Journal of Location Based Services

Publisher: Taylor & Francis


The aim of this interdisciplinary and international journal is to provide a forum for the exchange of original ideas, techniques, designs and experiences in the rapidly growing field of location based services on networked mobile devices. It is intended to interest those who design, implement and deliver location based services in a wide range of contexts. Published research will span the field from location based computing and next-generation interfaces through telecom location architectures to business models and the social implications of this technology. The diversity of content echoes the extended nature of the chain of players required to make location based services a reality. Hence the journals aim is to bridge the research undertaken in industry and academia and promote communication amongst all in this diverse and rapidly growing sector.

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  • Website
    Journal of Location Based Services website
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  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Taylor & Francis

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 month embargo for STM, Behavioural Science and Public Health Journals
    • 18 month embargo for SSH journals
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    • Post-print on authors own website, Institutional or Subject Repository
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    • Publisher will deposit to PMC on behalf of NIH authors.
    • STM: Science, Technology and Medicine
    • SSH: Social Science and Humanities
    • 'Taylor & Francis (Psychology Press)' is an imprint of 'Taylor & Francis'
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Evaluating target-tracking protocols for wireless sensor networks that can localise multiple mobile assets can be a very challenging task. Such protocols usually aim at the minimisation of communication overhead, data processing for the participating nodes and delivering adequate tracking information of the mobile assets in a timely manner. Simulations on such protocols are performed using theoretical models that are based on unrealistic assumptions like the unit disc graph communication model, ideal network localisation and perfect distance estimations. With these assumptions taken for granted, theoretical models claim various performance milestones that cannot be achieved in realistic conditions. In this paper, we design a new localisation protocol, where mobile assets can be tracked passively via software agents. Moreover, we address and mitigate issues that hinder performance over the wireless medium and provide a fully deployable protocol. The design, implementation and experimentation of this new protocol along with further optimisations were performed using the WISEBED framework. We apply our protocol in a real indoor wireless sensor testbed with multiple experimental scenarios to showcase scalability and trade-offs between network properties and configurable protocol parameters. By analysis of the real-world experimental output, we present results that depict a more realistic view of the target tracking problem, regarding power consumption and the quality of tracking information. Finally, we also conduct some much focused simulations to assess the scalability of our protocol in very large networks and multiple mobile assets.
    Journal of Location Based Services 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Location is no longer only a backdrop of mobile device usage, as current location-based services (LBS) can customise content based on a user's geographic position. The application Foursquare has emerged as a leading commercial LBS. One of the first LBS to reach a large, global audience, Foursquare features geosocial networking, place listings, user reviews and recommendations. With physical place as the organising concept of the application, Foursquare combines locative technology with social media features to give users the ability to interact with place by writing place reviews, uploading photos or creating place listings into its database. The application enables users to access, create and share geographically relevant information in ways that would have been difficult before the advent of locative media. To explore how people were using LBS in relation to their places, a small-scale ethnographic study of Foursquare users was conducted using interviews, remote observation and contextual inquiry. The findings of the study indicate that Foursquare users sought, appreciated and made creative use of the application's geographically relevant place information.
    Journal of Location Based Services 04/2014; 8(2).
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    ABSTRACT: We propose a novel technique for 3D tracking that integrates a single camera and ultrasound. We use ultrasound with the Extended Phase Accordance Method to measure the distance accurately to a moving target and the camera for identifying the 2D position of the target on the image plane. A prototype system consists of a target unit mounting one ultrasound transmitter and three infrared LEDs surrounding it, and a receiver unit with one inexpensive camera and one ultrasound receiver. We implemented these units in a lightweight and compact way (receiver unit size: 55 mm × 44 mm) to make the system robust to non-line-of-sight problems that frequently occur in trilateration or multicamera-based systems. To improve the ranging performance, we applied phase characteristic compensation of the ultrasound transducers by interpolating with a B-spline function and creating a compensated curved surface. Experimental results show that root-mean-square errors of the proposed system are 1.20 mm and 1.66 mm for static and mobile (target velocity: 1.0 m/s) settings, respectively. Thus, the performance of the system is comparable with that of high-end systems. Limitations of the proposed system and its possible applications are also discussed.
    Journal of Location Based Services 01/2014; 8(1).
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    ABSTRACT: We propose a Doppler pose estimation method for an indoor messaging system (IMES) (‘pose’ refers to both position and orientation). With this method, both the position and orientation of a receiver are estimated simultaneously by using Doppler shifts produced by moving a receiver antenna with two or more IMES transmitters. The proposed method is evaluated through the identical experiments conducted in two different locations. In these experiments, the position and orientation of the receiver is estimated using two transmitters, and the achievable accuracy is evaluated by changing the separation distance between the transmitter antennas. The experimental results demonstrate that a positioning accuracy higher than a few decimetres and orientation estimation accuracy of higher than a few degrees are achievable when the measurement condition is relatively good (i.e. when the proper separation distance is set between two transmitter antennas and cycle slips do not occur). We also conducted an analysis for the convergence of initial values (which are used for the iterative position and orientation calculation in the nonlinear least-squares method). The results show that the initial values basically converge to appropriate position and orientation values as long as an inverse matrix in the position and orientation estimation process can be calculated. Moreover, we analysed the effect of the number of transmitters on position and orientation estimation precision. The results show that, as the number of transmitters increases, the precision of the position and orientation estimation also increases, and the precision is particularly high in the area surrounded by the transmitters.
    Journal of Location Based Services 01/2014; 8(1).
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we give an overview of image matching techniques for various vision-based navigation systems: stereo vision, structure from motion and map-based approach. Focused on map-based approach, which generally uses feature-based matching for mapping and localisation, and based on our early developed system, a performance analysis has been carried out and three major problems have been identified: inadequate geo-referencing and imaging geometry for mapping, vulnerability to drastic viewpoint changes and big percentage of mismatches at positioning. We introduce multi-image matching for mapping. By using affine-scale-invariant feature transform for viewpoint changes, the major improvement takes place on the epoch with large viewpoint changes. In order to deal with mismatches that were unable to be removed by Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC), we propose new method that use cross-correlation information to evaluate the quality of homography model and select the proper one. The conducted experiments have proved that such an approach can reduce the chances of mismatches being included by RANSAC and final positioning accuracy can be improved.
    Journal of Location Based Services 01/2014; 8(1):3-17.
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    ABSTRACT: Trajectory classification is the process of predicting the class label of moving objects based on their trajectories and other features. Existing works on building trajectory classification model discover features by using spatial distribution and shape of sub-trajectory. However, they do not utilise duration and region association information available in trajectory data during feature generation. In this study, trajectory features are generated using spatial distribution, duration and region association information of trajectories. In particular, two types of features, region rules and path rules, are generated from trajectories for classification. Region rules consider the spatial distribution of trajectories, the time spent duration by the trajectories in the region and the association information with other regions. Path rules differentiate objects based on their travelling patterns and speed. Efficient algorithms are devised to obtain region rules and path rules. Based on the discovered rule, trajectory classification model is built to predict the class label of new trajectory. Experimental results on various real-world data-sets show that incorporating duration and region association information in trajectory classification improves accuracy.
    Journal of Location Based Services 12/2013; 7(4):246-271.
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents a summary of the Action and Interaction in Volunteered Geographic Information international workshop which was held as a one day pre-conference workshop to the 16th Annual Association of Geographic Information Laboratories in Europe conference in Leuven, Belgium in May 2013. This paper summarises the important outcomes of workshop presentations and key discussion statements from participant contributions to an open-floor discussion on the most pertinent issues in Volunteered Geographic Information VGI research. Participants engaged this discussion focused on what are the most likely problems which could form the basis for a research agenda in VGI composed of both short-and long-term research objectives. While the development of a VGI research agenda will require the involvement of the broadest possible spectrum of disciplines, this paper is, none-the-less, an important first step on this journey.
    Journal of Location Based Services 12/2013; 7(4):291-311.
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    ABSTRACT: Global positioning systems GPS logs recorded in personal devices contain rich information such as travel patterns, locations of frequent visits and place–event associations. There have been rather successful attempts in detecting the mode of transport from GPS logs such as walking, driving or taking a bus, which has found varied applications. However, the best-known schemes either require tedious manual labelling or pre-training process or both. We present MoDetect MD, a unsupervised scheme which eliminates the need of manual labelling and pre-training while attaining equal or greater accuracy compared with the best-known supervised methods. MD can also cater for differences in individual's behaviours, and hence may be more widely applicable than the existing schemes. To achieve this, MD relies on Kolmogorov–Smirnov test which offers a theoretical assurance when computing similarity between segments of records. Our analysis shows that the higher speed modes can be better differentiated through a weighted bootstrapping procedure. We also augment the decisions with reference to the transfer probabilities between different modes at locations identified from the GPS records.
    Journal of Location Based Services 12/2013; 7(4):272-290.
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents an augmented reality system for indoor environments, which does not require special tagging or intrusive landmarks. We have designed a localisation architecture that acquires data from different sensors available in commodity smartphones to provide location estimations. The accuracy of those estimations is very high, which enables the information overlay on a camera-phone display image. During a training phase, we used visual structure from motion techniques to run offline 3D reconstructions of the environment from the correspondences among the scale invariant feature transform descriptors of the training images. To determine the position of the smartphones, we first obtained a coarse-grained estimation based on WiFi signals, digital compasses and built-in accelerometers, making use of fingerprinting methods, probabilistic techniques and motion estimators. Then, using images captured by the camera, we performed a matching process to determine correspondences between 2D pixels and model 3D points, but only analysing a subset of the 3D model delimited by the coarse-grained estimation. This multisensor approach achieves a good balance between accuracy and performance. Finally, a resection process was implemented providing high localisation accuracy when the camera has been previously calibrated, that is we know intrinsic parameters such as focal length, but it is also accurate if an auto-calibration process is required. Our experimental tests showed that this proposal is suitable for applications combining location-based services and augmented reality, since we are able to provide high accuracy with an average error down to 15 cm in
    Journal of Location Based Services 09/2013; 7(3):145-164.
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    ABSTRACT: We present an approach for the localisation of passive receiver nodes in a communication network. The only source of information is the time when environmental sound or ultrasound signals are received. The discrete signals occur at unknown positions and times, but they can be distinguished. The clocks of the receivers are synchronised, so the time differences of arrival TDOA of the signals can be computed. The goal is to determine the relative positions of all receiver nodes and implicitly the positions and times of the environmental signals. Our proposed approach, the Cone Alignment algorithm, solves iteratively a nonlinear optimisation problem of TDOA using a physical spring–mass simulation. We present a geometrical representation of the error function, which is modelled by physical springs. By iterative relaxation of the springs, the error function is minimised. The approach is tested in numerous simulations, whereby our algorithm shows a smaller tendency to get stuck in local minima than a nonlinear least-squares approach using gradient descent. In experiments in a real-world setting, we demonstrate and evaluate a tracking system for a moving ultrasound beacon without the need to initially calibrate the positions of the receivers. Using our algorithm, we estimate the trajectory of a moving model train and of an RC car with a precision in the range of few centimetres.
    Journal of Location Based Services 06/2013; 7(2):121-144.
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    ABSTRACT: A prediction of a vehicle's route would be useful for giving the driver advance warnings and alerts about upcoming situations and opportunities. This paper presents a new algorithm for predicting a driver's route based on a probabilistic prediction of the driver's destination. For each candidate destination, our route prediction algorithm plans a route to that destination. Roads on these routes accumulate the probabilities of their respective destinations, giving higher probabilities to roads along the way to higher probability destinations. The algorithm is based on a single parameter that characterises how efficiently a driver drives. Once this parameter is computed, it does not require storing a history of trips, and it works in places a driver has never visited. We test the algorithm on 100 routes recorded with the Global Positioning System GPS and show that the route prediction quickly narrows down the future route to a small fraction of the road network. We also compare our algorithm to two other algorithms to show how it performs better.
    Journal of Location Based Services 06/2013; 7(2):98-120.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This article presents a detailed description of an optical indoor positioning system named CLIPS, short for camera and laser-based indoor positioning system. The main objective of CLIPS is pose estimation of a mobile camera with respect to a static projector ...
    Journal of Location Based Services 03/2013; 7(1):1-2.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The need to improve the methods of displaying point symbols on mobile maps is becoming more and more crucial. As the number of symbols on maps increases and the maps allow intelligent zooming, the overlapping of symbols needs to be resolved by automated cartographic generalisation methods, such as aggregation or displacement. This paper introduces an algorithm for grouping overlapping point symbols in a sequential and cartographically pleasing fashion. The method displaces the point symbols adjacently based on the changing scale. In addition, the algorithm implements the aggregation operator for similar symbols lying nearby and, in the grouping process, it takes into account the symbol hierarchy resulting from the context. Before displacement, the objects are filtered based on the level of detail and ordered according to their relevance and coordinate values. When the point symbols do not fit onto the map view, another generalisation method, such as point symbol clustering, is applied to the symbols. To empirically validate the concept, the method was implemented on a map application run on a mobile smartphone and a tablet computer. The application supports multiple zooming levels and requires an efficient client-side method for displacement. The running performances for the algorithm are also given in this paper.
    Journal of Location Based Services 01/2013; 7(2).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Today's mobile location-based services LBSs largely depend on a free-of-charge, best-effort positioning technology, called global positioning system, which is controlled by the US military. The European alternative Galileo will not only offer a similar best-effort system by 2020, but also a premium-rate service known as Galileo commercial service CS. Galileo CS is planned to provide higher positioning accuracy, improved security due to signal authentication and service guarantee. While the technology behind Galileo is often studied, the impact of Galileo CS on the LBS marketplace is rarely discussed. In this article, we fill this gap by analysing how improved accuracy, authentication and service guarantee may impact the business models of LBS providers. We do so by interviewing service providers, policy makers and industry experts on what new services would be enabled; technological alternatives that may emerge in the coming years; and organisational and financial issues that service providers face when adopting such a premium-priced positioning signal. We find that a more accurate, secure and reliable global navigation satellite system signal enables a range of new LBSs, although several alternative technologies are emerging that may make Galileo CS obsolete before it is even launched. To convince the LBS providers to adopt Galileo CS, the institution operating Galileo should get governments on board early on for building trust and should consider progressive pricing schemes. Still, service providers are sceptical about adopting Galileo CS, and the hope to recoup any investments in Galileo may thus be in vain.
    Journal of Location Based Services 12/2012;