Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery

Description

  • Impact factor
    4.87
  • 5-year impact
    5.13
  • Cited half-life
    3.70
  • Immediacy index
    0.50
  • Eigenfactor
    0.01
  • Article influence
    1.23
  • ISSN
    1744-7593

Publications in this journal

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Carbohydrates are key participants in many biological processes including reproduction, inflammation, signal transmission and infection. Their biocompatibility and ability to be recognized by cell-surface receptors illustrate their potential therapeutic applications. Yet, they are not ideal candidates because they are complex and tedious to synthesize. However, recent advances in the field of polymer science and nanotechnology have led to the design of biologically relevant carbohydrate mimics for therapeutic uses. This review focuses mainly on the therapeutic potential of glycopolymers and glyconanoparticles (GNPs). Areas covered: The significance of engineered glycopolymers and GNPs as nanomedicine is highlighted in areas such as targeted drug delivery, gene therapy, signal transduction, vaccine development, protein stabilization and anti-adhesion therapy. Expert opinion: Major effort should be focused towards the design and synthesis of more complex and biologically relevant carbohydrate mimics in order to have a better understanding of the carbohydrate-carbohydrate and carbohydrate-protein interactions. The full therapeutic potential of these carbohydrate-based polymeric and nanoparticles systems can be achieved once the pivotal participation of the carbohydrates in biological systems is clarified.
    Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery 03/2014;
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Development of drugs based on RNA interference by small interfering RNA (siRNA) has been progressing slowly due to a number of challenges associated with the in vivo behavior of siRNA. A central problem is controlling siRNA delivery to specific cell types. Here, we review existing literature on one type of strategy for solving the issue of cell-specific delivery of siRNA, namely delivering the siRNA as part of simple bioconjugate constructs. Areas covered: This review presents current experience from strategies aimed at targeting siRNA to specific cell types, by associating the siRNA with a targeting moiety, in a simple bioconjugate construct. We discuss the use of different types of targeting moieties, as well as the different conjugation strategies employed for preparing these bioconjugate constructs that deliver the siRNA to target cells. We focus especially on the in-built or passive functionalities associated with each strategy, in order to identify key elements of successful siRNA delivery strategies with potential for further exploration. Expert opinion: By evaluating the current literature on this subject, we identify strategies and concepts that are suitable for future studies, to enable the development of highly efficient simple bioconjugates for targeted siRNA delivery with therapeutic application.
    Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery 03/2014;
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Nucleic acid-based vaccines are being developed as a means to combine the positive attributes of both live-attenuated and subunit vaccines. Viral vectors and plasmid DNA vaccines have been extensively evaluated in human clinical trials and have been shown to be safe and immunogenic, although none have been licensed for human use. More recently, mRNA-based vaccine alternatives have emerged and might offer certain advantages over their DNA-based counterparts. Areas covered: This review describes the two main categories of mRNA vaccines: conventional non-amplifying and self-amplifying mRNA. It summarizes the initial clinical proof-of-concept studies and outlines the preclinical testing of the next wave of innovations for the technology. Finally, this review highlights the versatile functionality of the mRNA molecule and introduces opportunities for future improvements in vaccine design. Expert opinion: The prospects for mRNA vaccines are very promising. Like other types of nucleic acid vaccines, mRNA vaccines have the potential to combine the positive attributes of live attenuated vaccines while obviating many potential safety limitations. Although data from initial clinical trials appear encouraging, mRNA vaccines are far from a commercial product. These initial approaches have spurred innovations in vector design, non-viral delivery, large-scale production and purification of mRNA to quickly move the technology forward. Some improvements have already been tested in preclinical models for both prophylactic and therapeutic vaccine targets and have demonstrated their ability to elicit potent and broad immune responses, including functional antibodies, type 1 T helper cells-type T cell responses and cytotoxic T cells. Though the initial barriers for this nucleic acid vaccine approach seem to be overcome, in our opinion, the future and continued success of this approach lies in a more extensive evaluation of the many non-viral delivery systems described in the literature and gaining a better understanding of the mechanism of action to allow rational design of next generation technologies.
    Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery 03/2014;
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Biomaterial-based scaffold formulations (three-dimensional Porous matrix, nano-fibre mesh, hydrogels and microspheres) are the major components that are used to deliver the bioactive molecules into the body organs through different routes for an effective treatment of various diseases. Areas covered: Various fabrication techniques such as freeze-drying, polymerisation, spray drying, gas foaming, supercritical fluid technology, etc., are successfully used for fabrication of scaffold formulations. Due to their unique characteristics, these formulations are widely used against various diseases such as tuberculosis, bone defects, cartilage repair, skin diseases, cardiovascular diseases, periodontal diseases, wound dressing, etc. Expert opinion: The study of biomaterial-based scaffold formulations is exhilarating with novel approaches to drug/cell/gene delivery being developed all the time. At present, there is a huge extent of research being performed worldwide on all aspects of tissue engineering/drug or gene delivery. In the future, the main focus will be on the development of more patient compliant, sustained and controlled delivery systems against various diseases by modification of polymers, manufacturing technologies as well as carrier systems.
    Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery 03/2014;
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Bhut Jolokia is a capsicum variety indigenous to Northeast India and is recognized as the hottest capsicum variety of the world. The ethnobotanical survey revealed that it has potential anti-arthritic activity but its topical adverse events restrict its usability. In the present study, the semipurified capsaicinoids extract of Bhut Jolokia was formulated as a topical formulation via ethosomal nanovesicle approach, which enhanced the acceptability. Methods: Prepared formulation was optimized by surface response methodology and characterized for morphology, zeta potential, differential scanning calorimetry study and permeation and penetration studies. The experimental formulations were characterized on Freunds complete adjuvant-induced chronic arthritis model. Results: Ethosomal nanovesicles prepared with the semipurified capsaicinoids extract demonstrated good anti-arthritic activity in rat model, superior to Thermagel (a marketed formulation of capsaicin) in the reduction of joint swelling and pain throughout the observation period. Nanovesicle formulation showed better tolerability and acceptance on both animal and human models. Results obtained from the study strengthen the potential application of Bhut Jolokia semipurified extract in an ethosomal nanovesicle carrier as a topical analgesic as well as an anti-arthritic. Conclusion: The significant positive results, with reduced irritant effect of the semipurified capsaicinoids extract of Bhut Jolokia-loaded ethosomal nanovesicle carrier, suggest that it could be one of the choices for formulation development in anti-arthritic medicine.
    Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery 03/2014;
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: FlexTouch® (FT) is a new prefilled insulin pen with the unique characteristic of no extendable push button at any dose setting and consequently a low activation force. Its technical features along with health care professionals' and patients' preferences in comparison to other traditionally used devices for insulin delivery have already been investigated. Recently, a study of injection force and accuracy using FT in the delivery of new basal insulin has compared FT with the insulin pens KwikPen® and SoloStar® and has shown that FT exhibits preciseness in insulin delivery of all insulin formulations and a significantly lower activation force than the other two insulin injectors. Despite the very promising characteristics of this new device, important questions remain to be answered, mainly the possible promotion of treatment adherence and the notion of confidence in self-administration of insulin. Moreover, an analysis of patients' perception on injecting higher doses with FT in comparison to other insulin injectors would be useful.
    Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery 03/2014;
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Trans-resveratrol (t-RVT) is a potent antioxidant. The drug suffers enterohepatic recirculation and extensive first-pass metabolism by CYP3A4 in liver, resulting in very low bioavailability (almost zero). Objective: The current studies entail a novel formulation approach to develop systematically optimized (OPT) nanoparticles (NPs) to enhance the oral bioavailability potential using poly (dl-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) of t-RVT and overcome enterohepatic recirculation. Methods: T-RVT-loaded PLGA NPs were prepared by nanoprecipitation method. Delineating the NP regions, the amounts of polymer and emulsifier were selected as the critical factors for systematically formulating the OPT NPs employing 3(2) central composite design. The pharmacokinetics, in vivo biodistribution and in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) studies of OPT formulation were investigated in male Wistar rats. Results: Augmentation in the values of Ka (7.17-fold) and AUC0 - ∞ (10.6-fold) indicated significant enhancement in the rate and extent of bioavailability by the OPT formulation compared to pure drug and marketed product. OPT formulation showed a 2.78-fold rise in the values of t-RVT concentrations in liver. In situ SPIP studies ascribed the significant enhancement in absorptivity and permeability parameters of OPT NPs to transport through the Peyer's patches. Successful establishment of in vitro/in vivo correlation substantiated the judicious choice of the in vitro dissolution milieu for simulating the in vivo conditions. Conclusion: The studies, therefore, could provide another useful tool for successful development of t-RVT NPs and an in vivo approach to designate nanoparticulate system of t-RVT with distinctly improved bioavailability and to overcome enterohepatic recirculation.
    Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery 03/2014;
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: The present work evaluated whether the prepared nanoparticles (NPs) would be able to target the drug to the brain by a non-invasive nasal route enhancing its bioavailability. Methods: Bromocriptine (BRC) chitosan NPs (CS NPs) were prepared by ionic gelation method. The biodistribution, pharmacokinetic parameters and dopamine concentration was analysed by ultra-HPLC/mass spectrometry method. The histopathological examination in haloperidol-induced Parkinson's disease in mice model following intranasal (i.n.) administration was evaluated. Results: BRC was found stable in all exposed conditions and the percentage accuracy observed for intra-day and inter-day batch samples ranged from 90.5 to 107% and 95.3 to 98.9% for plasma and brain homogenates, respectively. BRC-loaded CS NPs showed greater retention into the nostrils (42 ± 8.5% radioactivity) for about 4 h, whereas the 44 ± 7.5% could be retained up to 1 h for BRC solution. The brain:blood ratios of 0.96 ± 0.05 > 0.73 ± 0.15 > 0.25 ± 0.05 of BRC-loaded CS NPs (i.n.) > BRC solution (i.n.) > BRC-loaded CS NPs (intravenous), respectively, at 0.5 h indicated direct nose-to-brain transport bypassing blood-brain barrier. BRC-loaded CS NPs administered intranasally showed significantly high dopamine concentration (20.65 ± 1.08 ng/ml) as compared to haloperidol-treated mice (10.94 ± 2.16 ng/ml) (p < 0.05). Histopathology of brain sections showed selective degeneration of the dopaminergic neurons in haloperidol-treated mice which was markedly reverted by BRC-loaded CS NPs. Conclusion: Nanoparticulate drug delivery system could be potentially used as a nose-to-brain drug delivery carrier for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.
    Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery 03/2014;
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Backgroud: Polymeric micelles is a safe and effective delivery system, which belong to the targeted delivery system (TDS). An anticancer drug, harmine(HM) is a hydrophobic drug with much adverse effects when used for treatment of liver cancer. Chitosan (CS) is a polysaccharide and can be modified to be an amphiphilic polmer which could self-assemble into micelles and be applied for delivery of hydrophobic drugs. Objectives: To synthesize three kinds of novel biodegradable polymers, designated as palmitoyl-trimethyl-CS (TPCS)1, TPCS2 and Lac-TPCS2, and investigate their efficiency and mechanism of delivery HM to liver tumors in vitro and in viro. Results: The self-assembled micelles presented satisfactory particle size (∼ 200 nm) and drug release characteristics in vitro. It's proved that Lac-TPCS2/HM may enter HepG2 cell through endocytosis. Antitumor experiments in vivo revealed that Lac-TPCS2/HM could significantly inhibit tumor growth and extend the lifetime of mice bearing H22 tumors after intravenous administration. Subsequently in vivo near-infrared fluorescence imaging results demonstrated a satisfactory liver tumor-targeting effect of Lac-TPCS2/HM. Conclusion: Three novel polymers hold great potential in the development of nanomedicine for treatment of liver tumors, in particular Lac-TPCS2 exhibits the greatest antitumor potential through active target effect.
    Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery 03/2014;
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: The presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a significant impediment to the delivery of therapeutic agents to the brain for treatment of brain diseases. Focused ultrasound (FUS) has been developed as a noninvasive method for transiently increasing the permeability of the BBB to promote drug delivery to targeted regions of the brain. Areas covered: The present review briefly compares the methods used to promote drug delivery to the brain and describes the benefits and limitations of FUS technology. We summarize the experimental data which shows that FUS, combined with intravascular microbubbles, increases therapeutic agent delivery into the brain leading to significant reductions in pathology in preclinical models of disease. The potential for translation of this technology to the clinic is also discussed. Expert opinion: The introduction of magnetic resonance imaging guidance and intravascular administration of microbubbles to FUS treatments permits the consistent, transient and targeted opening of the BBB. The development of feedback systems and real-time monitoring techniques improve the safety of BBB opening. Successful clinical translation of FUS has the potential to revolutionize the treatment of brain disease resulting in effective, less-invasive treatments without the need for expensive drug development.
    Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery 03/2014;
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: The past decade of research has witnessed a huge advancement in research efforts on guar gum (GG)-based polymers as controlled release (CR) formulations for the delivery of therapeutics. Areas covered: The unique structure and beneficial properties of GG makes it an attractive biomaterial in CR applications. Current status on GG-based polymers has been addressed as a CR formulation in the form of microspheres, nanoparticles, hydrogels and matrix tablets for the delivery of various types of therapeutics having a wide range of physicochemical properties. Majority of literature on GG as a platform technology has dealt with oral route of drug administration as it is the most convenient, patient-compliant and preferred approach. Recent reports on GG-based polymers are summarized and critically discussed to narrate their usefulness as oral delivery systems. Expert opinion: The research on GG-based formulations has been focused on optimization of the therapy by designing CR dosage forms with a minimum number of excipients. In this context, GG-based polymers are quite attractive. The present review summarizes published reports on these systems and offers expert opinion relevant to oral delivery of therapeutics.
    Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery 03/2014;
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: Periodontitis is one of the most important chronic inflammatory dental diseases arising from the destructive actions caused by a variety of pathogenic organisms presented in the oral cavity. The aim of this study is the preparation and in vitro evaluation of films for the local treatment of periodontal pockets. Methods: The prepared films contained either metronidazole (Mtr), for its antimicrobial effect in periodontal diseases, using a mixture of polymers namely hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, Carbopol 934 or locally applied Pentoxifylline (PTX), for its anti-inflammatory activity, using chitosan. All films were prepared using solvent casting technique and were evaluated for their physical characteristics, drug content uniformity, surface pH, swelling behavior, mechanical properties and in vitro release. Further characterization was done on the selected formulations using differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy for surface structure. Clinical evaluation tests were also performed. Result: Appropriate physical characteristics and mechanical properties for most formulations and their suitability for periodontal application were observed. In vitro drug release from most films showed a burst release rate for both Mtr and PTX during the first 2 h after which the release rate was markedly decreased. Clinical trials on patients revealed the advantageous use of Mtr and PTX as an adjunct treatment with traditionally used dental techniques. Conclusion: The effectiveness of the co-therapy of either drug could add benefit in the eradication of chronic periodontal hazards.
    Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery 03/2014;
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis are major tropical skin diseases. Topical treatment is currently limited to the least severe forms of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) without risk of dissemination. It is also recommended in combination with systemic therapy for more severe forms. Progresses in this modality of treatment are hindered by the heterogeneity of the disease and shortcomings in the clinical trials. Areas covered: This review overlooks three major modalities of topical therapies in use or under investigation against CL: chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy and immunotherapy; either with older compounds such as paramomycin or more recent nitric oxide donors, antimicrobial peptides or silver derivatives. The advantages and limitations of their administration with newer formulation strategies such as nanoparticles (NPs) are discussed. Expert opinion: The efficacy of a topical treatment against CL depends not only on the intrinsic antileishmanial activity of the drug but also on the amount of drug available in the dermis. NPs as sustained release systems and permeation enhancers could favour the creation of a drug reservoir in the dermis. Additionally, certain NPs have immunomodulatory properties or wound healing capabilities of benefit in CL treatment. Pending task is the selective delivery of active compounds to intracellular amastigotes, because even small NPs are unable to penetrate deeply into the skin to encounter infected macrophages (except in ulcerative lesions).
    Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery 03/2014;
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: The principle objective of this study was to develop 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-l-serine (PS)-coated gelatin nanoparticles (GNPs) bearing amphotericin B (AmB) for specific targeting to the macrophages involved in visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Method: The two-step desolvation method has been used for the preparation of GNPs with AmB, which was further coated with PS (PS-AmB-GNPs). The targeting potential of it was compared with uncoated AmB-loaded GNPs (AmB-GNPs) for in vitro and in vivo macrophage uptake. Results: The results of flow cytometric data revealed enhanced uptake of PS-AmB-GNPs in J774A.1 macrophage cell lines compared with AmB-GNPs. In vivo organ distribution studies in Wistar rats demonstrated a significantly higher extent of accumulation of PS-AmB-GNPs compared with AmB-GNPs in macrophage-rich organs, particularly in liver and spleen. The in vivo anti-leishmanial activity of plain AmB, AmB-GNPs and PS-AmB-GNPs was tested against VL in Leishmania donovani-infected hamsters. Highly significant anti-leishmanial activity (p < 0.05 compared with AmB-GNPs) was observed with PS-AmB-GNPs, causing 85.3 ± 7.89% inhibition of splenic parasitic burden. AmB-GNPs and plain AmB caused only 71.0 ± 3.87 and 50.5 ± 5.12% parasite inhibitions, respectively, in Leishmania-infected hamsters (p < 0.05 for PS-AmB-GNPs versus plain AmB and AmB-GNPs versus plain AmB). Conclusion: The objective of the preparation was achieved and high accumulation of AmB in liver and spleen has been found, which resulted in enhanced anti-leishmanial activity.
    Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery 03/2014;
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Gold nanoparticles display a unique combination of chemical inertness, surface chemistry and size- and shape-dependent electronic and optical properties, which render them ideal for clinical applications. Areas covered: The present article describes recent advancements on the application of gold nanoparticles in vaccine development and gene therapy, with augmented efficiencies in cell uptake, specific binding to bioreceptors in cells, protection of conjugated biomolecules and so forth. Additionally, we discuss how the electronic structure of the nanoparticles can be exploited for enhanced radiotherapy and X-ray tomography, while their optical properties can be used for photothermal cancer therapy or light-triggered drug delivery systems for enhanced chemotherapy. Expert opinion: We analyze certain critical aspects and possible challenges that should be solved in order to use gold nanoparticle conjugates in vaccine research, as well as on the potential combination of properties to improve gene therapy and cancer treatment.
    Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery 02/2014;
  • Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery 02/2014;
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Drug delivery by means of erythrocytes is becoming a growing field with applications that in recent years have moved from the laboratory to the clinic. Several reviews have been published in recent years and have well illustrated the developments and the different fields of application. In this paper we have summarized the techniques that make the bases for these developments and provided illustrative examples on how the erythrocytes can be used in drug delivery. Areas covered: We have illustrated the possibility of using erythrocytes for the slow delivery in circulation of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), for the encapsulation of those ingredients that must remain confined within the erythrocyte, the encapsulation of drug-binding proteins (or protein domain) able to reversibly bind drugs of interest and for coupling of APIs on the surface of carrier erythrocytes. Expert opinion: Since many years erythrocytes are recognized as powerful cellular carriers for drugs. In this review, we briefly summarize different approaches that can be used to take advantage of these natural carriers. It is shown that several different APIs can be delivered by way of erythrocytes but the selection of the technique to be employed is crucial for a successful development. The examples illustrated can guide in selecting the most appropriate way of using erythrocytes as delivery systems.
    Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery 02/2014;
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Drug-eluting stents (DES) were developed to reduce the restenosis rate of bare metal stents (BMS) and comprises three main components: i) a metallic scaffold; ii) an antiproliferative drug to reduce or abolish the formation of the neointima; and iii) the polymer, which both enables and controls drug elution into the vessel wall. Over the years, growing evidence has been reported on the safety and efficacy for different indications of DES. Areas covered: Since the introduction of first-generation DES, the technology has been refined, including changes in the alloy, stent design, polymer, drug and drug dose. In 2014, we will usher in a third generation of DES, which will include biodegradable polymers, polymer-free DES and bioabsorbable scaffolds. Expert opinion: In recent years, considerable progress has been made in DES development. The BMS platform set the groundwork for the development of metal scaffolds with drug-eluting capability to prevent restenosis. Importantly, extensive research has shown long-term safety and efficacy of the newer generation DES. Available data suggest that DES can be safely and effectively used to treat a complex subset of patients and lesions, including patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction, lesions in saphenous vein grafts, chronic total occlusions, multivessel disease, small vessels, long lesions and bifurcations. One of the safety targets is to eliminate stent thrombosis.
    Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery 02/2014;
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Most vaccines are administered by intramuscular injection using a hypodermic needle and syringe. Some limitations of this procedure include reluctance to be immunized because of fear of needlesticks, and concerns associated with the safe disposal of needles after their use. Skin delivery is an alternate route of vaccination that has potential to be painless and could even lead to dose reduction of vaccines. Recently, microneedles have emerged as a novel painless approach for delivery of influenza vaccines via the skin. Areas covered: In this review, we briefly summarize the approaches and devices used for skin vaccination, and then focus on studies of skin immunization with influenza vaccines using microneedles. We discuss both the functional immune response and the nature of this immune response following vaccination with microneedles. Expert opinion: The cutaneous administration of influenza vaccines using microneedles offers several advantages: it is painless, elicits stronger immune responses in preclinical studies and could improve responses in high-risk populations. These dry formulations of vaccines provide enhanced stability, a property of high importance in enabling their rapid global distribution in response to possible outbreaks of pandemic influenza and newly emerging infectious diseases.
    Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery 02/2014;
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: HIV type 1 infection, despite having fallen by one-third over the past decade, remains a global health concern affecting millions of individuals worldwide. A focal point in contemporary research aimed at global HIV prevention has been the development of safe and efficacious coitally dependent and coitally independent anti-HIV microbicides to curb heterosexual HIV transmission. Despite extensive research efforts to develop novel vaginal antiretroviral (ARV) formulations and intravaginal ring delivery systems, the clinical advancement of microbicides with improved safety, efficacy and tolerability has significantly lagged behind. Areas covered: This review focuses on the current status of both coitally dependent and coitally independent delivery platforms designed to increase user acceptability and clinical effectiveness of anti-HIV microbicides. The clinical failure of several vaginal microbicide candidates has propelled the field to mechanism-based ARV candidates that act more specifically on viral receptors, viral enzymes and host proteins. Consequently, improved vaginal microbicide delivery strategies that achieve uniform drug distribution with enhanced solubility, sustained drug release, improved product adherence with reduced dosing frequency and lack of effect on the vaginal mucosa and microbiota are being sought. Expert opinion: Clinical success with vaginal microbicides may best be achieved through the combined effects of ARV compounds that exhibit different mechanisms of action with potent activity against multidrug-resistant HIV and efficacious delivery systems.
    Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery 02/2014;

Related Journals