Pharmaceutical Biology

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

Description

Impact factor 1.21

  • 5-year impact
    1.06
  • Cited half-life
    5.80
  • Immediacy index
    0.21
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.20
  • Other titles
    Pharmaceutical biology (Online)
  • ISSN
    1744-5116
  • OCLC
    42441900
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Taylor & Francis

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Some individual journals may have policies prohibiting pre-print archiving
    • On author's personal website or departmental website immediately
    • On institutional repository or subject-based repository after either 12 months embargo for STM, Behavioural Science and Public Health Journals or 18 months embargo for SSH journals
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • On a non-profit server
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Set statements to accompany deposits (see policy)
    • The publisher will deposit in on behalf of authors to a designated institutional repository including PubMed Central, where a deposit agreement exists with the repository
    • STM: Science, Technology and Medicine
    • SSH: Social Science and Humanities
    • Publisher last contacted on 25/03/2014
    • 'Taylor & Francis (Psychology Press)' is an imprint of 'Taylor & Francis'
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: Thai/Lanna medicinal plant recipes have been used for the treatment of several diseases including oral and cervical cancers. Objective: To investigate anti-proliferative activity on human cervical (HeLa) and oral (KB) cancer cell lines of medicinal plants selected from Thai/Lanna medicinal plant recipe database "MANOSROI III". Materials and methods: Twenty-three methanolic plant crude extracts were tested for phytochemicals and anti-proliferative activity on HeLa and KB cell lines for 24 h by the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay at the doses of 1 × 10(1)-1 × 10(-6 )mg/ml. The nine extracts with the concentrations giving 50% growth inhibition (GI50) lower than 100 µg/ml were further semi-purified by liquid/liquid partition in order to evaluate and enhance the anti-proliferative potency. Results: All extracts contained steroids/triterpenoids, but not xanthones. The methanolic extracts of Gloriosa superba L. (Colchinaceae) root and Albizia chinensis (Osbeck) Merr. (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae) wood gave the highest anti-proliferative activity on HeLa and KB cell lines with the GI50 values of 0.91 (6.0- and 0.31-fold of cisplatin and doxorubicin) and 0.16 µg/ml (28.78- and 82.29-fold of cisplatin and doxorubicin), respectively. Hexane and methanol-water fractions of G. superba exhibited the highest anti-proliferative activity on HeLa and KB cell lines with the GI50 values of 0.15 (37- and 1.9-fold of cisplatin and doxorubicin) and 0.058 µg/ml (77.45- and 221.46-fold of cisplatin and doxorubicin), respectively. Discussion and conclusion: This study has demonstrated the potential of plants selected from MANOSROI III database especially G. superba and A. chinensis for further development as anti-oral and cervical cancer agents.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 01/2015;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: In Arabic folk medicine, the seeds of Phoenix dactylifera L. (Arecaceae) have been used to manage diabetes for many years. Few studies have reported the antidiabetic effect of P. dactylifera seeds; however, their effect on diabetic complications is still unexplored. Objective: The present study investigates the protective effect of P. dactylifera seeds against diabetic complications in rats. Material and methods: The aqueous suspension of P. dactylifera seeds (aqPDS) (1 g/kg/d) was orally administered to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats for 4 weeks. The serum biochemical parameters were assessed spectrophotometrically. Furthermore, oxidative stress was examined in both liver and kidney tissues by assessment of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), nitric oxide (NO), reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase, and catalase. Results: Oral administration of aqPDS significantly ameliorated the elevated levels of glucose (248 ± 42 versus 508 ± 60 mg/dl), urea (32 ± 3.3 versus 48.3 ± 5.6 mg/dl), creatinine (2.2 ± 0.35 versus 3.8 ± 0.37 mg/dl), ALT (29.6 ± 3.9 versus 46.4 ± 5.9 IU/l), and AST (73.3 ± 13 versus 127.8 ± 18.7 IU/l) compared with the untreated diabetic rats. In addition to significant augmentation in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, there was reduction in TBARS and NO levels and improvement of histopathological architecture of the liver and kidney of diabetic rats. Discussion and conclusion: The aqPDS showed potential protective effects against early diabetic complications of both liver and kidney. This effect may be explained by the antioxidant and free radical scavenging capabilities of P. dactylifera seeds.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 01/2015;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. (Labiatae) has been widely used for treating diabetes for centuries. Salvianolic acid B (SalB) is the main bioactive component in Salvia miltiorrhiza; however, its antidiabetic activity and possible mechanism are not yet clear. Objective: To investigate the effects of SalB on glycometabolism, lipid metabolism, insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and glycogen synthesis in type 2 diabetic rat model. Materials and methods: High-fat diet (HFD) and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were randomly divided into model group, SalB subgroups (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg), and rosiglitazone group. Results: Compared with the model group, SalB (100 and 200 mg/kg) significantly decreased blood glucose (by 23.8 and 21.7%; p < 0.05 and p < 0.01) and insulin (by 31.3 and 26.6%; p < 0.05), and increased insulin sensitivity index (by 10.9 and 9.3%; p < 0.05). They also significantly decreased total cholesterol (by 24.9 and 27.9%; p < 0.01), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (by 56.2 and 64.6%; p < 0.01), non-esterified fatty acids (by 32.1 and 37.9%; p < 0.01), hepatic glycogen (by 41.3 and 60.5%; p < 0.01), and muscle glycogen (by 33.2 and 38.6%; p < 0.05), and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (by 50.0 and 61.4%; p < 0.05 and p < 0.01), which were originally altered by HFD and streptozotocin. In addition, SalB (200 mg/kg) markedly decreased triglyceride and malondialdehyde (by 31.5 and 29.0%; p < 0.05 and p < 0.01), and increased superoxide dismutase (by 56.6%; p < 0.01), which were originally altered by HFD and streptozotocin. Discussion and conclusion: The results indicate that SalB can inhibit symptoms of diabetes mellitus in rats and these effects may partially be correlated with its insulin sensitivity, glycogen synthesis and antioxidant activities.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 01/2015;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: Effective drugs to treat osteoarthritis (OA) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are needed. Objective: To identify essential oils (EOs) with anti-inflammatory activity in cell models of OA and IBD. Materials and methods: EOs from Eryngium duriaei subsp. juresianum (M. Laínz) M. Laínz (Apiaceae), Laserpitium eliasii subsp. thalictrifolium Sennen & Pau (Apiaceae), Lavandula luisieri (Rozeira) Rivas-Martínez (Lamiaceae), Othantus maritimus (L.) Hoff. & Link (Asteraceae), and Thapsia villosa L. (Apiaceae) were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The anti-inflammatory activity of EOs (5-200 μg/mL) was evaluated by measuring inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation (total and phosphorylated IκB-α), in primary human chondrocytes and the intestinal cell line, C2BBe1, stimulated with interleukin-1β (IL-1β) or interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), respectively. Results: The EO of L. luisieri significantly reduced iNOS (by 54.9 and 81.0%, respectively) and phosphorylated IκB-α (by 87.4% and 62.3%, respectively) in both cell models. The EO of E. duriaei subsp. juresianum caused similar effects in human chondrocytes, but was inactive in intestinal cells, even at higher concentrations. The EOs of L. eliasii subsp. thalictrifolium and O. maritimus decreased iNOS expression by 45.2 ± 8.7% and 45.2 ± 6.2%, respectively, in C2BBe1 cells and were inactive in chondrocytes. The EO of T. villosa was inactive in both cell types. Discussion and conclusion: This is the first study showing anti-inflammatory effects of the EOs of L. luisieri and E. duriaei subsp. juresianum. These effects are specific of the cell type and may be valuable to develop new therapies or as sources of active compounds with improved efficacy and selectivity towards OA and IBD.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 01/2015;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: Melatonin, a pineal hormone and a potent antioxidant, has important roles in metabolic regulation. Objective: This study investigated serum asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), homocysteine (Hcy), nitric oxide (NO) levels, known to be reliable markers of cardiovascular diseases, and determined possible protective effects of melatonin in fructose-fed rats. Materials and methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: control, fructose, melatonin, and fructose plus melatonin. Metabolic syndrome was induced in rats by 20% (w/v) fructose solution in tap water, and melatonin was administered at the dose of 20 mg/kg bw per day by oral gavage. After 8 weeks, serum lipids, glucose, insulin, ADMA, Hcy, and NOx (the stable end products of NO) levels were quantified. Results: Fructose administration caused a statistically significant increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP), serum insulin, triglycerides, and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol levels compared with the control group and the metabolic syndrome model was successfully demonstrated. In comparison with the control group, fructose caused a significant increase in serum ADMA, Hcy, and NOx levels. Melatonin counteracted the changes in SBP, serum ADMA, and Hcy levels found in rats both alone and administered with fructose. Discussion and conclusion: These results show that high fructose consumption leads to elevated SBP, atherogenic lipid profile, increased serum ADMA, and Hcy levels and melatonin treatment has beneficial effects on these biochemical parameters in rats. Melatonin might be beneficial for the prevention and/or treatment of the cardiovascular complications of metabolic syndrome not only by reducing the well-known risk factors of the disease but also by diminishing blood ADMA and Hcy levels.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 01/2015;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Context: Anoectochilus chapaensis Gagnep. (Orchidaceae), an indigenous and valuable Chinese folk medicine, has been used as an antidiabetic remedy. However, the bioactive constituents have not been reported. Objective: To explore potent protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitors from the whole herbs of A. chapaensis for the treatment of diabetes. Materials and methods: The compounds were obtained by PTP1B bioactivity-guided isolation from the active fraction of ethonal extract of A. chapaensis, and elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods and evaluated for their potential to inhibit PTP1B with a series of doses in dimethyl sulphoxide by a colorimetric assay in vitro. The Autodock program was used to dock the active compounds into the binding sites. Results: Fifteen compounds were identified; epifriedelanol, friedelane, 2α, 3β-dihydroxyolean-12-en-23, 28, 30-trioic acid, dibutyl-phthalate, and 7-hydroxy-2-methoxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene-1,4-dione were isolated from the genera Anoectochilus for the first time. All 15 compounds were tested for their inhibitory activity against PTP1B in vitro. Nine active compounds exhibited potent inhibitory effect with IC50 values of 1.16–6.21 μM, which were comparable with the positive control suramin. The 3D-docking simulations showed negative binding energies of −7.4 to −8.5 kcal/mol and supported a high affinity to PTP1B residues in the pocket site, indicating that they may stabilize the open form and generate tighter binding to the catalytic sites of PTP1B. Discussion and conclusion: The results clearly demonstrated that the potential active constituents from A. chapaensis could inhibit PTP1B, which may be mainly attributed to a combination of triterpenoids and flavonoids.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 01/2015;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: Rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes (RAFLSs) play an important role in the initiation and progression of RA, which are resistant to apoptosis and proliferate in an anchorage-independent manner. Objective: The effects of arctigenin on the proliferation and apoptosis of RAFLSs were explored. Materials and methods: Arctigenin (0-160 µM) was used to treat RAFLSs for 48 h. Cell viability and apoptosis were assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide assay and annexin V/propidium iodide staining. Western blot analysis was performed to detect the changes in apoptosis-related genes. Results and discussion: Arctigenin decreased cell viability by 23, 30, and 38% at the dose of 10, 20, and 30 µM, respectively. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of arctignein on RAFLSs was about 38 µM. Moreover, 9, 15, and 21% of RAFLSs are induced apoptosis by 10, 20, and 30 µM of arctigenin. The apoptotic response was due to the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, coupled with the release of cytochrome C into cytoplasm, the up-regulation of pro-apoptotic protein, Bax, and down-regulation of antiapoptotic protein, B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2). The activation of mitochondrial pathway in arctigenin-treated RAFLSs induced the cleavage of caspase-9, caspase-3, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Additionally, arctigenin inhibited the nuclear translocation of p65, decreased the degradation of inhibitor of kappa B alpha (IκBα), and attenuated the phosphorylation of Akt. Conclusion: Our results reveal that arctigenin inhibits cell proliferation and induces mitochondrial apoptosis of RAFLSs, which is associated with the modulation of NF-κB and Akt signaling pathways.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 01/2015;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: Nerium indicum Mill. (Apocynaceae) was reported for its efficient in vitro antioxidant and iron-chelating properties. Objective: This study demonstrates the effect of 70% methanol extract of N. indicum leaf (NIME) towards in vitro DNA protection and ameliorating iron-overload-induced liver damage in mice. Materials and methods: Phytochemical and HPLC analyses were carried out to standardize the extract and the effect of Fe(2+)-mediated pUC18 DNA cessation was studied. Thirty-six Swiss Albino mice were divided into six groups of blank, negative control (iron overload only), and iron-overloaded mice receiving 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg b.w. doses of NIME and desirox (20 mg/kg b.w.). The biochemical markers of hepatic damage, various liver and serum parameters, and reductive release of ferritin iron were studied. Results and discussion: The presence of different phytocomponents was revealed from phytochemical and HPLC analyses. A substantial supercoiled DNA protection, with [P]50 of 70.33 ± 0.32 µg, was observed. NIME (200 mg/kg b.w.) significantly normalized the levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and bilirubin by 126.27, 125.25, 188.48, and 45.47%, respectively. NIME (200 mg/kg b.w.) was shown to alleviate the reduced levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, and non-enzymatic-reduced glutathione, by 48.95, 35.9, 35.42, and 13.22%, respectively. NIME also lowered raised levels of lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl, hydroxyproline, and liver iron by 32.28, 64.58, 136.81, and 83.55%, respectively. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the active substances present in NIME may be capable of lessening iron overload-induced toxicity, and possibly be a useful drug for iron-overloaded diseases.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 01/2015;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Context: Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl. (Acanthaceae) is a Thai medicinal plant used for the detoxification of poison which is likely to be beneficial for the treatment of cognitive deficits including Alzheimer's disease. Objective: To elucidate the effects of Thunbergia laurifolia leaf extract (TLL) on cognitive dysfunction and depression-like behavior in olfactory bulbectomized mice (OBX). Materials and methods: OBX mice were treated daily with TLL at the dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg, tacrine, and imipramine, on the day after 10 d of OBX operation. The effects of TLL on cognitive and depression-like behavior of the animals were analyzed. After completing behavioral experiments, the expression levels of cholinergic marker genes encoding ChAT and muscarinic M1 receptor were quantitatively analyzed. Results: TLL and tacrine reduced OBX-induced cognitive deficits in the object recognition test (ORT) with the time spent for the novel object two times longer than that of the familiar object. Moreover, TLL at the dose of 500 mg/kg and imipramine ameliorated depression-like behavior in the tail suspension test (TST) by reducing the duration of immobility from 25.18% to 3.16% and from 25.18% to 6.48%, respectively. TLL at the dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg reversed the OBX-induced down-regulation of ChAT mRNA expression in the hippocampus from 0.12 to 0.17 and 0.24, respectively, while the down-regulation of mRNA expression of muscarinic M1 receptor was also reversed by TLL from 0.23 to 0.38 and 0.48, respectively. Conclusions: TLL ameliorates non-spatial short-term memory deficits in OBX mice, and has the potential to exhibit an antidepressant-like action.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 01/2015;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Context: Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae), or ginger, used in traditional Chinese medicine, has antioxidant activity and neuroprotective effects. The effects of this plant on clonic seizure have not yet been studied. Objective: The present study evaluated the anticonvulsant effect of ginger in a model of clonic seizures induced with pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) in male mice. Materials and methods: The anticonvulsant effect of Z. officinale was investigated using i.v. PTZ-induced seizure models in mice. Different doses of the hydroethanolic extract of Z. officinale (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) were administered intraperitonal (i.p.), daily for 1 week before induction of PTZ. Phenobarbital sodium (30 mg/kg), a reference standard, was also tested for comparison. The effect of ginger on to the appearance of three separate seizure endpoints, e.g., myoclonic, generalized clonic, and tonic extension phase, was recorded. Results: Hydroethanolic extract of Z. officinale significantly increased the onset time of myoclonic seizure at doses of 25–100 mg/kg (55.33 ± 1.91 versus 24.47 ± 1.33 mg/kg, p < 0.001) and significantly prevented generalized clonic (74.64 ± 3.52 versus 47.72 ± 2.31 mg/kg, p < 0.001) and increased the threshold for the forelimb tonic extension (102.6 ± 5.39 versus 71.82 ± 7.82 mg/kg, p < 0.01) seizure induced by PTZ compared with the control group. Discussion and conclusion: Based on the results, the hydroethanolic extract of ginger has anticonvulsant effects, possibly through an interaction with inhibitory and excitatory systems, antioxidant mechanisms, and oxidative stress inhibition.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 01/2015;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Context: Silymarin (SM) is extracted from milk thistle Silybum marianum L. (S. marianum) and known for antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Objective: In this study, the potential antidepressant-like effect of acute SM and possible involvement of nitric oxide (NO) were determined in male mice. Material and methods: SM was administered orally (5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200 mg/kg; p.o.), 60 min before the tests. After assessment of locomotor activity, the immobility time was measured in forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). To assess the possible involvement of NO, a non-specific NO synthase inhibitor, L-NAME (10 mg/kg, i.p.); and a specific iNOS inhibitor, aminoguanidine (AG) (50 mg/kg, i.p.), were administered separately, 30 min before SM (20, 100 mg/kg). Results: SM at its effective doses 10, 20, 50 and 100 mg/kg decreased the immobility time in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.01, P<0.05, P<0.05, P<0.001, respectively) in FST. SM (10, 20, 50 and 100 mg/kg) also lowered the immobility measure dose-dependently in TST (P<0.01, P<0.05, P<0.01, P<0.001, respectively). In addition, 50% of maximum response (ED50) of SM was around 10 mg/kg. The dose 100 mg/kg proved the most effective dose in both the tests. Further, this effect was not related to changes in locomotor activity. Moreover, L-NAME reversed the effect of SM (20, 100 mg/kg) in FST and SM (100 mg/kg) in TST. However, AG did not influence this impact. Conclusion: The antidepressant-like effect of SM is probably mediated at least in part through NO and SM may increase NO tune.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 01/2015;
  • Pharmaceutical Biology 01/2015;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: Our previous biological study demonstrated that Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL), the fruit of Ligustrum lucidum Ait. (Oleaceae), could be used to maintain calcium balance and prevent age-related osteoporosis since it effectively decreased calcium loss and increased calcium retention in rats. Objective: This study investigates the combination effect of the Chinese herbal medicine FLL and a high calcium diet on calcium imbalance induced by ovariectomy in mice. Materials and methods: The ovariectomized (OVX) mice were orally treated with vehicle, FLL extract (700 mg/kg), milk powder (5 g/mice) fortified with calcium (1.0% Ca) and the combination of FLL with milk powder. After 6 weeks of treatment, urine, serum, and tibia were preserved for biochemical analysis and kidneys were taken for gene expression analysis. Results: The combination treatment of FLL and a high calcium diet significantly increased bone calcium content (6.80 ± 0.34 mg) by 22% (p < 0.05) and decreased urine calcium excretion (0.099 ± 0.009 mg/mg) by 62% (p < 0.01) as compared with those of the OVX group (bone Ca, 5.57 ± 0.31 mg; urine Ca/Cr, 0.261 ± 0.017 mg/mg). The mRNA expression of renal calcium-binding protein-9k (CaBP-9k) and calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) in combination treatment group was significantly up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively, as compared with those of the OVX group. Conclusion: The beneficial effects of this combination therapy on calcium balance of OVX mice were, at least partially, attributed to its regulation on mRNA expression of CaBP-9k and CaSR in kidney.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 12/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Context: In Kenya, most people use traditional medicine and medicinal plants to treat many diseases including malaria. To manage malaria, new knowledge and products are needed. Traditional herbal medicine has constituted a good basis for antimalarial lead discovery and drug development. Objectives: To determine in vivo antimalarial activity and brine shrimp toxicity of five medicinal plants traditionally used to treat malaria in Msambweni district, Kenya. Materials and methods: A 0.2 ml saline solution of 100 mg/kg aqueous crude extracts from five different plant parts were administered orally once a day and evaluated for their in vivo chemosuppressive effect using Plasmodium berghei berghei-infected Swiss mice for four consecutive days. Their safety was also determined using Brine shrimp lethality test: Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) root, Dicrostachys cinerea (L) Wight et Am (Mimosaceae) root, Tamarindus indica L. (Caesalpiniaceae) stem bark, Azadirachta indica (L) Burn. (Meliaceae) root bark, and Acacia seyal Del. (Mimosaceae) root. Results: Parasitaemia was as follows: A. indica, 3.1%; D. cinerea, 6.3%; T. indica, 25.1%; A. seyal, 27.8%; and G. trichocarpa, 35.8%. In terms of toxicity, A. indica root bark extract had an LC50 of 285.8 µg/ml and was considered moderately toxic. T. indica stem bark extract and G. trichocarpa root extract had an LC50 of 516.4 and 545.8 µg/ml, respectively, and were considered to be weakly toxic while A. seyal and D. cinerea root extracts had a LC50 >1000 µg/ml and were, therefore, considered to be non-toxic. Discussion and conclusion: All extracts had antimalarial activity that was not significant compared to chloroquine (p ≥ 0.05). No extract was toxic to the arthropod invertebrate, Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae) larvae, justifying the continued use of the plant parts to treat malaria.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 12/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: Nanotechnology can be applied to deliver and protect antioxidants in order to control the oxidative stress phenomena in several chronic pathologies. Chitosan (CS) nanoparticles are biodegradable carriers that may protect antioxidants with potent biological activity such as rosmarinic acid (RA) in Salvia officinalis (sage) and Satureja montana (savory) extracts for safe and innovative therapies. Objective: Development and characterization of CS nanoparticles as a stable and protective vehicle to deliver RA for medical applications using natural extracts as sage and savory. Materials and methods: Antioxidant-CS based nanoparticles were prepared by ionic gelation with sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP), at pH 5.8 with a mass ratio of 7:1 (CS:TPP), with a theoretical antioxidant-CS loading of 40-50%. The nanoparticles were then characterized by different methods such as photon correlation spectroscopy, laser Doppler anemometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC), association efficiency, and antioxidant activity. Results and discussion: Individual and small sizing nanoparticles, around 300 nm, were obtained. SEM confirmed smooth and spherical nanoparticles after freeze-drying. No chemical interactions were found between antioxidants and CS, after encapsulation, by DSC and FTIR. The association efficiency was 51.2% for RA (with 40% loading) and 96.1 and 98.2% for sage and savory nanoparticles, respectively (both with 50% loading). Antioxidant activity values were higher than 0.0348 eq [Asc. Ac.] g/L/g extract and 0.4251 µmol/eq Trolox/g extract. Conclusion: The extracts under study are promising vehicles for RA drug delivery in CS nanocarriers.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 12/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: The organoselenium compounds have been described to demonstrate several biological activities, including pain management. Objective: This study investigated the antinociceptive, hyperalgesic, and toxic effects of oral administration of bis(4-methylbenzoyl) diselenide (BMD) in mice. Materials and methods: The antinociceptive and anti-hyperalgesic effects of BMD (1, 5, 10, 25, and 50 mg/kg, p.o.) were evaluated using models of nociception: formalin, capsaicin, bradykinin (BK), cinnamaldehyde, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), 8-bromo-cAM, and glutamate-induced nociception; and mechanical hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan (Cg) or complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). The acute toxicity was evaluated by biochemical markers for hepatic and renal damages. Results: BMD significantly inhibited the licking time of the injected paw in the early and late phases of a formalin test with ED50 values of 14.2 and 10.8 mg/kg, respectively. This compound reduced nociception produced by capsaicin (ED50 of 32.5 mg/kg), BK (ED50 of 24.6 mg/kg), glutamate (ED50 of 28.7 mg/kg), cinnamaldehyde (ED50 of 18.9 mg/kg), PMA (ED50 of 9.6 mg/kg), and 8-bromo-cAMP (ED50 of 24.8 mg/kg). In the glutamate test, the pretreatment with nitric oxide (NO) precursor, l-arginine, reversed antinociception caused by BMD or N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine (L-NOARG), but the effect of BMD was not abolished by naloxone. Mechanical hyperalgesia induced by Cg and CFA was attenuated by BMD, 70 ± 4% and 65 ± 4%, respectively. Furthermore, a single oral dose of BMD did not change plasma aspartate (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities or urea and creatinine levels. Conclusion: BMD demonstrated as a promising compound because of the antinociceptive and anti-hyperalgesic properties in mice.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 12/2014;