Expert Review of Vaccines

Publisher: Expert Reviews

Journal description

Current impact factor: 4.21

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 4.21
2013 Impact Factor 4.217
2012 Impact Factor 4.219
2011 Impact Factor 4.251
2010 Impact Factor 4.145
2009 Impact Factor 4.214
2008 Impact Factor 2.979
2007 Impact Factor 2.111

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 3.88
Cited half-life 4.20
Immediacy index 0.90
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 1.20
ISSN 1744-8395

Publisher details

Expert Reviews

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 months embargo
  • Conditions
    • On author's personal website or institution website
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged
    • Non-Commercial
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • NIH funded authors may post articles to PubMed Central for release 12 months after publication
    • Wellcome Trust authors may deposit in Europe PMC after 6 months
    • 'Expert Reviews (formerly Future Drugs)' is an imprint of 'Informa Healthcare'
  • Classification
    ‚Äč yellow

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recombinant bacterial lipoproteins (RLP) with built-in immuno-stimulating properties for novel subunit vaccine development are reviewed. This platform technology offers the following advantages: easily converts antigens into highly immunogenic RLP using a fusion sequence containing lipobox; the lipid moiety of RLP is recognized as the danger signals in the immune system through the Toll-like receptor 2, so both innate and adaptive immune responses can be induced by RLP; serves as an efficient and cost-effective bioprocess for producing RLP in Escherichia coli and the feasibility and safety of this core platform technology has been successfully demonstrated in animal model studies including meningococcal group B subunit vaccine, dengue subunit vaccine, novel subunit vaccine against Clostridium difficile-associated diseases and HPV-based immunotherapeutic vaccines.
    Expert Review of Vaccines 09/2015; DOI:10.1586/14760584.2015.1091732
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    ABSTRACT: Prior to the 1980s, most vaccines were licensed based upon safety and effectiveness studies in several hundred individuals. Beginning with the evaluation of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines, much larger pre-licensure trials became common. The pre-licensure trial for Haemophilus influenzae oligosaccharide conjugate vaccine had more than 60,000 children and that of the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine included almost 38,000 children. Although trial sizes for both of these studies were driven by the sample size required to demonstrate efficacy, the sample size requirements for safety evaluations of other vaccines have subsequently increased. With the demonstration of an increased risk of intussusception following the Rotashield brand rotavirus vaccine, this trend has continued. However, routinely requiring safety studies of 20,000-50,000 or more participants has two major downsides. First, the cost of performing large safety trials routinely prior to licensure of a vaccine is very large, with some estimates as high at US$200 million euros for one vaccine. This high financial cost engenders an opportunity cost whereby the number of vaccines that a company is willing or able to develop to meet public health needs becomes limited by this financial barrier. The second downside is that in the pre-licensure setting, such studies are very time consuming and delay the availability of a beneficial vaccine substantially. One might argue that in some situations, this financial commitment is warranted such as for evaluations of the risk of intussusception following newer rotavirus vaccines. However, it must be noted that while an increased risk of intussusception was not identified in large pre-licensure studies, in post marketing evaluations an increased risk of this outcome has been identified. Thus, even the extensive pre-licensure evaluations conducted did not identify an associated risk. The limitations of large Phase III trials have also been demonstrated in efficacy trials. Notably, pre-licensure trials of pneumococcal conjugate severely underestimated their true effect and cost-effectiveness. In fact, in discussions prior to vaccine introduction in the USA for PCV7, the vaccine was said to be not cost-effective and some counseled against its introduction. In reality, following introduction, PCV7 has been shown to be highly cost-effective. In the last decade, new methods have been identified using large linked databases such as the Vaccine Safety Datalink in the USA that allow identification of an increased risk of an event within a few months of vaccine introduction and that can screen for unanticipated very rare events as well. In addition, the availability of electronic medical records and hospital discharge data in many settings allows for accurate assessment of vaccine effectiveness. Given the high financial and opportunity cost of requiring large pre-licensure safety studies, consideration could be given to 'conditional licensure' of vaccines whose delivery system is well characterized in a setting where sophisticated pharmacovigilance systems exist on the condition that such licensure would incorporate a requirement for rapid cycle and other real-time evaluations of safety and effectiveness following introduction. This would actually allow for a more complete and timely evaluation of vaccines, lower the financial barrier to development of new vaccines and thus allow a broader portfolio of vaccines to be developed and successfully introduced.
    Expert Review of Vaccines 09/2015; DOI:10.1586/14760584.2015.1091733
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    ABSTRACT: Yellow fever 17D vaccine is one of the oldest live-attenuated vaccines in current use that is recognized historically for its immunogenic and safe properties. These unique properties of 17D are presently exploited in rationally designed recombinant vaccines targeting not only flaviviral antigens but also other pathogens of public health concern. Several candidate vaccines based on 17D have advanced to human trials, and a chimeric recombinant Japanese encephalitis vaccine utilizing the 17D backbone has been licensed. The mechanism(s) of attenuation for 17D are poorly understood; however, recent insights from large in silico studies have indicated particular host genetic determinants contributing to the immune response to the vaccine, which presumably influences the considerable durability of protection, now in many cases considered to be lifelong. The very rare occurrence of severe adverse events for 17D is discussed, including a recent fatal case of vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease.
    Expert Review of Vaccines 09/2015; DOI:10.1586/14760584.2015.1083430
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    ABSTRACT: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causative agent of nearly all cervical cancer cases as well as a substantial proportion of anal, vulvar, vaginal, penile and oropharyngeal cancers, making it responsible for approximately 5% of the global cancer burden. The first-generation HPV vaccines that is, quadrivalent HPV type 6/11/16/18 vaccine and bivalent HPV type 16/18 vaccine were licensed in 2006 and 2007, respectively. A second-generation 9-valent HPV type 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 vaccine with broader cancer coverage was initiated even before the first vaccines were approved. By preventing HPV infection and disease due to HPV31/33/45/52/58, the 9vHPV vaccine has the potential to increase prevention of cervical cancer from 70 to 90%. In addition, the 9vHPV vaccine has the potential to prevent 85-95% of HPV-related vulvar, vaginal and anal cancers. Overall, the 9vHPV vaccine addresses a significant unmet medical need, although further health economics and implementation research is needed.
    Expert Review of Vaccines 09/2015; DOI:10.1586/14760584.2015.1089174
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin D's non-skeletal actions, including immunomodulatory role, have been increasingly recognized. Of significance, many immune cells are able to synthesize a biologically active form of vitamin D from circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D with subsequent intracrine actions, and the vitamin D receptor is broadly distributed. In this review, we discuss vitamin D's potent role in innate and adaptive immune responses and published studies evaluating the impact of serum vitamin D, vitamin D gene pathway polymorphisms or empiric vitamin D supplementation on vaccine immunogenicity. We highlight existing knowledge gaps and propose the steps needed to advance the science and answer the question of whether vitamin D may prove valuable as a vaccine adjuvant for certain vaccines against infectious diseases.
    Expert Review of Vaccines 09/2015; DOI:10.1586/14760584.2015.1082426
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    ABSTRACT: The many factors impacting the efficacy of a vaccine can be broadly divided into three categories: features of the vaccine itself, including immunogen design, vaccine type, formulation, adjuvant and dosing; individual variations among vaccine recipients and vaccine administration-related parameters. While much literature exists related to vaccines, and recently systems biology has started to dissect the impact of individual subject variation on vaccine efficacy, few studies have focused on the role of vaccine administration-related parameters on vaccine efficacy. Parenteral and mucosal vaccinations are traditional approaches for licensed vaccines; novel vaccine delivery approaches, including needless injection and adjuvant formulations, are being developed to further improve vaccine safety and efficacy. This review provides a brief summary of vaccine administration-related factors, including vaccination approach, delivery route and method of administration, to gain a better understanding of their potential impact on the safety and immunogenicity of candidate vaccines.
    Expert Review of Vaccines 08/2015; DOI:10.1586/14760584.2015.1081067
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    ABSTRACT: Human papillomavirus is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the USA. It is the primary cause of almost all cervical cancers as well as several other cancers that affect both men and women. Adolescents of both genders can now prevent transmission of the most common oncogenic strains of human papillomavirus by obtaining a safe, three-dose vaccine series. However, despite its potential to save lives and reduce severe morbidity, many US adolescents have not been vaccinated. This is in contrast to other countries where high rates of vaccination are already reducing rates of cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia and genital warts. This article describes barriers recently reported among families in the USA and concludes with suggestions for improving uptake.
    Expert Review of Vaccines 08/2015; 14(10):1-8. DOI:10.1586/14760584.2015.1078240
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    ABSTRACT: The circulation in the community of pneumococcal serotype 19A, a highly invasive and frequently extremely resistant pneumococcal strain, has increased the focus on methods to control its presence and effect. Two vaccines have been developed: the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) and the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). Available data indicate that PCV13 is highly effective in reducing the risk of serotype 19A invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in both vaccinated children and unvaccinated adults. Positive data have also been published for PCV10 that suggest that the conjugated serotype 19F included in the vaccine could evoke a cross-reactive antibody response with serotype 19A. However, a great number of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) cases are associated with serotypes not included in either of the vaccines, and preparation of a vaccine containing all the serotypes is unrealistic. Protein vaccines are the real future to definitively reduce the pneumococcal disease burden.
    Expert Review of Vaccines 08/2015; 14(10):1-8. DOI:10.1586/14760584.2015.1075884
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    ABSTRACT: Vaccines targeting Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (MenB) have been attempted for 40 years. Monovalent outer membrane vesicle vaccines targeted at epidemic outbreaks have been successfully developed. Newer vaccines aim to induce antibodies to cross-reactive antigens, such as factor H binding protein (rLP2086) or a mix of outer membrane vesicle, factor H binding protein and other minor antigens (4CMenB). The true protective coverage among circulating MenB isolates afforded by these vaccines is unknown. Carefully conducted Phase IV post-implementation evaluations designed to measure specific effectiveness against major circulating MenB clonal lineages are needed to address the critical question of which antigens are linked to protection. Progress with whole-genome sequencing and bio-informatics may allow the composition of antigen mozaics based on two major outer membrane proteins: PorA and FetA.
    Expert Review of Vaccines 07/2015; 14(9):1-11. DOI:10.1586/14760584.2015.1071670