tools to detect and monitor intestinal inflammation. This review focuses on their potential clinical applications and limitations in the management of inflammatory bowel disease.
    Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology 01/2015; 8(1):23-36.
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    ABSTRACT: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is technically more challenging in patients with postsurgical anatomy such as Roux-en-Y anastomosis, frequently mandating an operative intervention. Although limited, there is growing evidence that ERCP can be performed using the balloon-overtube-assisted enteroscopy (BOAE) in patients with complex postoperative anatomy. We present the technical aspects of performing ERCP with the BOAE in patients presenting with complex postsurgical anatomy having biliary problems. ERCP using the BOAE is feasible in patients with complex postsurgical anatomy, permitting diagnostic and therapeutic interventions in 80% of patients.
    Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology 11/2014; 7(6):269-79.
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    ABSTRACT: The incidence of oesophageal adenocarcinoma has increased dramatically in the developed world in the last half century. Over approximately the same period there has been an increase in the prevalence of obesity. Multiple epidemiological studies and meta-analyses have confirmed that obesity, especially abdominal, visceral obesity, is a risk factor for gastro-oesophageal reflux, Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Although visceral obesity enhances gastro-oesophageal reflux, the available data also show that visceral obesity increases the risk of Barrett's oesophagus and adenocarcinoma via reflux-independent mechanisms. Several possible mechanisms could link obesity with the risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma in addition to mechanical effects increasing reflux. These include reduced gastric Helicobacter pylori infection, altered intestinal microbiome, factors related to lifestyle, the metabolic syndrome and associated low-grade inflammation induced by obesity and the secretion of mediators by adipocytes which may directly influence the oesophageal epithelium. Of these adipocyte-derived mediators, increased leptin levels have been independently associated with progression to oesophageal adenocarcinoma and in laboratory studies leptin enhances malignant behaviours in cell lines. Adiponectin is also secreted by adipocytes and levels decline with obesity: decreased serum adiponectin levels are associated with malignant progression in Barrett's oesophagus and experimentally adiponectin exerts anticancer effects in Barrett's cell lines and inhibits growth factor signalling. At present there are no proven chemopreventative interventions that may reduce the incidence of obesity-associated oesophageal cancer: observational studies suggest that the combined use of a statin and aspirin or another cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor is associated with a significantly reduced cancer incidence in patients with Barrett's oesophagus.
    Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology 11/2014; 7(6):247-68.
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    ABSTRACT: In patients with severe irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), abdominal pain can be the predominant symptom impacting on all aspects of their lives and resulting in excessive healthcare utilization. Furthermore, the use of analgesics can become excessive in this group of patients, sometimes leading to opiate dependency. Typically, the pain is often described as spastic in nature and we have speculated that parenteral anticholinergics might provide effective relief when all other measures have failed. For several years, we have therefore been asking general practitioners to consider teaching such patients to administer intramuscular hyoscine butylbromide for pain episodes and this study is an audit of this approach.
    Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology 11/2014; 7(6):232-7.
  • Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology 11/2014; 7(6):280-1.
  • Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology 11/2014; 7(6):282-4.
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    ABSTRACT: Large-volume paracentesis (LVP) can be time and labor intensive depending on the amount of ascites removed and the method of drainage. Wall suction has been adopted as the preferred method of drainage at many centers, though the safety and benefits of this technique have not been formally evaluated. The primary objective of this study was to define the cost and time savings of wall suction over the traditional glass vacuum bottle method for ascites drainage. The secondary objective was to compare the safety profile and patient satisfaction using these two techniques.
    Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology 09/2014; 7(5):184-92.
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    ABSTRACT: Constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C) is a commonly prevalent and clinically challenging disorder to treat. Until recently, most therapeutic agents had limited ability to address the complexity of symptoms inherent to the syndrome. The development of linaclotide provides a physiologically sound approach to treatment of the multiple symptoms of IBS-C. Clinical trials demonstrate the efficacy of linaclotide, and a platform to better understand the symptomatology of IBS-C. Based on recent clinical evidence, linaclotide should be considered for patients with IBS-C because it improves abdominal pain and bowel symptoms. In phase III trials, linaclotide met the US Food and Drug Administration responder endpoint with a number needed to treat (NNT) of 5.1-7.9, and European Medicines Agency coprimary endpoints at 12 weeks with a NNT of 4.39-7.69, and at 26 weeks with a NNT of 4.93-5.68. It is safe and effective, with diarrhea reported as the most common adverse effect, which leads to discontinuation of the medication in approximately 5% of patients.
    Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology 09/2014; 7(5):193-205.
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    ABSTRACT: Acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage remains the most common medical emergency managed by gastroenterologists. Causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) in patients with liver cirrhosis can be grouped into two categories: the first includes lesions that arise by virtue of portal hypertension, namely gastroesophageal varices and portal hypertensive gastropathy; and the second includes lesions seen in the general population (peptic ulcer, erosive gastritis, reflux esophagitis, Mallory-Weiss syndrome, tumors, etc.). Emergency upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is the standard procedure recommended for both diagnosis and treatment of UGIB. The endoscopic treatment of choice for esophageal variceal bleeding is band ligation of varices. Bleeding from gastric varices is treated by injection with cyanoacrylate. Treatment with vasoactive drugs as well as antibiotic treatment is started before or at the same time as endoscopy. Bleeding from portal hypertensive gastropathy is less frequent, usually chronic and treatment options include β-blocker therapy, injection therapy and interventional radiology. The standard of care of UGIB in patients with cirrhosis includes careful resuscitation, preferably in an intensive care setting, medical and endoscopic therapy, early consideration for placement of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt and, sometimes, surgical therapy or hepatic transplant.
    Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology 09/2014; 7(5):206-16.
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) treatment is to improve survival by preventing disease progression to decompensated cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma which is the cause of over 1 million deaths annually. The risk of disease progression is reduced when a sustained reduction of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA to undetectable levels and suppression of HBV replication are obtained which can result in regression of liver fibrosis and may even reverse cirrhosis. However, even if HBsAg loss occurs, HBV is not completely eradicated by treatment, and long-term therapy is required in patients who are HBeAg(-) and HBeAg(+) who do not maintain off-treatment virological suppression and in those with advanced liver disease. The recently updated European Association of the Study of the Liver (EASL) clinical practical guidelines for HBV have clarified, first, how to treat HBV (interferon or the most potent oral drugs with optimal resistance profiles, i.e. entecavir and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, should be used as first-line monotherapies); second, who should be treated (CHB in patients with significant liver disease but also patients who are HBsAg(+) and are receiving immunosuppressive treatment, patients coinfected with HBV and human immunodeficiency virus, mothers who are HBsAg(+) with high viral load in late pregnancy associated with sero vaccination to reduce the risk of vertical transmission of HBV; and third, when to stop antiviral therapies. The aim of this review was to clarify how to treat HBV and who should be treated, as well as when to stop treatment. Although the answer to these questions is clear for pegylated interferon, it is more debatable for nucleos(t)ide analogues (anti-HBe seroconversion, HBsAg loss or anti-HBs seroconversion with undetectable HBV DNA are clear indications to discontinue treatment but sustained undetectable HBV DNA in patients who are anti-HBe(+) without significant fibrosis might be another indication).
    Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology 07/2014; 7(4):148-55.
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic idiopathic constipation is highly prevalent among adults. Bile acids (BAs) and the enterohepatic BA circulation modulate colonic secretion and motility that affect transit. BAs in the colon have a dual action as osmotic and stimulant agents. Newer agents, such as elobixibat (A3309), an inhibitor of the ileal BA transporter, have the potential to improve significantly the management of chronic constipation, with minimal adverse effects. Elobixibat modulates the enterohepatic BA circulation, enhancing the delivery of BAs to the colon where they induce secretory and motor effects. Secondary effects of the inhibition of BA absorption are reduced activation of the farnesoid X receptor, decreased secretion of fibroblast growth factor-19 into the portal circulation, and increased BA synthesis. This review focuses on the role of BAs, the enterohepatic BA circulation, and an ileal BA transporter inhibitor (elobixibat) in chronic constipation.
    Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology 07/2014; 7(4):167-75.
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    ABSTRACT: Otilonium bromide (OB) is a spasmolytic compound of the family of quaternary ammonium derivatives and has been successfully used in the treatment of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) due to its specific pharmacodynamic effects on motility patterns in the human colon and the contractility of colonic smooth muscle cells. This article examines how. OB inhibits the main patterns of human sigmoid motility in vitro, which are spontaneous rhythmic phasic contractions, smooth muscle tone, contractions induced by stimulation of excitatory motor neurons and contractions induced by direct effect of excitatory neurotransmitters. It does this mainly by blocking calcium influx through L-type calcium channels and interfering with mobilization of cellular calcium required for smooth muscle contraction, thereby limiting excessive intestinal contractility and abdominal cramping. OB also inhibits T-type calcium channels and muscarinic responses. Finally, OB inhibits tachykinin receptors on smooth muscle and primary afferent neurons which may have the joint effect of reducing motility and abdominal pain. All these mechanisms mediate the therapeutic effects of OB in patients with IBS and might be useful in patients with other spastic colonic motility disorders such as diverticular disease.
    Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology 07/2014; 7(4):156-66.