Baltic Journal of Management

Publisher: Baltic Management Development Association, Emerald

Description

The Baltic region has experienced rapid political and economic change over recent years. The challenges to managers and management researchers operating within the area are often different to those experienced in other parts of the world. The Baltic Journal of Management contributes to an understanding of different management cultures and provides readers with a fresh look at emerging management practices and research in the countries of the Baltic region and beyond.

Impact factor 0.50

  • 5-year impact
    0.00
  • Cited half-life
    0.00
  • Immediacy index
    0.00
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.00
  • Website
    Baltic Journal of Management website
  • Other titles
    Baltic journal of management (Online), BJM
  • ISSN
    1746-5265
  • OCLC
    65520003
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Emerald

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Voluntary deposit by author of author's pre-print or author's post-print allowed on author's personal website or Institutional repository, where there is no mandate to deposit
    • If mandated by a funding agency, the author's post-print may be deposited in any open access repository after a 24 months embargo period
    • Author's pre-print and Author's post-print not allowed on subject-based repository
    • Must link to publisher version with DOI
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Published source must be acknowledged with set statement
    • Non-commercial
    • Publisher last contacted on 02/04/2013
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of work-family and family-work conflict and enrichment in predicting job satisfaction and its subsequent relation with turnover intentions in a transition country. Design/methodology/approach – This study examined the role of work-family and family-work conflict and enrichment in predicting job satisfaction and its subsequent relation with turnover intentions in a transition country. Findings – While work-family enrichment was significantly and positively related to job satisfaction, family-work enrichment was not. A similar pattern was observed for conflict, whereby only work-family conflict exhibited a positive relation to job satisfaction. Moreover, job satisfaction partially mediated the relationships between work-family interface and turnover intentions. The results revealed indirect effects of work-family enrichment and work-family conflict on turnover intentions. Originality/value – This study is unique because it tested the relationships among the negative and positive sides of the work-family interface and job attitudes in a transition country in CEE, an underrepresented cultural context in the work-family literature. Furthermore, it tested the direct and indirect effects of work-family interface on turnover intentions. In addition, it provided evidence of the significance of same-domain effects and insignificance of cross-domain effects.
    Baltic Journal of Management 09/2014; 9(4):446 - 466.
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose ‐ The purpose of this paper is to investigate the motives behind individuals' choice to have parallel business-employment careers (hybrid entrepreneurship) with a particular focus on passion (i.e. to work with something one is passionate about) as the main motive. Design/methodology/approach ‐ A survey was administered to 262 Swedish hybrid entrepreneurs. Hypotheses proposed associations of the individual's age at business start-up and weekly hours spent on the business with passion as the main motive for the hybrid form. Logistic regression was used to test the hypotheses. Findings ‐ The results indicated that first, the ability to work with something one is passionate about is the top motive for combining employment with a side business; second, passion is more likely to be the main motive behind the hybrid form among individuals who are older at business start-up; third, passion is less likely to be the main motive behind the hybrid form among individuals who spend more time on the business. Research limitations/implications ‐ The study focusses on passion as motive for hybrid entrepreneurship, and in doing so, it does not test the extent to which hybrid entrepreneurs experience passion. Practical implications ‐ The results support the popular notion that passion drives people to have parallel business-employment careers. Findings indicating that passion as a motive is more common among those who are older at start-up and less common among those who spend more time on the business suggest the importance of acknowledging hybrid entrepreneurs' various profiles when approaching them in research and practice. Originality/value ‐ This is the first study on motives behind hybrid entrepreneurship.
    Baltic Journal of Management 07/2014; 9(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose ‐ The purpose of this paper is to analyse the impact of institutional distance, extended to capture subnational institutional variation, on foreign entry mode choice. Design/methodology/approach ‐ As an empirical study, it focuses on manufacturing firms established in Russia by foreign investors from developed countries. The dependent variables, the share of foreign ownership and the entry mode choice binary variable (equal to 1 for full foreign ownership and zero for a joint venture) were obtained from the registry of foreign-owned firms in Russia. The World Bank's regulatory quality (RQ) index on a national level and a respective indicator for the various Russian regions on a subnational level were utilised to measure institutions. Multilevel cross-classified analysis including foreign firms, the various Russian regions and characteristics of the foreign owners' home countries was applied to for making empirical estimations. Findings ‐ The empirical results show, first, that the regionally adjusted institutional distance, i.e. the distance between the home country and the Russian region in question, when measured in terms of RQ, shifts the ownership structure towards shared ownership. However, nation-level institutional distance between the home country and Russia does not show any statistically significant relationship with the modal choice. Originality/value ‐ The results indicate that with the exception of industries of strategic importance to the state, the most important "rules of the game" for foreign entry strategies are provided not by the federal government but by the regional governors. The theoretical value of the paper lies in the extension of the institutional distance concept to the subnational level. At the same time, the paper identifies those institutional features that foreign entrants eyeing Russia need to take into account when selecting an entry mode and location within Russia.
    Baltic Journal of Management 07/2014; 9(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose ‐ Small privately held firms extensively use debt provided by principal owners and households (inside-debt) as an alternative capital source to straight equity capital. The purpose of the research study is to investigate inside-debt-bankruptcy relations. Design/methodology/approach ‐ Inside-debt-bankruptcy relation is tested on three prominent bankruptcy prediction models using correlation and logit regression analysis. Sample consists of 314 Estonian small firms. Financial reports of 2007 are modelled against bankruptcies declared in 2009. Findings ‐ Results imply that users of inside-debt are less profitable; they have weaker liquidity position and less retained earnings. Leverage is not found to be significant determinant between inside-debt users and non-users. Fundamental finding of the study suggests that the use of inside-debt is significantly and positively related to bankruptcy probability. While inside-debt carries no risk elements per se, findings are robust to indicate that the use of inside-debt has significant power to signal for increasing bankruptcy risk and as such, reducing information asymmetry of small firms. Research limitations/implications ‐ This study is limited to single country data. Bankruptcy data fall to the period of economical recession. It is suggested to repeat the study in a normal economical situation and to extend sample size over different countries. Practical implications ‐ Findings contribute to the understanding of firms' financial risk, firm behaviour and capital structure development. In a lending industry, results shall supplement to prudent credit risk assessment techniques and design of bankruptcy models in general. Originality/value ‐ To the author's best knowledge, inside-debt-bankruptcy relation is not studied so far in the existing academic literature.
    Baltic Journal of Management 04/2014; 9(2).
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose ‐ The purpose is to understand the manner in which companies use management accounting and control systems (MACS) for dialogical communication in assisting collaboration and the coordination of actions. The task of the research is to answer the following questions: why is it important to support dialogical communication by MACS in the organisation? Who are the salient stakeholder(s) in a company implementing collaboration and cooperation? How does one analyse and understand the role of MACS as a medium for supporting dialogical communication? Which aspects of dialogical communication are (not) fulfilled in the implementation of MACS and why? Design/methodology/approach ‐ This study's philosophical assumptions are based on relational constructivism as a social science perspective. This study uses a participative action and observation case study as its methodology. Findings ‐ Based on this case study, it can be concluded that most of the assumptions that dialogue could take place were fulfilled in departments in need of changes for competition and economic reasons. In the departments that did not need changes, assumptions of mutual openness, mutual confirmation and non-manipulation were not fulfilled ‐ information from MACS was hidden and censored. The open dialogue by MACS between ground and senior groups was prevented resulting in a lack of information on different practices at the organisational level. One assumption that was problematic even in departments in need of changes was the assumption of non-evaluation. There is a paradox or contradiction between the contemporary business environment needing innovativeness and creativity, which means free and open communication without evaluation, and the coordination and control function which is a common part of MACS. Research limitations/implications ‐ In this study, the data collection, documentation and analysis were carefully conducted and several methods applied to deal with possible bias. Nevertheless, the problem of the observer bias cannot be entirely eliminated since an individual researcher can never be separated from his or her background, philosophical views and experiences. Practical implications ‐ The paper makes a strong practical contribution. Based on this case study, it has been demonstrated that MACS could be a medium to support dialogue between senior and ground levels if: senior management sees the need for dialogue between organisational members; management and other organisational members support and believe in dialogue which could be mediated by MACS. Originality/value ‐ The conceptual novelty of the research lies in tying the concept of dialogue in the environment of stakeholder capitalism with the MACS framework. The contribution of this research is to shed more light on the role of MACS as one option of mediums for supporting dialogue between top and ground-level managers.
    Baltic Journal of Management 04/2014; 9(2).
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose ‐ The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which Central European emerging stock markets (focusing on Poland) have been affected by the recent international financial crisis, and how the current investment climate (barriers, risks, challenges and opportunities) influences appetite for investments in Polish equities. In doing so, the study aims to report timely findings in relation to the determinants of the safety and profitability of international portfolio diversification to the Polish stock market. Design/methodology/approach ‐ Based on qualitative empirical research, the authors analyse the differences between the foreign (UK) and domestic (Poland) investors' views on equity investments in Poland. The study builds on questionnaires and interviews with practitioners associated with the Polish stock market. Findings ‐ The authors report that the global financial crisis influenced changes to domestic and international investors' appetite for risk related to equity investments in emerging stock markets: investors are more prudent about emerging markets but the Polish stock market has shown substantial growth potential and positively distinguished itself from other Central European stock exchanges; particular types of investment risks associated with equity investments in the Polish stock market have abated. Polish equities are an attractive component of the international portfolio diversification, provided that trading strategies are adjusted to the contemporary investment environment. Originality/value ‐ This paper addresses the absence of the academic literature devoted to the analysis of equity investments in the contemporary Central European emerging stock markets. The authors discuss the differences in appetite for risk between the UK and Polish investors and assumptions about investments in Poland. The authors also contribute to the international debate on investor protection and regulations that can improve investment processes.
    Baltic Journal of Management 04/2014; 9(2).
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose ‐ The purpose of this paper is to examine whether political elements affect entry mode decisions of foreign small- to medium-sized manufacturing enterprises (SMMEs) into post-communist Russia. Design/methodology/approach ‐ The paper employs a qualitative research technique. The data were collected using confidential, semi-structured face-to-face interviews. Findings ‐ Smaller manufacturers are more sensitive to the political environment. More specifically, during face-to-face interview, corruption and ineffective law enforcement were found to be the factors of significant concern to SMMEs in Russia. Research limitations/implications ‐ The research on sensitive topics has limitations largely due to possible political implications for firms operating in Russia. Practical implications ‐ This study on Russia is significant particularly for foreign small and medium enterprises, it will also raise concerns for firms entry modes into emerging markets of former USSR members. Originality/value ‐ The paper presents findings that are based on primary sources ‐ interviews with foreign firms currently conducting business in Russia. The research findings will be a valuable source of information to contemporary firms conducting feasibility studies with a view to doing business in Russia. In addition, this study contributes to the limited body of research knowledge on the business environment in Russia and the emerging markets of former USSR members.
    Baltic Journal of Management 01/2014; 9(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose ‐ The purpose of this paper is to describe: corporate reasons for, and organizational challenges of sustainable business models; and the evolution of economic effects, social boundaries and environmental actions in sustainable business practices. Design/methodology/approach ‐ This study is based on insights gained from eight Norwegian companies in different industries. Purposeful sampling was employed to ensure that the companies had sustainable business models beyond the level of mere compliance, of sustainable business practices in the marketplace and society. A deductive approach to data collection ensured that the companies had sufficient understanding to relate their sustainable business practices to interviewers. The interviews were subsequently transcribed and analyzed systematically by the research team. Findings ‐ The empirical findings indicate evolutionary changes as companies move on a continuum from superficial to embedded sustainable business models and the application of sustainable business practices. The planning, implementation and evaluation of sustainable business models evolves over time within companies and their supply chains, as well as in the marketplace and society. Research limitations/implications ‐ A limitation of this study is that it is exclusively undertaken in Norwegian companies, although the companies are from different industries with different characteristics. Future research is clearly necessary and will be conducted in other countries in similar industries, so as to explore the empirical findings from this study in other contexts. In addition, the interfaces between environmental actions, economic effects and social boundaries need to be investigated further. Originality/value ‐ The study contributes to a growing body of knowledge on corporate reasons for and organizational challenges of sustainable business models, as well as environmental, social and economic aspects of sustainable business practices.
    Baltic Journal of Management 01/2014; 9(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose – This paper aims to propose and present a decision-making support method for poorly structured problems in schools, using the example of one of the most important and difficult decisions that principals face: terminating a teacher's employment. Design/methodology/approach – A literature review was conducted, along with observations and interviews with 30 experienced principals, in order to identify decisions made by Polish principals. In order to sort non-programmable decisions according to their importance and difficulty, data were collected from 377 principals. Opinions from two groups, consisting of 22 and 25 experts, respectively, were collected in order to identify and order a set of criteria for making a specified non-programmable decision. Findings – The four following areas of school activities were distinguished: finances, teaching and care, internal processes, and development of organisation. Within these categories, 126 decisions made by principals were identified, 96 of which were non-programmable. One of the most difficult and important non-programmable decisions was related to the termination of a teacher's employment. In order to support decisions regarding a teacher's dismissal, 44 criteria with different importance levels were identified. Practical implications – Principals can use the method proposed in this paper, as it increases the rationality and objectivity of making a dismissal decision. The method can also be adapted for other difficult non-programmable decisions. Originality/value – The expert opinion method might be useful for solving poorly structured problems in the management of educational institutions. As far as it can be ascertained, no previous empirical studies have identified and ranked the most important and difficult non-programmable decisions facing principals
    Baltic Journal of Management 01/2014; 09(01):91-112.
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose ‐ There are strong similarities and striking differences in Estonia's and South Korea's entrepreneurial ecosystems. The purpose of this paper is to seek to compare and contrast these two economies in terms of key indicators related to impacts, performance measures and determinants of entrepreneurship. Design/methodology/approach ‐ The approach of this study can be described as theory building from multiple case studies. The analysis is based on secondary data from a number of sources related to impacts, performance measures and determinants of entrepreneurship. Findings ‐ Among the major findings is that in order to shift to a higher gear, South Korea's entrepreneurial weakness must be addressed through broad institutional reforms that include the corporate governance, and policies and attitudes toward immigrants and immigration. In Estonia's case, while continuing attention must be paid to institutional reforms, immediate action is needed to improve policies that affect basic economic, technological and infrastructural conditions. Research limitations/implications ‐ A crucial lesson from a comparison of these two economies is that multiple paths of entrepreneurial success exist. Practical implications ‐ The lessons each can learn from the other to improve the entrepreneurial ecosystem are suggested. Other emerging, developing and less developed economies also have much to learn from the success paths of these two economies. Originality/value ‐ This paper provides unique insights into alternative ways that emerging economies can follow to develop successful entrepreneurial ecosystems and achieve entrepreneurial success as well as advantages and limitations of the alternatives.
    Baltic Journal of Management 01/2014; 9(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose ‐ The paper aims to examine the role of market orientation (MO) and innovation capability in determining business performance during an economic upturn and downturn. Design/methodology/approach ‐ The data comprise two national-level surveys conducted in Finland in 2008, representing an economic boom, and in 2010 when the global economic crisis had hit the Finnish market. Partial least square path analysis is used to test the potential mediating effect of innovation capability on the relationship between MO and business performance during economic boom and bust. Findings ‐ The results show that innovation capability fully mediates the performance effects of a MO during an economic upturn, whereas the mediation is only partial during a downturn. Innovation capability also mediates the relationship between a customer orientation and business performance during an upturn, whereas the mediating effect culminates in a competitor orientation during a downturn. Thus, the role of innovation capability as a mediator between the individual market-orientation components varies along the business cycle. Originality/value ‐ This paper is one of the first studies that empirically examine the impact of the economic cycle on the relationship between strategic marketing concepts, such as MO or innovation capability, and the firm's business performance.
    Baltic Journal of Management 01/2014; 9(2).
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose ‐ The purpose of this paper is to present results of an exploratory cross-cultural study aiming to examine the role and meaning of inspiration in organisational settings to advance the contemporary understanding of inspiration and its manifestations. Design/methodology/approach ‐ The study utilises Gadamerian philosophical hermeneutics to cultivate an understanding of the rationalisations of inspiration at work and to explore its conceptualisations to inform future research. Findings ‐ The findings strongly indicate that inspiration in its numerous manifestations is not confined to the domain of personal life and that it often occurs in organisational settings. There are no indications that inspiration is affected by the cultural belongingness of employees, rather it is found that attitudes towards inspiration differ among representatives of the different levels of the organisational hierarchy. A connection between motivation and inspiration is discussed and indication found that at the level of lay accounts the concepts are perceived to be both different and complementary. Originality/value ‐ The article presents a conceptualisation of inspiration in an organisational context to guide future research towards a more instrumental approach to recognising and utilising inspiration in contemporary management practice.
    Baltic Journal of Management 12/2013; 9(1).
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose ‐ The main purpose of this paper is to create a model, which specifies the determinants of the airline business. This sector is chosen, as the airline industry is not only influenced by national characteristics, but also characterized by international standards and internationalization processes. Design/methodology/approach ‐ In this paper, a systematic analysis of the research published over the past decades is carried out. This analysis incorporates the most acknowledged concepts and works in the field of airline management. Findings ‐ The main determinants of the airline business are identified as: national culture, airline alliances, the implementation of the low-fare business model, the influence of the state on business, and the impact of market liberalization. The modern airline industry can be partially seen as an embodiment of the neoliberal ideas of the 1990s. Practical implications ‐ The model may be used by academics and practitioners who work in the area of airline business management. Specifically in the case of a merger between two airlines, the model might serve as a useful tool to analyze potential synergies. Originality/value ‐ Although various research has been conducted on describing the way that airline business is done, little focus has been paid on the factors that actually determine and change it. This paper analyzes the unique industry variables by which the airline industry is driven and determined.
    Baltic Journal of Management 12/2013; 9(1).
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose ‐ The purpose of this paper is to investigate how the 2008 financial crisis is reflected in the CSR disclosure quantity and readability of banks' headquarters and subsidiaries, and how banks' disclosure patterns differ across these units. Design/methodology/approach ‐ Embedded multiple case study utilising quantitative content analysis and readability indices. Findings ‐ As expected, Nordic banks' headquarters' disclosure quantity and readability outperforms those of their Baltic subsidiaries/branches. However, no convergence of intra-group CSR disclosure practices is detected. Banks' response to the legitimacy gap seems to depend on CSR reporting strategy: passive superficial (Baltic subsidiaries/branches, ABLV), passive thorough (Swedbank), intermediate (Danske Bank) and active (SEB). Passive and intermediate strategy pursuers' CSR disclosure quantity and readability remains stable during the financial crisis period. However, active strategy pursuers increase disclosure quantity and reduce readability indicating possible stakeholder manipulation attempts. Both intermediate and active strategy pursuers disclose in greater detail steps taken to improve CSR behaviour. Research limitations/implications ‐ Results may not be transferable to the pre-2007 period, to other contexts and to Western European subsidiaries. Practical implications ‐ Introduction of plain English into CSR communication could enable to decrease stakeholder manipulation attempts made through CSR texts. Originality/value ‐ Previous studies have not investigated CSR disclosures of banks operating in the Baltic countries and globally have not focused on their readability, headquarter-subsidiary differences and 2008 financial crisis contexts.
    Baltic Journal of Management 12/2013; 9(1).
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose ‐ This paper aims to explore the relationship between market share and performance of large accounting firms. It also investigates whether the performance of international accounting firms is better than that of non-international accounting firms. Design/methodology/approach ‐ This paper divides the empirical analysis into two stages. The first stage constructs a multiple regression model to explore the relationship between market share, international operations and the performance of large accounting firms. The second stage uses the Tobit regression model to identify the determinants of market share of international accounting firms. Findings ‐ Empirical results show that there is a significant, positive relationship between market share and performance, and that the performance of international accounting firms is better than that of non-international accounting firms. Second, from the perspective of business characteristics, the scope of the most international accounting firms is traditional auditing services; namely financial attestation and tax business services. Practical implications ‐ From the clients' viewpoint, market share is one of the key indices in determining the quality of the accounting firms' service. Originality/value ‐ As the market for auditing services in Taiwan is saturated, in the future, the accounting industry will be concerned with non-auditing services. It is suggested that the large accounting firms could follow the demand changes of their clients: employ professionals in various fields to provide specialized services, adjust the range of transnational and management consultant services, and operate management consultant services more aggressively. These measures would have advantages in a fiercely competitive market.
    Baltic Journal of Management 10/2013; 8(4).