IET Nanobiotechnology (IET NANOBIOTECHNOL )

Publisher: Institution of Engineering and Technology


IET Nanobiotechnology covers all aspects of research and emerging technologies including, but not limited to: Fundamental theories and concepts applied to biomedical-related devices and methods at the micro- and nano-scale (including methods that employ electrokinetic, electrohydrodynamic, and optical trapping techniques); Micromachining and Microfabrication tools and techniques applied to the top-down approach to Nanobiotechnology; Nanomachining and Nanofabrication tools and techniques directed towards biomedical and biotechnological applications (e.g. applications of Atomic Force Microscopy, Scanning Probe Microscopy and related tools); Colloid chemistry applied to Nanobiotechnology (e.g. cosmetics, suntan lotions, bio-active nanoparticles); Microtechnologies such as Lab-on-Chip applied to pharmaceutical, biomedical and biotechnological applications; Techniques for probing cell physiology, cell adhesion sites and cell-cell communication; Molecular self-assembly, including concepts of supramolecular chemistry, molecular recognition, and DNA Nanotechnology; Societal issues such as health and the environment.

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    IET NBT, Nanobiotechnology
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although numerous molecular methods for spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) detection have been exploited, most of them are laborious, time consuming, and costly. Recently, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have attracted attention in the field of colourimetric bio-analysis, because AuNP aggregation can be tracked with the naked eye as well as UV-visible (UV-vis) peak analysis. Here, based on a non-cross linking (NCL) platform, a colourimetric-based method was used to evaluate the capability of thiolated oligo-gold nanoparticles (Au nanoprobes) to distinguish between normal individuals, carriers and those with SMA. In this platform, removal of the repulsive force of the Au nanoprobes using high salt-concentration solutions forced them to aggregate. Amplified DNA products from 20 blood samples were hybridised with the Au nanoprobes. UV-vis spectra and peak analysis ratios of SMA-positive samples revealed that, following salt addition, the unhybridised Au nanoprobes progressively aggregated and their absorption peak shifted to longer wavelengths (P < 0.05), observed as a colour change from red to violet-purple. In contrast, colourimetric discrimination between normal and carrier samples following salt addition was not possible due to the small differences in their spectra and aggregation indices. Using this method, patients can be screened in less than 30 min.
    IET Nanobiotechnology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The present study reports the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using both biological and the chemical routes to find out the best method for control on their size and activity. The fungal agent (Fusarium oxysporum), and the plant (Azadirachta indica) were found to be the best source for AgNPs synthesis. Both biosynthesis and chemosynthesis were achieved by challenging filtrate with AgNO3 (1mM) solution. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (LM 20), Zeta potential measurement, and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The biologically synthesized nanoparticles were spherical, polydispersed and in the range of 10-40 nm, while chemically synthesized nanoparticles were highly monodispersed with the size of 5 nm. The antimicrobial assay and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus proved biogenic AgNPs as potent antibacterial agent than chemically synthesized AgNPs. The possible antibacterial mechanism of AgNPs has also been discussed. Biogenic AgNPs have shown more activity due to the protein capping and their mode of entry into the bacterial cell. These findings may encourage the use of biosynthesis over chemosynthesis method. Keywords: Biosynthesis; Chemosynthesis; Polydispersed; Monodispersed; Antibacterial.
    IET Nanobiotechnology 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, the feasibility of single walled boron nitride nanotube (SWBNNT)-based biosensors has been ensured considering the continuum modelling-based simulation approach, for mass-based detection of various bacterium/viruses. Various types of bacterium or viruses have been taken into consideration at the free-end of the cantilevered configuration of the SWBNNT, as a biosensor. Resonant frequency shift-based analysis has been performed with the adsorption of various bacterium/viruses considered as additional mass to the SWBNNT-based sensor system. The continuum mechanics-based analytical approach, considering effective wall thickness has been considered to validate the finite element method (FEM)-based simulation results, based on continuum volume-based modelling of the SWBNNT. As a systematic analysis approach, the FEM-based simulation results are found in excellent agreement with the analytical results, to analyse the SWBNNTs for their wide range of applications such as nanoresonators, biosensors, gas-sensors, transducers and so on. The obtained results suggest that by using the SWBNNT of smaller size the sensitivity of the sensor system can be enhanced and detection of the bacterium/virus having mass of 4.28 × 10(-24) kg can be effectively performed.
    IET Nanobiotechnology 09/2014; 8(3):143-8.
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    ABSTRACT: The unprecedented dynamic characteristics of nanoelectromechanical systems make them suitable for nanoscale mass sensing applications. Owing to superior biocompatibility, boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) are being increasingly used for such applications. In this study, the feasibility of single walled BNNT (SWBNNT)-based bio-sensor has been explored. Molecular structural mechanics-based finite element (FE) modelling approach has been used to analyse the dynamic behaviour of SWBNNT-based biosensors. The application of an SWBNNT-based mass sensing for zeptogram level of mass has been reported. Also, the effect of size of the nanotube in terms of length as well as different chiral atomic structures of SWBNNT has been analysed for their sensitivity analysis. The vibrational behaviour of SWBNNT has been analysed for higher-order modes of vibrations to identify the intermediate landing position of biological object of zeptogram scale. The present molecular structural mechanics-based FE modelling approach is found to be very effectual to incorporate different chiralities of the atomic structures. Also, different boundary conditions can be effectively simulated using the present approach to analyse the dynamic behaviour of the SWBNNT-based mass sensor. The presented study has explored the potential of SWBNNT, as a nanobiosensor having the capability of zeptogram level mass sensing.
    IET Nanobiotechnology 09/2014; 8(3):149-56.
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    ABSTRACT: The fundamentals of electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) digital microfluidics are very strong: advantageous capability in the manipulation of fluids, small test volumes, precise dynamic control and detection, and microscale systems. These advantages are very important for future biochip developments, but the development of EWOD microfluidics has been hindered by the absence of: integrated detector technology, standard commercial components, on-chip sample preparation, standard manufacturing technology and end-to-end system integration. A field-programmable lab-on-a-chip (FPLOC) system based on microelectrode dot array (MEDA) architecture is presented in this research. The MEDA architecture proposes a standard EWOD microfluidic component called 'microelectrode cell', which can be dynamically configured into microfluidic components to perform microfluidic operations of the biochip. A proof-of-concept prototype FPLOC, containing a 30 × 30 MEDA, was developed by using generic integrated circuits computer aided design tools, and it was manufactured with standard low-voltage complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology, which allows smooth on-chip integration of microfluidics and microelectronics. By integrating 900 droplet detection circuits into microelectrode cells, the FPLOC has achieved large-scale integration of microfluidics and microelectronics. Compared to the full-custom and bottom-up design methods, the FPLOC provides hierarchical top-down design approach, field-programmability and dynamic manipulations of droplets for advanced microfluidic operations.
    IET Nanobiotechnology 09/2014; 8(3):163-71.
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    ABSTRACT: Miniaturisation of microchip capillary electrophoresis (MCE) is becoming an increasingly important research topic, particularly in areas related to micro total analysis systems or lab on a chip. One of the important features associated with the miniaturised MCE system is the portable power supply unit. In this work, a very low electric field MCE utilising an amperometric detection scheme was designed for use in DNA separation. The device was fabricated from a glass/polydimethylsiloxane hybrid engraved microchannel with platinum electrodes sputtered onto a glass substrate. Measurement was based on a three-electrode arrangement, and separation was achieved using a very low electric field of 12 V/cm and sample volume of 1.5 µl. The device was tested using two commercial DNA markers of different base pair sizes. The results are in agreement with conventional electrophoresis, but with improved resolution. The sensitivity consistently higher than 100 nA, and the separation time approximately 45 min, making this microchip an ideal tool for DNA analysis.
    IET Nanobiotechnology 06/2014; 8(2):77-82.
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    ABSTRACT: The development of carbon nanotube (CNT)-based sensors remains an active area of research. Towards this end, a new method for manipulating CNTs, assembling CNT networks and fabricating CNT-based nanosensors was demonstrated in this study. CNTs were collected and concentrated by optically-induced dielectrophoresis (ODEP) forces and aligned between a pair of electrodes. This assembly was then used directly as a temperature sensor and a hot-film anemometer, which detects changes in windspeed. By offering efficient CNT collection and ready-to-use sensor fabrication, this ODEP-based approach presents a promising method for the development of CNT-based sensing applications and massively parallel assembly of CNT-lines. The developed CNT-based nanosensors may be used to measure the temperature and the flow velocity of bio-samples in the near future.
    IET Nanobiotechnology 03/2014; 8(1):44-50.
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    ABSTRACT: This work mainly describes an electrochemical microsensor based on the reduction of molybdophosphate complex for total phosphorus (TP) determinations in water. The microelectrode was fabricated using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) techniques and porous, branching gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were electrodeposited on the microelectrode to improve its sensitivity. Calibration of the microsensor was performed with standard phosphate solutions prepared with KH2PO4 with pH adjusted to 1.0. The experimental results showed that both sensitivity and current response are improved effectively using this modified microelectrodes: The limit of detection of the microsensor is 1.2 × 10-7 mol/l and linear range is 3 × 10-7 to 3 × 10-4 mol/l. The sensitivity of unmodified electrode is -0.27 nA/μmol·l-1 (R2 = 0.994), whereas the sensitivity of AuNPs modified electrode is -0.89 nA/μmol l-1(R2 = 0.98). The current response of modified electrode is 6 times larger than that of unmodified electrode in average. Detection of TP was also carried out with digested TP standard solutions for both modified and unmodified electrodes, and results were consistent with the nominal value of phosphorus concentration. This microsensor provides the probability of combining TP detection device with micro-digesting device to form a TP detection system, which can realise the automotive and on-line monitoring of TP in surface water.
    IET Nanobiotechnology 01/2014; 8(1):31-36.
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    ABSTRACT: Water sorption in sulphonated polyimides with or without ionic block structure was analysed with Feng's new dual mode model. The effect of their molecular structure that determines the chain organisation in the solid materials was analysed by using the model parameters. The model parameters Cp and A' correspond to the sorbed water molecules on the first layer close to the ionic groups and on the subsequent layers, respectively. Based on these fitted physical parameters, the water sorption on the membranes with different counterions was studied and the hydration energy was proved to have much influence on the Cp values. The effect of the structure of the block and the random copolymers on the Cp and A' values was discussed and compared with that for the well-known Nafion® membranes. The large amount of sorbed water at high activities may induce a sufficiently large mobility of the polymer segments in the hydrophilic domains for material inflation, which leads to high A' values.
    IET Nanobiotechnology 01/2014; 8(1):51-58.
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    ABSTRACT: A novel continuous switching/separation scheme of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in a sub-microlitre fluid volume surrounded by neodymium permanent magnet is studied in this work using tangential microfluidic channels. Polydimethylsiloxane tangential microchannels are fabricated using a novel micromoulding technique that can be done without a clean room and at much lower cost and time. Negligible switching of MNPs is seen in the absence of magnetic field, whereas 90% of switching is observed in the presence of magnetic field. The flow rate of MNPs solution had dramatic impact on separation performance. An optimum value of the flow rate is found that resulted in providing effective MNP separation at much faster rate. Separation performance is also investigated for a mixture containing non-magnetic polystyrene particles and MNPs. It is found that MNPs preferentially moved from lower microchannel to upper microchannel resulting in efficient separation. The proof-of-concept experiments performed in this work demonstrates that microfluidic bioseparation can be efficiently achieved using functionalised MNPs, together with tangential microchannels, appropriate magnetic field strength and optimum flow rates. This work verifies that a simple low-cost magnetic switching scheme can be potentially of great utility for the separation and detection of biomolecules in microfluidic lab-on-a-chip systems.
    IET Nanobiotechnology 01/2014; 8(2):102-110.
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    ABSTRACT: Ligand-receptor binding site model is used to elucidate the binding affinity between ligands and receptors, with transistor-based sensors. AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) were immobilised with antibodies and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase enzymes to detect peptides and human immunodeficiency virus drugs, respectively. The signals generated by the sensors because of the binding of the ligands to the receptors were fitted into the binding-site models and analysed. The dissociation constants of the ligand-receptor pairs and the number of the binding sites on the receptors were revealed. The results are very consistent with the data reported by the other methods from the literatures. The incorporation of the HEMTs and the binding-site models is demonstrated to be useful for studying the mechanism of the biomolecular interaction and the application for quick and cost-effective drug developments.
    IET Nanobiotechnology 01/2014; 8(1):10-17.
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    ABSTRACT: The development of carbon nanotube (CNT)-based sensors remains an active area of research. Towards this end, a new method for manipulating CNTs, assembling CNT networks and fabricating CNT-based nanosensors was demonstrated in this study. CNTs were collected and concentrated by optically-induced dielectrophoresis (ODEP) forces and aligned between a pair of electrodes. This assembly was then used directly as a temperature sensor and a hot-film anemometer, which detects changes in windspeed. By offering efficient CNT collection and ready-to-use sensor fabrication, this ODEP-based approach presents a promising method for the development of CNT-based sensing applications and massively parallel assembly of CNT-lines. The developed CNT-based nanosensors may be used to measure the temperature and the flow velocity of bio-samples in the near future.
    IET Nanobiotechnology 01/2014; 8(1):44-50.
  • IET Nanobiotechnology 01/2014; 8(2):123-131.
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    ABSTRACT: Isolation of cells from heterogeneous biological samples is critical in both basic biological research and clinical diagnostics. Affinity-based methods, such as those that recognise cells by binding antibodies to cell membrane biomarkers, can be used to achieve specific cell isolation. Microfluidic techniques have been employed to achieve more efficient and effective cell isolation. By employing aptamers as surface-immobilised ligands, cells can be easily released and collected after specific capture. However, these methods still have limitations in cell release efficiency and spatial selectivity. This study presents an aptamer-based microfluidic device that not only achieves specific affinity cell capture, but also enables spatially selective temperature-mediated release and retrieval of cells without detectable damage. The specific cell capture is realised by using surface-patterned aptamers in a microchamber on a temperature-control chip. Spatially selective cell release is achieved by utilising a group of microheater and temperature sensor that restricts temperature changes, and therefore the disruption of cell-aptamer interactions, to a design-specified region. Experimental results with CCRF-CEM cells and sgc8c aptamers have demonstrated the specific cell capture and temperature-mediated release of selected groups of cells with negligible disruption to their viability.
    IET Nanobiotechnology 01/2014; 8(1):2-9.
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    ABSTRACT: The authors have prepared amine-modified Fe2O3@C nanoparticles with diameter of 20 nm by decomposing perchlorinated pyrene/Fe(NO3)3 mixture in the presence of ammonia in solvothermal conditions at 180°C for 48 h by a onestep process. NH3 is not only a cocatalyst of Fe(NO3)3 for decomposition of perchlorinated pyrene, but also the source of surface functionalisation group. The effect of synthesis conditions on shape and size of nanoparticles and characterisation of their structure and functionalisation group are investigated in this research. The amino group in the surface of core-shell nanoparticles can be further functionalised with polyethylene glycol and folic acid to improve their solubility in aqueous solution and target cancer cells. The applications of functionalised core-shell nanoparticles in magnetic resonance imaging and cancer thermal therapy are also investigated in this research.
    IET Nanobiotechnology 01/2014; 8(2):93-101.
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    ABSTRACT: The use of silver nanoparticle on various substrates has been widespread because of its good antibacterial properties that directly depend on the stability of the silver nanoparticles in a colloidal suspension. In this study, the colloidal solutions of the silver nanoparticles were synthesised by a simple and safe method by using lecithin as a stabilising agent and their stability was examined at various temperatures. The effect of the lecithin concentrations on the stability of the synthesised silver nanoparticles was examined from 25 to 80°C at 5°C intervals, by recording the changes in the UV–vis absorption spectra, the hydrodynamic diameter and the light scattering intensity of the silver nanoparticles. In addition, the morphology of the synthesised silver nanoparticles was investigated with the low-voltage scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results indicated that increasing temperature caused different changes in the size of the stabilised and the unstabilised silver nanoparticles. The size of the stabilised silver nanoparticles reduced from 38 to 36 nm during increasing temperature, which confirmed good stability.
    IET Nanobiotechnology 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Antibacterial and antifungal activities of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) were investigated against infectious microorganisms. ZnO NPs were prepared by wet chemical precipitation method varying the pH values. Particle size and morphology of the as-prepared ZnO powders were characterised by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscope. The zone of inhibition by NPs ranged from 0 to 17 mm. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentration value of NPs is 25 μ against Staphylococcus epidermidis. These studies demonstrate that ZnO NPs have wide range of antimicrobial activities towards various microorganisms. The results obtained in the authors' study indicate that the inhibitory efficacy of ZnO NPs is significantly dependent on its chosen concentration and size. Significant inhibition in antibacterial response was observed for S. epidermidis when compared with control antibiotic.
    IET Nanobiotechnology 01/2014; 8(2):111-117.
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    ABSTRACT: Fibres with diameters less than 1000 nm (or 1 μm) are defined as nanofibres and they can be produced by several processing techniques, particularly by electrospinning (ES) technique. ES technique was invented by Formhals in 1934 that in this the electrical field imposes a uniaxial stretching of a viscoelastic jet derived from the polymer solution to continuously reduce the diameter and leads to formatting nanofibres. It is simple and cost-effectiveness technique for preparation of nanofibres. Electrospinning allows for fabricating polymer fibres with diameters varying from 3 nm to greater than 5 μm and in the past decade due in large part to a higher interest in nanoscale properties and technologies. In synthesis process of nanofibres by ES technique, many factors affect on the synthetic nanofibres properties such as polymer properties, solvent properties, additives, polymer concentration, solution properties and so on. In this study, the authors reviewed basic electrospinning and introduces various polymers for preparation of nanofibres.
    IET Nanobiotechnology 01/2014; 8(2):83-92.