Marine Mammal Science (Mar Mamm Sci )

Publisher: Blackwell Publishing

Description

Published for the Society for Marine Mammalogy, Marine Mammal Science is a source of significant new findings on marine mammals resulting from original research on their form and function, evolution, systematics, physiology, biochemistry, behavior, population biology, life history, genetics, ecology and conservation. The journal features both original and review articles, notes, opinions and letters. It serves as a vital resource for anyone studying marine mammals.

  • Impact factor
    2.13
  • 5-year impact
    2.12
  • Cited half-life
    9.20
  • Immediacy index
    0.52
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.68
  • Website
    Marine Mammal Science website
  • ISSN
    1748-7692
  • OCLC
    230770198
  • Material type
    Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Blackwell Publishing

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • Some journals impose embargoes typically of 6 or 12 months, occasionally of 24 months
    • no listing of affected journals available as yet
  • Conditions
    • See Wiley-Blackwell entry for articles after February 2007
    • Publisher version cannot be used
    • On author or institutional or subject-based server
    • Server must be non-commercial
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged with set statement ("The definitive version is available at www.blackwell-synergy.com ")
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • 'Blackwell Publishing' is an imprint of 'Wiley-Blackwell'
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Bay of Islands, New Zealand, have been studied for almost two decades. Since 2003, fewer than 150 dolphins visited the bay during each season and the local unit has declined 7.5% annually from 1997 to 2006. The causes of decline are unclear but probably include mortality and emigration. Here, we used a long-term database to estimate reproductive parameters of female bottlenose dolphins including recruitment rates. A total of 704 surveys were conducted in which 5,577 sightings of 408 individually identified dolphins were collected; of these 53 individuals were identified as reproductive females. The calving rate increased between periods (1997–1999 = 0.13, CL = 0.07–0.21; 2003–2005 = 0.25, CL = 0.16–0.35 calves/reproductive female/year). A 0.25 calving rate suggests that on average, a female gives birth only once every four years, which is consistent with the estimated calving interval (4.3 yr, SD = 1.45) but still is lower than values reported for other populations. Conversely, apparent mortality rates to age 1+ (range: 0.34–0.52) and 2+ (range: 0.15–0.59) were higher than values reported elsewhere. The high apparent calf mortality in conjunction with a decline in local abundance, highlight the vulnerability of bottlenose dolphins in the Bay of Islands. Long-term studies are required to understand the causes of high calf mortality and the decline in local abundance. Meanwhile, management should focus on minimizing sources of anthropogenic disturbance and enforcing compliance with current legislation.
    Marine Mammal Science 10/2014;
  • Marine Mammal Science 10/2014;
  • Robin W. Baird, Sabre D. Mahaffy, Antoinette M. Gorgone, Tori Cullins, Dan J. McSweeney, Erin M. Oleson, Amanda L. Bradford, Jay Barlow, Daniel L. Webster
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We assessed scarring patterns as evidence of fisheries interactions for three populations of false killer whales in Hawai‘i. Bycatch of the pelagic population in the tuna longline fishery exceeds their Potential Biological Removal level. Scarring was assessed by seven evaluators as consistent, possibly consistent, or not consistent with fisheries interactions, and average scores computed. Scores were highest for scarred main Hawaiian Island (MHI) false killer whales, followed by pelagic and Northwestern Hawaiian Island (NWHI) individuals. Considering only whales for which the majority of evaluators scored scarring as consistent revealed significant differences among populations in the percentage of individuals scarred; MHI: 7.5%, pelagic: 0%, NWHI: 0%. Assessment by social cluster for the MHI population showed that 4.2% of Cluster 1, 7.1% of Cluster 2, and 12.8% of Cluster 3 individuals had such scarring, although differences between clusters were not statistically significant. There was a significant sex bias; all sexed individuals (n = 7) with injuries consistent with fisheries interactions were female. The higher proportion of MHI individuals with fisheries-related scarring suggests that fisheries interactions are occurring at a higher rate in this population. The bias towards females suggests that fisheries-related mortality has a disproportionate impact on population dynamics.
    Marine Mammal Science 10/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Animals that establish new sites near the edge of the species' range may be vulnerable to disturbance as they are low in numbers and are not tied to the sites. Pinniped distributions world-wide are changing as many species are recolonizing areas of their former ranges and establishing new colonies. Little research is available on the impact that vessel presence may pose on pinnipeds at such sites. This study documents responses of New Zealand fur seals to vessels in the Bay of Plenty, New Zealand, at a recently established breeding colony. Fur seal behavior at the breeding location was recorded in the presence of vessels. GLMM and GAM analyses revealed that fur seal responses varied with month, time of day, duration of vessel exposure, and the distance to the vessel. Age and sex of the seals, and the number of seals present also influenced fur seal response. Fur seals at this site became disturbed when vessels approached to the 10–20 m distance category, and a precautionary minimum approach distance of 50 m has been suggested. This research provides direction for monitoring and minimizing impacts of vessels on fur seals, especially where new sites are being colonized.
    Marine Mammal Science 09/2014;
  • Marine Mammal Science 09/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper presents data from 48 resightings of 16 southern right whales that were satellite-tagged on the South African coast in September 2001, up to and including 2012. Tag performance in terms of number of days with locations received was significantly higher in males than females, and lowest in cows with calves, and attributed to behavioral differences leading to variable degrees of antenna damage. Resightings occurred from 4 to 4,054 d after tagging: tags were retained in all whales seen within 27 mo, but were apparently shed in all but one individual seen within 36 mo of tagging. The exception was a whale that still had the tag present 11 yr after tagging. Healing at the tag site occurred gradually and within 5 yr of tagging (and 2 yr after tag shedding). No significant difference in the subsequent frequency of calving was detected between 12 tagged and 382 untagged females photographed contemporaneously, and although statistical power was low, a 21% or greater reduction in calving rate in tagged females would seem incompatible with the observations. The death of one female 3 yr after tagging was more likely attributable to a ship strike on an animal debilitated by a prolapsed uterus.
    Marine Mammal Science 09/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pinnipeds are amphibious mammals with flippers, which function for both aquatic and terrestrial locomotion. Evolution of the flippers has placed constraints on the terrestrial locomotion of phocid seals. The detailed kinematics of terrestrial locomotion of gray (Halichoerus grypus) and harbor (Phoca vitulina) seals was studied in captivity and in the wild using video analysis. The seals exhibited dorsoventral undulations with the chest and pelvis serving as the main contact points. An anteriorly directed wave produced by spinal flexion aided in lifting the chest off the ground as the fore flippers were retracted to pull the body forward. The highest length-specific speeds recorded were 1.02 BL/s for a gray seal in captivity and 1.38 BL/s for a harbor seal in the wild. The frequency and amplitude of spinal movement increased directly with speed, but the duty factor remained constant. Substrate did not influence the kinematics except for differences due to moving up or down slopes. The highly aquatic nature of phocids seals has restricted them to locomote on land primarily using spinal flexion, which can limit performance in speed and duration.
    Marine Mammal Science 09/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Global climate change may fundamentally alter population dynamics of many species for which baseline population parameter estimates are imprecise or lacking. Historically, the Pacific walrus is thought to have been limited by harvest, but it may become limited by global warming-induced reductions in sea ice. Loss of sea ice, on which walruses rest between foraging bouts, may reduce access to food, thus lowering vital rates. Rigorous walrus survival rate estimates do not exist, and other population parameter estimates are out of date or have well-documented bias and imprecision. To provide useful population parameter estimates we developed a Bayesian, hidden process demographic model of walrus population dynamics from 1974 through 2006 that combined annual age-specific harvest estimates with five population size estimates, six standing age structure estimates, and two reproductive rate estimates. Median density independent natural survival was high for juveniles (0.97) and adults (0.99), and annual density dependent vital rates rose from 0.06 to 0.11 for reproduction, 0.31 to 0.59 for survival of neonatal calves, and 0.39 to 0.85 for survival of older calves, concomitant with a population decline. This integrated population model provides a baseline for estimating changing population dynamics resulting from changing harvests or sea ice.
    Marine Mammal Science 09/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Many phocids are capital breeders, relying on stored reserves to sustain energetic requirements while on land. Their large body size, high energy expenditure during lactation, and the insulative effects of the blubber layer can lead to thermal stress from overheating, especially in warm and temperate climates. Thermal stress can influence fine-scale site choice on breeding colonies, and behavioral thermoregulation has been proposed as an explanation for the clear preferences shown by breeding female gray seals for proximity to pools of water. However, anecdotal observations suggest that pools of water may also be preferred for drinking, though water intake is difficult to verify without real-time physiological monitoring. Here, an alternative approach demonstrates that gray seals also require access to water for drinking. Using Ecological Niche Factor Analysis to examine fine-scale physical determinants of pupping site choice at North Rona, Scotland, we found that lactating mothers showed preference for lower salinity pools. This is most pronounced early in the season, when ambient temperatures and presumably thermal stress are greatest. Given that the cooling effect of fresh and salt water should be equivalent, the most parsimonious explanation for this preference for fresh water pools is that lactating females use these pools for drinking.
    Marine Mammal Science 08/2014; 30(4):1456 - 1472.
  • Marine Mammal Science 08/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Due to the highly predictable patterns of occupancy on land, pinnipeds are one of the main marine resources observed by tourists, which, in turn, could strongly perturb their behavior. We analyzed the behavioral responses of the South American sea lion (Otaria byronia) to the presence of tourists and its variation according to temporal (2012 vs. 2013 austral summer months), spatial (breeding vs. nonbreeding sites of the colony), and age/sex class (adult males vs. subadult males vs. females) factors, and determined the relationship between the degree of responses by sea lions and the distance of the vessel to the colony, visitation time, and tourist behavior. We recorded 1,232 boat visits during 2012 and 2013. Subadult males were the age/sex class most affected in the breeding site, followed by adult females at the nonbreeding site. More disturbing conduct by tourists, longer visitation time, and vessels closer to the colony caused greater responses by sea lions. The established minimum distance from the colony is not enforced, generating an adverse response by sea lions. We recommend the development of management plans with the local coastal communities to decrease the impact of ecotourism on the species and enhance the sustainability of this industry.
    Marine Mammal Science 08/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Gray seals were first observed breeding in the Dutch Wadden Sea in 1985, after centuries of absence. The breeding colony there is now the largest on the European continent. We describe the changes in gray seal numbers and their geographical expansion, and estimate how these processes were influenced by immigration from other colonies. Counts of hauled out animals were carried out between 1985 and 2013, monitoring three different periods of the seals' annual cycle. Using priors determined for the UK population, a Bayesian demographic model was fitted to pup numbers to estimate the population parameters driving the growth. This included immigration of subadults into the breeding population, which contributed to an average growth rate in the pup counts of 19%/yr, much higher than expected in a closed population. This immigration may account for approximately 35% of the total annual growth. In addition, at least 200 gray seals from the UK visit the area temporarily. Recovery of the population in the Netherlands occurred more than 50 yr after gray seals were protected in the UK. These time scales should be taken into account when studying long living marine mammals, e.g., in impact and conservation studies.
    Marine Mammal Science 08/2014;
  • Marine Mammal Science 07/2014;