Baltic Journal of Management

Publisher: Baltic Management Development Association, Emerald

Description

The Baltic region has experienced rapid political and economic change over recent years. The challenges to managers and management researchers operating within the area are often different to those experienced in other parts of the world. The Baltic Journal of Management contributes to an understanding of different management cultures and provides readers with a fresh look at emerging management practices and research in the countries of the Baltic region and beyond.

  • Impact factor
    0.50
  • 5-year impact
    0.00
  • Cited half-life
    0.00
  • Immediacy index
    0.00
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.00
  • Website
    Baltic Journal of Management website
  • Other titles
    Baltic journal of management (Online), BJM
  • ISSN
    1746-5265
  • OCLC
    65520003
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Emerald

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • On Authors website or institutional website
    • Non-commercial
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Publisher version cannot be used
    • Eligible UK authors may deposit in OpenDepot
    • Third parties must not systematically deposit into institutional or subject repositories
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose ‐ The purpose is to understand the manner in which companies use management accounting and control systems (MACS) for dialogical communication in assisting collaboration and the coordination of actions. The task of the research is to answer the following questions: why is it important to support dialogical communication by MACS in the organisation? Who are the salient stakeholder(s) in a company implementing collaboration and cooperation? How does one analyse and understand the role of MACS as a medium for supporting dialogical communication? Which aspects of dialogical communication are (not) fulfilled in the implementation of MACS and why? Design/methodology/approach ‐ This study's philosophical assumptions are based on relational constructivism as a social science perspective. This study uses a participative action and observation case study as its methodology. Findings ‐ Based on this case study, it can be concluded that most of the assumptions that dialogue could take place were fulfilled in departments in need of changes for competition and economic reasons. In the departments that did not need changes, assumptions of mutual openness, mutual confirmation and non-manipulation were not fulfilled ‐ information from MACS was hidden and censored. The open dialogue by MACS between ground and senior groups was prevented resulting in a lack of information on different practices at the organisational level. One assumption that was problematic even in departments in need of changes was the assumption of non-evaluation. There is a paradox or contradiction between the contemporary business environment needing innovativeness and creativity, which means free and open communication without evaluation, and the coordination and control function which is a common part of MACS. Research limitations/implications ‐ In this study, the data collection, documentation and analysis were carefully conducted and several methods applied to deal with possible bias. Nevertheless, the problem of the observer bias cannot be entirely eliminated since an individual researcher can never be separated from his or her background, philosophical views and experiences. Practical implications ‐ The paper makes a strong practical contribution. Based on this case study, it has been demonstrated that MACS could be a medium to support dialogue between senior and ground levels if: senior management sees the need for dialogue between organisational members; management and other organisational members support and believe in dialogue which could be mediated by MACS. Originality/value ‐ The conceptual novelty of the research lies in tying the concept of dialogue in the environment of stakeholder capitalism with the MACS framework. The contribution of this research is to shed more light on the role of MACS as one option of mediums for supporting dialogue between top and ground-level managers.
    Baltic Journal of Management 01/2014; 9(2).
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose ‐ The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which Central European emerging stock markets (focusing on Poland) have been affected by the recent international financial crisis, and how the current investment climate (barriers, risks, challenges and opportunities) influences appetite for investments in Polish equities. In doing so, the study aims to report timely findings in relation to the determinants of the safety and profitability of international portfolio diversification to the Polish stock market. Design/methodology/approach ‐ Based on qualitative empirical research, the authors analyse the differences between the foreign (UK) and domestic (Poland) investors' views on equity investments in Poland. The study builds on questionnaires and interviews with practitioners associated with the Polish stock market. Findings ‐ The authors report that the global financial crisis influenced changes to domestic and international investors' appetite for risk related to equity investments in emerging stock markets: investors are more prudent about emerging markets but the Polish stock market has shown substantial growth potential and positively distinguished itself from other Central European stock exchanges; particular types of investment risks associated with equity investments in the Polish stock market have abated. Polish equities are an attractive component of the international portfolio diversification, provided that trading strategies are adjusted to the contemporary investment environment. Originality/value ‐ This paper addresses the absence of the academic literature devoted to the analysis of equity investments in the contemporary Central European emerging stock markets. The authors discuss the differences in appetite for risk between the UK and Polish investors and assumptions about investments in Poland. The authors also contribute to the international debate on investor protection and regulations that can improve investment processes.
    Baltic Journal of Management 01/2014; 9(2).
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose – This paper aims to propose and present a decision-making support method for poorly structured problems in schools, using the example of one of the most important and difficult decisions that principals face: terminating a teacher's employment. Design/methodology/approach – A literature review was conducted, along with observations and interviews with 30 experienced principals, in order to identify decisions made by Polish principals. In order to sort non-programmable decisions according to their importance and difficulty, data were collected from 377 principals. Opinions from two groups, consisting of 22 and 25 experts, respectively, were collected in order to identify and order a set of criteria for making a specified non-programmable decision. Findings – The four following areas of school activities were distinguished: finances, teaching and care, internal processes, and development of organisation. Within these categories, 126 decisions made by principals were identified, 96 of which were non-programmable. One of the most difficult and important non-programmable decisions was related to the termination of a teacher's employment. In order to support decisions regarding a teacher's dismissal, 44 criteria with different importance levels were identified. Practical implications – Principals can use the method proposed in this paper, as it increases the rationality and objectivity of making a dismissal decision. The method can also be adapted for other difficult non-programmable decisions. Originality/value – The expert opinion method might be useful for solving poorly structured problems in the management of educational institutions. As far as it can be ascertained, no previous empirical studies have identified and ranked the most important and difficult non-programmable decisions facing principals
    Baltic Journal of Management 01/2014; 09(01):91-112.
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose ‐ The paper aims to examine the role of market orientation (MO) and innovation capability in determining business performance during an economic upturn and downturn. Design/methodology/approach ‐ The data comprise two national-level surveys conducted in Finland in 2008, representing an economic boom, and in 2010 when the global economic crisis had hit the Finnish market. Partial least square path analysis is used to test the potential mediating effect of innovation capability on the relationship between MO and business performance during economic boom and bust. Findings ‐ The results show that innovation capability fully mediates the performance effects of a MO during an economic upturn, whereas the mediation is only partial during a downturn. Innovation capability also mediates the relationship between a customer orientation and business performance during an upturn, whereas the mediating effect culminates in a competitor orientation during a downturn. Thus, the role of innovation capability as a mediator between the individual market-orientation components varies along the business cycle. Originality/value ‐ This paper is one of the first studies that empirically examine the impact of the economic cycle on the relationship between strategic marketing concepts, such as MO or innovation capability, and the firm's business performance.
    Baltic Journal of Management 01/2014; 9(2).
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose ‐ Small privately held firms extensively use debt provided by principal owners and households (inside-debt) as an alternative capital source to straight equity capital. The purpose of the research study is to investigate inside-debt-bankruptcy relations. Design/methodology/approach ‐ Inside-debt-bankruptcy relation is tested on three prominent bankruptcy prediction models using correlation and logit regression analysis. Sample consists of 314 Estonian small firms. Financial reports of 2007 are modelled against bankruptcies declared in 2009. Findings ‐ Results imply that users of inside-debt are less profitable; they have weaker liquidity position and less retained earnings. Leverage is not found to be significant determinant between inside-debt users and non-users. Fundamental finding of the study suggests that the use of inside-debt is significantly and positively related to bankruptcy probability. While inside-debt carries no risk elements per se, findings are robust to indicate that the use of inside-debt has significant power to signal for increasing bankruptcy risk and as such, reducing information asymmetry of small firms. Research limitations/implications ‐ This study is limited to single country data. Bankruptcy data fall to the period of economical recession. It is suggested to repeat the study in a normal economical situation and to extend sample size over different countries. Practical implications ‐ Findings contribute to the understanding of firms' financial risk, firm behaviour and capital structure development. In a lending industry, results shall supplement to prudent credit risk assessment techniques and design of bankruptcy models in general. Originality/value ‐ To the author's best knowledge, inside-debt-bankruptcy relation is not studied so far in the existing academic literature.
    Baltic Journal of Management 01/2014; 9(2).
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose – This article reports the findings of a study of the effect of a women’s MBA programme in Finland called the femaleMBA on the development of women’s management competencies. The gendered nature of the competency development was also analyzed. Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative interview study was conducted with twenty women who completed the programme. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. Findings – In addition to improving the women’s business competencies and their mastery of management language, the programme contributed to the creation of a clearer managerial identity, greater assertiveness, and increased credibility in a managerial role. The development of management competencies was shown to be gendered in varying ways. An all-women learning environment was experienced as a safe and supportive social context for development. Research limitations/implications – Only a specifically women’s MBA was studied. The topic should also be studied in a mixed MBA group. Practical implications – MBAs should pay systematic attention to the informal and social learning context. A combination of “masculinity” and “femininity” might be worth taking into consideration when all-women management development programmes are planned and conducted. This study suggests that an all-women group in an MBA has the potential to challenge and even transform participants’ ideas and assumptions about the dominance of masculinity in management, and to increase their understanding of the importance of femininity in management. Originality/value – A gender angle on research into management development and particularly MBAs is very rare. This study shed light on the topic by showing that competency development in MBAs is not, as is often assumed, gender neutral but gendered. Keywords Management development, MBA, Gender, Women, Management, Competence, Content analysis, Finland
    Baltic Journal of Management 01/2014; 9(2):213-230.
  • Baltic Journal of Management 11/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose ‐ The purpose of this study was to advance the understanding of the effect of extraversion on an expatriate's level of contexting (adopting a higher or lower level of context) while abroad. Particularly, this study focused on Polish expatriates in the US and American expatriates in Poland. Design/methodology/approach ‐ The participants were 30 American expatriates living in Poland and 41 Polish expatriates living in the USA. Findings ‐ The results from the regression analysis suggest that extraversion has a different effect on contexting among Polish expatriates than American expatriates, the higher the level of extraversion, the more context dependent the American expatriates were. Moreover, Polish and American expatriates differ in terms of contexting related to the universalism and the particularism dimensions of the seven cultural dimensions from Hampden-Turner and Trompenaars. Originality/value ‐ This advanced understanding led the researchers to give practical implications on the training of expatriates for their abroad assignments.
    Baltic Journal of Management 01/2013; 9(1).
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose ‐ The purpose of this paper is to unravel and assess current nearshoring practices and their outlook in the Baltic region. Design/methodology/approach ‐ The authors draw on the offshoring and outsourcing literature and use mixed methods of enquiry, including case studies, survey techniques and secondary statistical data. Part of the empirical base of the study is an examination of three Scandinavian firms that offshore their operations to vendors in the Baltics. To provide a more complete view of the practices and processes of offshoring in the region, the authors complement the case studies of Swedish and Danish manufacturers with a survey of 55 Lithuanian vendors and other statistical data. Findings ‐ The paper outlines the main drivers of nearshoring for Scandinavian manufacturing firms. Based on in-depth insights into nearshoring initiatives, the authors elucidate how the initiatives evolved and what factors affected them. The survey results reveal the perspective of Lithuanian vendors regarding their relationships with Scandinavian partners. These findings are used in assessing the future prospects of nearshoring in the Baltic region. Practical implications ‐ The study relates the key attributes of Scandinavian companies' nearshoring practices to the perspectives of Lithuanian vendors. While the authors' discussion concentrates on how companies organise their operations in an increasingly global context, it also points to broader policymaking implications for the Baltic region. Originality/value ‐ The paper addresses the topic of nearshoring, which has thus far received limited attention in the management literature. By incorporating both the perspectives of offshoring and vendor companies, the paper provides a more complete view on the phenomenon and presents the main dilemmas underpinning it.
    Baltic Journal of Management 01/2013; 8(1).
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose ‐ Given the changing role of patents within enterprises, this research aims to investigate the link between patent management and technological innovation performance in Chinese high-tech enterprises. Also, from theoretical underpinnings this study highlights the managerial implications of effective patent management which will lead to enhanced technological innovation performance. Design/methodology/approach ‐ Hypotheses related to patent management and technological innovation performance in Chinese high-tech enterprises have been developed based on a review of the literature and related field interviews. Data has been collected from 118 high-tech enterprises using questionnaires and analyzed using regression and SEM analysis. Findings ‐ Patent acquisition has a positive impact on both protection and commercialization of patents. Considered together, the combination of patent acquisition and commercialization has a positive impact on technological innovation performance in high-tech enterprises. While patent protection positively affects patent commercialization, it has no direct effect on economic or societal performance. Therefore, the key factors to enhance the link between patent management and technological innovation performance of Chinese high-tech enterprises are effective patent acquisition and subsequent commercialization. Originality/value ‐ From a resource-based view, this paper delineates the concept of patent management and validates the link between patent management and technological innovation performance. To the authors' knowledge, it is a relatively new perspective to explore patent management based on a micro-level.
    Baltic Journal of Management 01/2013; 8(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose ‐ The purpose of this paper is to understand differences between the strategic level and the operational level of corporate responsibility within an organization. Design/methodology/approach ‐ The research was conducted as a single case study of one of the more noteworthy Finnish firms with respect to corporate responsibility reporting. Findings ‐ The results show that strategic and operational levels differ in terms of their developmental stage of corporate responsibility. The strategic level is more focused on responsibility issues concerning external stakeholders, on reporting, on corporate image and on quantitative measures. The operational level emphasizes internal stakeholders, acting, daily existence, and qualitative criteria. Research limitations/implications ‐ A well-known corporate responsibility model was useful for identifying how perspectives concerning corporate social responsibility vary within the corporation. However, to explore the reasons for this variation, the actors, actions, outcomes and drivers of corporate responsibility need to be examined. The single case study method limits the generalizability of the results. Originality/value ‐ The research presents a unique case study with novel empirical data. The study contributes to the corporate responsibility research by discussing the differences between words and deeds of corporate responsibility, by testing the usefulness of a corporate responsibility framework and by trying to understand the reasons why different functions of an organization are at different developmental stages regarding corporate responsibility.
    Baltic Journal of Management 01/2013; 8(2).
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose ‐ This paper aims to examine the influence of the dynamic capabilities of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) on organizational performance, and the interaction between dynamic capabilities and organizational inertia in a volatile environment. Design/methodology/approach ‐ A quantitative survey was carried out in Lithuania's SME sector. In order to achieve the aim of this empirical research, a sample of 360 SMEs was analyzed. Findings ‐ This exploratory study offers a conceptual model for dynamic capabilities and organizational inertia in a volatile environment. The findings suggest that dynamic capabilities have positive effects on non-financial relative organizational performance, though no impact on financial relative organizational performance has been revealed. The authors argue that organizational inertia moderates dynamic capabilities and relative organizational performance. Research limitations/implications ‐ One suggestion for further research is to investigate the interaction between dynamic capabilities and organizational inertia in a stable environment and to perform longitudinal research embracing a broader sample of organizations. Originality/value ‐ The study addresses a gap in strategic management literature and practice, examining the interaction between SME dynamic capabilities and organizational inertia in a volatile environment during an economic crisis.
    Baltic Journal of Management 01/2013; 8(4).
  • Baltic Journal of Management 01/2013; 8(1):27-44.
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose ‐ The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between Thomas-Kilmann's Conflict Management Modes (CMM) and Fiedler's Leadership Style (LS) measures, both in the data, and from the theoretical perspective. Based on the conceptual similarities, the authors first propose the existence of a relationship between Thomas-Kilmann's CMM and Fiedler's LS measures, then establish the presence of the relationship, based on a dataset of Estonian managers. Design/methodology/approach ‐ The authors use a unique dataset of 343 leaders and specialists from different Estonian organizations, on both Thomas-Kilmann's CMM and Fiedler's Least Preferred Co-worker test. The data were analyzed by multivariate methods. Findings ‐ The results indicate that leaders who are task-oriented, according to Fiedler's model, tend to use more competing as the dominant CMM, while relationship-oriented leaders are more accommodating. The authors also analyze the effect of individual characteristics, finding that younger managers are more task-oriented while older ones are typically relationship-oriented and conflict avoiding; women are more collaborative and less conflict avoiding, and men tend to use the accommodating mode more than women. Surprisingly, women tend to be more competitive. Originality/value ‐ This is the first study to establish a relationship between Fiedler's Leadership Style and Thomas-Kilmann's Conflict Mode Instrument. This relationship can potentially be used for assessing the reliability and validity of measurements. The particular shape of it may be used to analyze the links between conflicts, relationships and assertiveness. Additionally, the paper provides an empirical analysis of conflict management habits and leadership styles of Estonian managers.
    Baltic Journal of Management 01/2013; 8(1).
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose ‐ The purpose of the paper is to explore HRM practices and HRM-performance (HRM-P) link in public and private sector organizations across three societal clusters: the Anglo, the Germanic, and the Nordic European. Design/methodology/approach ‐ The article is based on international Cranet HRM survey data collected from large private and public organizations. Findings ‐ According to results, HRM is more advanced in private companies than in public sector organizations, even across three societal clusters. Instead, the analyses related to HRM-P link in private and public organizations refer to interesting similarities but also differences between organizational sectors (public versus private) and societal clusters. Research limitations/implications ‐ The main limitation is retaining in those performance indicators that are applicable in both private and public organizations: subjective measures of productivity and service quality, only. Performance measures relevant especially in the public sector (e.g. qualitative targets, attaining budget frames) were not available, and the operationalization of HRM as an index covering the main areas of HRM may have reduced differences between public and private organizations. More in-depth research designs are needed in public sector HRM-P research. Originality/value ‐ The paper contributes to HRM-P research by showing that the level of HRM and the HRM-P relationship varies to some extent according to sector and across Western societal clusters.
    Baltic Journal of Management 01/2013; 8(4).
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose ‐ The purpose of the article is to contribute to HRM-performance research by focusing on how HR managers discursively construct performance in local government HRM. Design/methodology/approach ‐ The study is carried out in Finnish local government organizations, where HR managers of ten large and medium-sized cities were interviewed. The study adopted a constructionist approach: performance is constructed through the talk of different stakeholders, in this case, HR managers. The analysis draws upon discourse analysis. Findings ‐ Performance in local government HRM is constructed through three predominant discourses: the service discourse, the process discourse, and the customer change discourse. The central finding of the study is the strong role of local residents, portrayed as external customers to HRM. Research limitations/implications ‐ Typical to discourse analysis, the number of interviews is limited and the results cannot be generalized. Thirdly, according to the constructivist approach, researchers also discursively construct the phenomenon under study. Additionally, this article focuses on performance talk of HRM managers; other actors of HRM, e.g. top management teams, line managers, and HR experts, also discursively construct HRM-performance through their talk. Practical implications ‐ In public organizations and also private sector service companies, the strong role of external customers in HRM and HRM-performance should be considered, especially in HRM metrics. Originality/value ‐ Research revealed the central role of external customers in the discourse of local government HRM-performance, and extends thus the scope of the performance concept in HRM studies.
    Baltic Journal of Management 01/2013; 8(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose – This study aims to identify the reasons for entering into alliances, as well as the main factors that influence these relationships in the hospitality industry. Design/methodology/approach – A multiple case study approach, with four hotels in Portugal as its subject, has been used for evaluation of hospitality alliances. As data-collecting instruments, interviews and documentary analysis were used. Findings – The paper found that two main factorsz emerged (structural and process factors) as influencing the formation and development of alliances in the field of hospitality. The empirical evidence also provides insight into the sources of advantage that alliances can address in hospitality firms’ challenges. Practical implications – Based on the principal results, this investigation also suggests some guidelines to bear in mind when creating and maintaining an alliance in the hospitality sector. This study shows that regional tourism development is normally expressed in economic terms, as the value of that region. This development depends on social, political and cultural aspects to be a tool of successful regional development, but for this to take place, it is necessary to form alliances in this specific sector. Originality/value – The study contributes to advancing theory in the field of strategic alliances. More precisely, this study is associated with the creation of a theoretical framework that shows the reasons and influencing factors (of structure and process) in alliance formation in the hospitality industry. This framework can help the different managers and other actors involved in alliances in the hotel segment, in their strategic decision-making processes.
    Baltic Journal of Management 01/2013; 8(4):438-462.

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