Structure and Infrastructure Engineering


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Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: The 395m long Evripos bridge in central Greece, connects the island of Evia to the mainland. An accelerometer array of 43 triaxial sensors has been monitoring both the free-field excitation and the response of the superstructure in a series of seismic events since 1994. This paper focuses on the characteristics of the spatially variable, earthquake ground motions recorded during two seismic events (1999 & 2013) and the corresponding bridge response. A model updating is performed to match the numerically predicted with the measured bridge response. Then, the nature of the recorded ground motions is studied and the incoherency patterns of the seismic waves are compared with empirical or semi-empirical models. It is observed that the loss of coherency at the site is isotropic. It is also documented, for the first time based on actual free-field and on-structure recordings, that the asynchronous excitation of a bridge excited higher modes of vibration while suppressing the oscillation on its fundamental frequency. The latter is in line with analytical predictions and is believed to be a key finding in understanding the nature of spatially variable earthquake ground motion and predicting its potential impact on the seismic response of bridges.
    Structure and Infrastructure Engineering 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A conceptual model for the prediction of the shear-flexural strength of slender reinforced concrete beams with and without transverse reinforcement is presented. The model incorporates the shear transferred by the un-cracked concrete chord, along the crack’s length, by the stirrups, if they are, and, in that case by the longitudinal reinforcement. After the development of the first branch of the critical shear crack, failure is considered to occur when the stresses at any point of the concrete compression chord reach the assumed biaxial stress failure envelope. A physical explanation is provided for the evolution of the shear transfer mechanisms, and the contribution of each one at ultimate limit state is formulated accordingly. Simple equations are derived for shear strength verification and for designing transverse reinforcement. The method is validated by comparing its predictions with the results of 1131 shear tests, obtaining very good results in terms of mean value and coefficient of variation. Because of its accuracy, simplicity and theoretical consistency, the proposed method is considered to be very useful for the practical design and assessment of concrete structures subjected to combined shear and bending.
    Structure and Infrastructure Engineering 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years, appraisal of the condition and rehabilitation of existing bridges has become an ongoing problem for bridge owners and administrators in all developed countries. Reliable methodologies are therefore needed in the assessment and retrofit design phases, to identify the vulnerability of each bridge class. The specific problems of common arch bridge types are discussed herein, for both reinforced concrete and masonry structures, proper interventions for their static and seismic retrofitting are illustrated and several examples of applications are provided. Retrofitting is usually coupled with functional refurbishment, according to a methodological approach that takes into account bridge characteristics, state of maintenance and functional requirements, and environmental aspects connected with repair and strengthening systems.
    Structure and Infrastructure Engineering 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In recent decades, research on the management of infrastructure assets has increased steadily. However, there are concerns raised about the contribution of studies to a coherent body of knowledge. There is a call for a more structured understanding of the knowledge that is emerging around the management of infrastructure assets. This paper attempts to answer this call through an empirical study based on the reference lists of over 8200 articles that present their study relevant to the management of infrastructure assets. In so doing, we apply recognised techniques from bibliometric and social network analyses to visualise and identify major and minor topics, where researchers have oriented and contributed. We find that managing infrastructure assets traditionally was object-oriented, such as pavements, bridges, water and utility networks, and that attention is only now emerging on the life-cycle decision-making and organisational aspects, although the latter remains weakly linked with technical aspects. We conclude with shared research orientations in ‘managing’ infrastructure assets.
    Structure and Infrastructure Engineering 10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: A life cycle costing system should include the key variables that drive future costs in order to provide a framework for reducing the risk of under- or overestimating the future costs for maintenance and rehabilitation activities. In Sweden, price of oil products is mostly affected by the global economy rather than by the national economy. Whereas the price index of oil products has had a high fluctuation in different time periods, the cost fluctuation related to labour and equipment has been steady and followed the consumer price index (CPI). Contribution of the oil products was shown to be more than 50% of the total costs regarding construction and rehabilitation of asphalt pavements in Sweden. Consequently, it was observed that neither Swedish road construction price index (Vägindex) nor CPI has properly reflected the price trend regarding the asphalt pavement construction at the project level. Therefore, in this study, a framework is suggested in which energy- and time-related costs are treated with different inflation indices in order to perform a better financial risk assessment regarding future costs.
    Structure and Infrastructure Engineering 09/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The reliability of prestressed concrete structures subject to viscoelastic behaviour is investigated regarding the creep model defined by the Eurocodes. A probabilistic phenomenological model is proposed for long-term creep strains on the basis of large database of creep tests. The uncertainties in the geometrical and mechanical parameters are modelled by random variables. The proposed model considers also the statistical fitting error in creep strain predictions. The reliability analysis is performed on a prestressed concrete deck, in order to show the large impact of time-dependent phenomena on the reliability of prestressed structures, and consequently the importance of considering appropriate viscoelastic models in the design of this kind of structures. Moreover, the errors related to creep models are shown to play a very important role in the structural safety assessment.
    Structure and Infrastructure Engineering 09/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The authors have been conducting a static continuous monitoring experiment to assess the validity of some damage detection algorithms, consisting in non-model-based statistical data processing, previously validated, even for small levels of damage, on numerically simulated 2D finite element models of simply supported and continuous beams. Tests have been conducted in Italy on two specimens of pre-stressed R.C. beams equipped with fibre optic strain sensors and temperature sensors and placed outdoor. During the tests, several events have been artificially produced: a ballast load has been positioned on the beams and various known levels of damage have been introduced. One of the two beams was kept intact for reference. Preliminary data processing has disclosed substantial differences between the numerical simulations and the measurements obtained on the field for the case of simply supported beams. This paper shows that environmental variations have a great effect on measurements and should be correctly removed from the strain time histories before a reliable damage detection procedure can be successfully applied.
    Structure and Infrastructure Engineering 02/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: This article presents the results of an analytical study on the structural behaviour of buried concrete-lined corrugated steel pipe (CLCSP). CLCSP combines the hydraulic characteristics of concrete pipe with an extended service life compared to unlined corrugated pipe. It is typically factory manufactured and shipped to the jobsite for roadway drainage applications. However, recent investigations have also demonstrated the ability to rehabilitate deteriorating metal culverts using a spray-on mortar lining approach. Since the primary intent of the concrete liner of manufactured CLCSP is to prevent abrasion and corrosion and improve the hydraulic performance, design guides for metal culverts lined with concrete have not been developed. A better understanding of the structural significance and the effect of the concrete lining on the strength of CLCSP is therefore needed. This study evaluated the structural effects of the concrete lining in CLCSP using finite element analysis and detailed soil modelling and proposes a design methodology for CLCSP.
    Structure and Infrastructure Engineering 02/2013; 9(2):130-140.
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    ABSTRACT: Since the mid-twentieth century, prestressed concrete (PC) bridges have been significantly developed to become the most important type of bridge in the world. However, only a few studies have dealt with the reliability-based design optimisation (RBDO) of PC bridges despite the fact that RBDO demonstrates the real behaviour of structures. Moreover, the corrosion of post-tensioned tendon in PC bridges seriously caused sudden failures which have been recorded in the world. Since then, this study presents the probabilistic model and approach to formulate and analyse the RBDO of PC box girder bridges which consider the pitting corrosion phenomenon of shear, torsion reinforcements and post-tensioned tendon. A practical example of a typical PC box girder bridge is presented and discussed. Sensitive analyses are performed to evaluate the influence of ultimate target reliability index on the optimal solution. For the simple support PC box girder bridge, the ultimate target reliability index should be in the range of βult: 3.5–5 in order to produce the optimal design.
    Structure and Infrastructure Engineering 01/2013; 9(1):78-96.
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    ABSTRACT: Cyclic response of a class of reinforced concrete bridges with different degrees of irregularity in longitudinal direction has been investigated. Eighteen bridge configurations have been identified from regular to the so-called highly irregular models. The geometric irregularity in this class of bridges is assumed to vary with the height of the piers. Using non-linear fibre-based analytical models, the cyclic response curves have been generated for theindividual piers of each of these 18 bridge models. Discussions have been made about the imposition of the displacement ductility demand of the piers versus the bridge regularity. Comparison of the cyclic response curves shows that the most vulnerable bridges are the irregular ones, and a high level of damage and ductility demand is expected for the short piers of this class of bridges.
    Structure and Infrastructure Engineering 01/2013; 9(2):161-171.
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    ABSTRACT: In this research, the mechanical behaviour of steel, timber and concrete sleepers is investigated and compared by conducting several laboratory and field tests. The main sleeper design parameters including rail seat loads, sleeper-ballast contact pressures and sleeper bending capacities are considered in this investigation. New formulae for the calculation of sleeper design parameters are developed for steel, timber and concrete sleepers. Results indicate that the new formulae can improve the accuracy of current practices in the analysis and design of sleepers. Comparisons of the mechanical properties of steel, timber and concrete sleepers indicate the optimum sleeper type based on railway structural and operational conditions.
    Structure and Infrastructure Engineering 12/2012; 8(12):1151-1159.
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    ABSTRACT: In the seismic design of reinforced concrete (RC) bridge structures, there should be no brittle failures, such as shear failures, in the components, and a plastic hinge should be formed at the bottom of the bridge pier. These are important concepts in capacity design to guarantee the safety of bridges subjected to severe earthquakes. These concepts can maximise post-event operability and minimise the cost of repairing bridges after a severe earthquake. In this article, a reliability-based methodology to carry out capacity design with partial factors is proposed and applied to the seismic design of RC bridge structures. This ensures that (i) all of the components undergo the desired ductile failure mode, (ii) the damage due to an earthquake is induced only at the bottom of the bridge pier and (iii) the probability of failure is at most equal to a specified value.
    Structure and Infrastructure Engineering 12/2012; 8(12):1096-1107.
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    ABSTRACT: The sandwich plate system (SPS) is a bridge deck system consisting of steel face plates bonded to a rigid polyurethane core. SPS bridges are typically constructed as a series of pre-fabricated SPS deck panels compositely connected with traditional steel girders. The decks are thin, lightweight and modular, and can be tailored to numerous applications including both new bridge and rehabilitated bridges.With new system, there exist hurdles in the implementation; for SPS, the primary challenge is the lack of an established design method for the panel cross-sections. Presented herein is a method for sizing SPS panel sections for bridge applications. This method is limited to the selection of steel plate and core dimensions, subjected to American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) limit states of serviceability, strength and fatigue and does not consider connections or bond aspects of the system. The sizing approach considers the deck panels as plates with variable boundary conditions subjected to the loading conditions of the AASHTO Load Resistance Factored Design (LRFD) bridge design specification. Results from this study indicate that the component sizing for SPS deck panels is controlled by stiffness and that plates selected to satisfy the AASHTO limiting deflection criterion will also be adequate for the remaining serviceability, strength and fatigue limit states.
    Structure and Infrastructure Engineering 12/2012; 8(12):1160-1172.
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    ABSTRACT: Chloride-induced reinforcement corrosion is one of the major causes for the deterioration of concrete structures. This article has developed a performance-based life cycle cost management (LCCM) model for reinforced concrete structures relative to corrosion deterioration. This model is characterised by three features: (1) a chloride-induced probabilistic corrosion deterioration mechanism is used to predict the service life of concrete structures; (2) the performance of a concrete structure is measured by serviceability limit states and structural capacity limit states; and (3) a dual management methodology is adopted, in which management actions are optimised to maximise the life cycle performance of a concrete structure under limited budget constraints and minimum required serviceability constraints. Case studies of bridge decks and piers are provided to demonstrate the application of the proposed performance-based LCCM model.
    Structure and Infrastructure Engineering 12/2012; 8(12):1136-1150.
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    ABSTRACT: The use of steel within the construction sector has enabled the delivery of larger-volume and more complex-shaped structures, while life cycle assessment (LCA) has been introduced as a pro-active design tool to ensure their sustainability. As LCA efficiency greatly depends on the life cycle inventory (LCI) data used, it is the purpose of the current research to present detailed structural steel LCI data and thus increase environmental benefits deriving from the effective use of LCA within construction. Hot-rolled structural steel members were chosen as the research starting point and the necessary information was provided by the leading structural steel manufacturer in Greece. Results include a list of environmental inputs and outputs, which can be used within relevant LCA studies and environmental impact assessment. Critical issues hindering the use of LCA were identified, along with the most environmentally damaging production stages and environmental categories mainly burdened. A new methodology for assessment results comparison was also applied.
    Structure and Infrastructure Engineering 12/2012; 8(12):1173-1181.