Expert Review of Vaccines

Publisher: Expert Reviews

Description

  • Impact factor
    4.22
  • 5-year impact
    3.67
  • Cited half-life
    3.60
  • Immediacy index
    0.79
  • Eigenfactor
    0.01
  • Article influence
    1.09
  • ISSN
    1744-8395

Publisher details

Expert Reviews

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 months embargo
  • Conditions
    • On author's personal website or institution website
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged
    • On a non-profit server
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • NIH funded authors may post articles to PubMed Central for release 12 months after publication
    • Wellcome Trust authors may deposit in Europe PMC after 6 months
    • 'Expert Reviews (formerly Future Drugs)' is an imprint of 'Informa Healthcare'
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality caused by diarrhea in children less than 5 years of age in low- and middle-income countries. Despite a wealth of research elucidating the mechanisms of disease, the immunological responses and vaccine development, ETEC is still relatively uncharacterized when it comes to regulation of virulence and detailed immune mechanisms. The recent emergence of next-generation sequencing now offers the possibility to screen genomes of ETEC strains isolated globally to identify novel vaccine targets in addition to those already established. In this review, we discuss how recent findings on ETEC genomics using novel sequencing techniques will aid in finding novel protective antigens that can be used in vaccine approaches.
    Expert Review of Vaccines 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Synthetic mRNAs can become biopharmaceutics allowing vaccination against cancer, bacterial and virus infections. Clinical trials with direct administration of synthetic mRNAs encoding tumor antigens demonstrated safety and induction of tumor-specific immune responses. Although immune responses are generated by naked mRNAs, their formulations with chemical carriers are expected to provide more specificity and internalization in dendritic cells (DCs) for better immune responses and dose reduction. This review reports lipid-based formulations (LBFs) that have proved preclinical efficacy. The selective delivery of mRNA LBFs to favor intracellular accumulation in DCs and reduction of the effective doses is discussed, notably to decorate LBFs with carbohydrates or glycomimetics allowing endocytosis in DCs. We also report how smart intracellular delivery is achieved using pH-sensitive lipids or polymers for an efficient mRNA escape from endosomes and limitations regarding cytosolic mRNA location for translation.
    Expert Review of Vaccines 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Enterovirus A infections are the primary cause of hand, foot and mouth disease in infants and young children. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 have emerged as neurotropic viruses responsible for severe neurological complications and a serious public health threat across the Asia-Pacific region. Formalin-inactivated EV71 vaccines have elicited protection against EV71 but not against coxsackievirus A16 infections. The development of a bivalent formalin-inactivated EV71/FI coxsackievirus A16 vaccine should be the next step towards that of multivalent hand, foot and mouth disease vaccines which should ultimately include other prevalent pathogenic coxsackieviruses and echovirus 30. This editorial summarizes the major challenges faced by the development of hand, foot and mouth disease vaccines.
    Expert Review of Vaccines 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Pregnant women and children are at increased risk of severe influenza infections. Despite existing recommendations, uptake of influenza vaccine in these vulnerable groups remains low. Text message reminder-recalls are a feasible and scalable method for promoting influenza vaccination. In randomized controlled trials, text message interventions have demonstrated small but significant increases in influenza vaccine coverage. They should be considered one of many tools available for increasing vaccination and thus improving maternal and child health.
    Expert Review of Vaccines 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Cancer vaccine development efforts have recently gained momentum, but most vaccines showing clinical impact in human trials tend to be based on technology approaches that are very costly and difficult to produce at scale. With the projected doubling of the incidence of cancer and its related cost of care in the U.S. over the next two decades, the widespread clinical use of such vaccines will prove difficult to justify. Heat shock protein-based vaccines have shown the potential to elicit clinically meaningful immunologic responses in cancer, but the predominant development approach – heat shock protein–peptide complexes derived from a patient’s own tumor – face similar challenges of cost and scalability. New innovative modalities for deploying heat shock proteins in cancer vaccines may open the door to vaccines that can generate potent cytotoxic responses against multiple tumor targets and can be made in a cost-effective and scalable manner.
    Expert Review of Vaccines 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. This illness is now becoming global, mainly due to congenital transmission, and so far, there are no prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines available to either prevent or treat Chagas disease. Therefore, different approaches aimed at identifying new protective immunogens are urgently needed. Live vaccines are likely to be more efficient in inducing protection, but safety issues linked with their use have been raised. The development of improved protozoan genetic manipulation tools and genomic and biological information has helped to increase the safety of live vaccines. These advances have generated a renewed interest in the use of genetically attenuated parasites as vaccines against Chagas disease. This review discusses the protective capacity of genetically attenuated parasite vaccines and the challenges and perspectives for the development of an effective whole-parasite Chagas disease vaccine.
    Expert Review of Vaccines 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Climate change and solar ultraviolet radiation may affect vaccine-preventable infectious diseases (VPID), the human immune response process and the immunization service delivery system. We systematically reviewed the scientific literature and identified 37 relevant publications. Our study shows that climate variability and ultraviolet radiation may potentially affect VPID and the immunization delivery system through modulating vector reproduction and vaccination effectiveness, possibly influencing human immune response systems to the vaccination, and disturbing immunization service delivery. Further research is needed to determine these affects on climate-sensitive VPID and on human immune response to common vaccines. Such research will facilitate the development and delivery of optimal vaccination programs for target populations, to meet the goal of disease control and elimination.
    Expert Review of Vaccines 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Meningococcal disease is a major public health problem and immunization is considered the best strategy for prevention. The introduction of meningococcal C conjugate immunization schedules that targeted adolescents, with catch-up programs in several European countries, Australia and Canada proved to be highly effective, with dramatic reduction in the incidence of serogroup C disease, not only in vaccinated, but also in unvaccinated individuals. Meningococcal quadrivalent (A, C, W, Y) conjugate vaccines are now licensed and are being used in adolescent programs in North America and to control serogroup W disease in South America. In the African meningitis belt, a mass immunization campaign against serogroup A disease using a meningococcal A conjugate vaccine is now controlling the devastating epidemics of meningococcal disease. After introducing new immunization programs, it is of importance to maintain enhanced surveillance for a better understanding of the changing nature of disease epidemiology. This information is crucial for identifying optimal immunization policies.
    Expert Review of Vaccines 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Influenza infections continue to present a major threat to public health. Traditional modes of influenza vaccine manufacturing are failing to satisfy the global demand because of limited scalability and long production timelines. In contrast, subunit vaccines (SUVs) can be produced in heterologous expression systems in shorter times and at higher quantities. Plants are emerging as a promising platform for SUV production due to time efficiency, scalability, lack of harbored mammalian pathogens and possession of the machinery for eukaryotic post-translational protein modifications. So far, several organizations have utilized plant-based transient expression systems to produce SUVs against influenza, including vaccines based on virus-like particles. Plant-produced influenza SUV candidates have been extensively evaluated in animal models and some have shown safety and immunogenicity in clinical trials. Here, the authors review ongoing efforts and challenges to producing influenza SUV candidates in plants and discuss the likelihood of bringing these products to the market.
    Expert Review of Vaccines 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The naked delivery of nucleic acid vaccines is notoriously inefficient, and an enabling delivery technology is required to direct efficiently these constructs intracellularly. A delivery technology capable of enhancing nucleic acid uptake in both cells in tissues and in culture is electroporation (EP). EP is a physical delivery mechanism that increases the permeability of mammalian cell membranes and allows the trafficking of large macromolecules into the cell. EP has now been used extensively in the clinic and been shown to be an effective method to increase both the uptake of the construct and the breadth and magnitude of the resulting immune responses. Excitingly, 2014 saw the announcement of the first EP-enhanced DNA vaccine Phase II trial demonstrating clinical efficacy. This review seeks to introduce the reader to EP as a technology to enhance the delivery of DNA and RNA vaccines and highlight several published clinical trials using this delivery modality.
    Expert Review of Vaccines 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Cancer immunotherapy has recently emerged as an important treatment modality. FDA approval of provenge, ipilimumab and pembrolizumab has started to deliver on the long awaited promise of cancer immunotherapy. Many new modalities of immunotherapies targeting cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) responses, such as adoptive cell therapies and vaccines, are in advanced clinical trials. In all these immunotherapies, migration of CTLs to the tumor site is a critical step for achieving therapeutic efficacy. However, inefficient infiltration of activated CTLs into established tumors is increasingly being recognized as one of the major hurdles limiting efficacy. Mechanisms that control migration of CTLs to tumors are poorly defined. In this review, the authors discuss the chemoattractants and their receptors that have been implicated in endogenous- or immunotherapy-induced CTL recruitment to tumors and the potential for targeting these pathways for therapeutic efficacy.
    Expert Review of Vaccines 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Addition of the HPV vaccine to available cytological screening has been proposed to increase HPV-related cancer prevention. A comprehensive review on this combined strategy implemented in the Netherlands is lacking. For this review, we therefore analyzed all relevant studies on cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccines in combination with cervical screening in the Netherlands. Most of the studies agree that vaccination in pre-sexual-activity periods of life is cost-effective. Based on published sensitivity analyses, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was found to be mainly driven by vaccine cost and discount rates. Fewer vaccine doses, inclusion of additional benefits of these vaccines to prevent HPV-related non-cervical cancers and vaccination of males to further reduce the burden of HPV-induced cancers are three relevant options suggested to be investigated in upcoming economic evaluations.
    Expert Review of Vaccines 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Interview by Jenaid Rees, commissioning editor. Margaret A Liu is best known for her pioneering work in the area of DNA vaccines. A world renowned scientist, Liu was named one of 'The 50 Most Important Women Scientists' by Discover magazine in 2002. Liu obtained her M.D. from Harvard Medical School, and has held positions at numerous institutions including Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, University of Pennsylvania, UCSF, and the Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm. In her career she has served as Senior Advisor in Vaccinology at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and Executive Vice-Chair of the International Vaccine Institute in Seoul, Korea and worked for companies including Merck, Transgène and Chiron Corporation. Her research achievements have led to her receipt of honorary lectureships, and she has held many board positions throughout her career. Liu currently consults in the fields of vaccines and immunotherapy for companies, universities, and non-governmental and governmental scientific organizations, and is a Foreign Adjunct Professor at the Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm, and an Adjunct Professor at the University of California, San Francisco.
    Expert Review of Vaccines 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Passive immunization against CMV is desirable to minimize or perhaps eliminate complications related to CMV disease. In allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT), the major challenge facing a successful anti-CMV vaccine is inducing immunity in an immunocompromised host. To date, only one CMV vaccine, ASP0113, has been evaluated in a randomized, placebo-controlled Phase II study. ASP0113 is a bivalent product containing two plasmids that encode CMV glycoprotein B and tegument phosphoprotein 65, respectively. Although there was no significant difference in rate of initiation of anti-CMV therapy, rates of CMV viremia were lower in the ASP0113 group when measured by a central laboratory. Also, time-to-first episode of viremia was longer in subjects receiving ASP0113. These findings paved the way for an ongoing placebo-controlled Phase III study aiming at enrolling 500 subjects. Results of this Phase III trial, especially if it meets clinically meaningful endpoints, will ultimately determine the role of anti-CMV vaccine strategies in allo-HCT.
    Expert Review of Vaccines 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of therapeutic HPV vaccines is the induction of cytotoxic T lymphocyte immunity against HPV-associated cancers. Recombinant proteins and synthetic peptides have high safety profiles but low immunogenicity, which limits their efficacy when used in a vaccine. Self-adjuvanting lipid moieties have been conjugated to synthetic peptides or expressed as lipoproteins to enhance the immunogenicity of vaccine candidates. Mono-, di- and tri-palmitoylated peptides have been demonstrated to activate dendritic cells and induce robust cellular immunity against infectious diseases and cancer. Recently, a platform technology using the high-yield production of recombinant lipoproteins with Toll-like receptor 2 agonist activity was established for the development of novel subunit vaccines. This technology represents a novel strategy for the development of therapeutic HPV vaccines. In this review, we describe recent progress in the design of therapeutic HPV vaccines using lipoimmunogens.
    Expert Review of Vaccines 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Pediatric immunization programs in the USA are a successful and cost-effective public health endeavor, profoundly reducing mortalities caused by infectious diseases. Two important issues relate to the success of the immunization programs, the selection of cost-effective vaccines and the appropriate pricing of vaccines. The recommended childhood immunization schedule, published annually by the CDC, continues to expand with respect to the number of injections required and the number of vaccines available for selection. The advent of new vaccines to meet the growing requirements of the schedule results: in a large, combinatorial number of possible vaccine formularies. The expansion of the schedule and the increase in the number of available vaccines constitutes a challenge for state health departments, large city immunization programs, private practices and other vaccine purchasers, as a cost-effective vaccine formulary must be selected from an increasingly large set of possible vaccine combinations to satisfy the schedule. The pediatric vaccine industry consists of a relatively small number of pharmaceutical firms engaged in the research, development, manufacture and distribution of pediatric vaccines. The number of vaccine manufacturers has dramatically decreased in the past few decades for a myriad of reasons, most notably due to low profitability. The contraction of the industry negatively impacts the reliable provision of pediatric vaccines. The determination of appropriate vaccine prices is an important issue and influences a vaccine manufacturer's decision to remain in the market. Operations research is a discipline that applies advanced analytical methods to improve decision making; analytics is the application of operations research to a particular problem using pertinent data to provide a practical result. Analytics provides a mechanism to resolve the challenges facing stakeholders in the vaccine development and delivery system, in particular, the selection of cost-effective vaccines and the appropriate pricing of vaccines. A review of applicable analytics papers is provided.
    Expert Review of Vaccines 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) disease is an increasing burden not only locally but also globally. In most endemic countries, vaccination coverage is too low to reduce the TBE burden significantly; however, vaccination is the most effective protection against TBE, with various vaccines currently available. In spite of rising awareness of TBE, little attention is directed toward the health economics of the disease. The purpose of the present review is to compile information on TBE and its explicit clinical and economical aspects. Given the scarcity of studies, the authors conclude that more attention is needed for health economics of TBE. Notably, this would help establish guidance on efficient policies for TBE prevention, reduce disease burden and achieve population health benefits.
    Expert Review of Vaccines 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Racotumomab–alum vaccine is an anti-idiotypic vaccine able to mimic the tumor-associated antigen NeuGcGM3. Different Phase I clinical trials and compassionate use studies demonstrated its low toxicity and capacity to induce a strong anti-NeuGcGM3 response, able to bind and directly kill tumor cells expressing the antigen. A Phase II/III randomized double-blind clinical trial in advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients showed a significant improvement in overall survival and progression-free survival for racotumomab–alum versus placebo. Patients who developed anti-NeuGcGM3 antibodies capable of binding and killing NeuGcGM3 expressing tumor cells showed significantly longer median survival times. The impact of using racotumomab–alum as switch maintenance followed by second-line therapy is currently being explored in a new randomized, multinational Phase III study.
    Expert Review of Vaccines 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Infections of humans with Bacillus anthracis are an issue with respect to the biothreat both to civilians and military personnel, infections of individuals by infected livestock in endemic regions and, recently, infections of intravenous drug users injecting anthrax-contaminated heroin. Existing vaccination regimens are reliant on protective antigen neutralization induced by repeated boosts with the AVA or AVP vaccines. However, there is ongoing interest in updated approaches in light of the intensive booster regime and extent of reactogenicity inherent in the current protocols. Several other immunogens from the B. anthracis proteome have been characterized in recent years, including lethal factor. Lethal factor induces strong CD4 T-cell immunity and encompasses immunodominant epitopes of relevance across diverse HLA polymorphisms. Taken together, recent studies emphasize the potential benefits of vaccines able to confer synergistic immunity to protective antigen and to other immunogens, targeting both B-cell and T-cell repertoires.
    Expert Review of Vaccines 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2)-systemic disease (SD) (initially named as postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome) was discovered as an occasional disease affecting postweaning pigs in North-America by mid-1990s. Soon afterward, it was noticed as a devastating disease worldwide. Such scenario prompted to develop vaccine prototypes that worked fairly well under experimental conditions. In spite of the multifactorial nature of the PCV2-SD, the first commercialized vaccines containing inactivated or chimeric PCV2 viruses or PCV2 Cap protein represented by far the best system to control the disease under farm conditions. Moreover, vaccination of non-clinically affected pigs demonstrated a significant improvement of average daily weight gain and, in consequence, the economic importance of the PCV2-subclinical infection. In the present review, a comprehensive overview on PCV2 vaccines and best practices on PCV2 vaccination strategies are presented and discussed.
    Expert Review of Vaccines 11/2014;