Pharmaceutical Biology Journal Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: Informa Healthcare

Journal description

Current impact factor: 1.24

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 1.241
2013 Impact Factor 1.337
2012 Impact Factor 1.206
2011 Impact Factor 0.878
2010 Impact Factor 0.638
2009 Impact Factor 0.672
2008 Impact Factor 0.488
2007 Impact Factor 0.364
2006 Impact Factor 0.397
2005 Impact Factor 0.394
2004 Impact Factor 0.441
2003 Impact Factor 0.413
2002 Impact Factor 0.262
2001 Impact Factor 0.312
2000 Impact Factor 0.132
1999 Impact Factor 0.164

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 1.19
Cited half-life 5.20
Immediacy index 0.36
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.23
Other titles Pharmaceutical biology (Online)
ISSN 1744-5116
OCLC 42441900
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Informa Healthcare

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 months embargo
  • Conditions
    • On author's personal website or institution website
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged
    • Non-commercial
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • NIH funded authors may post articles to PubMed Central for release 12 months after publication
    • Wellcome Trust authors may deposit in Europe PMC after 6 months
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Context: Spirulina (Arthrospira) exerts a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities which are mainly attributed to its antioxidant effect. However, Spirulina has also been reported (both in preclinical and in clinical scenarios) to exhibit other bioactive effects, including an antitoxic potential. Objective: We performed a systematic review of the literature, conducted in TOXNET, PubMed/MEDLINE, and Science Direct-Scopus; all available years were included. Searching criteria included the effects of Spirulina on experimental poisonings from arsenic, cadmium, carbon tetrachloride, deltamethrin, fluoride, hexachlorocyclohexane, iron, lead, lindane, and mercury. Results: In all cases, it was established that the blue-green alga, and its isolated compounds, effectively counteracted these pollutants toxic effects on the exposed organisms. Some molecular mechanisms are proposed, although they have not been fully elucidated yet. Conclusion: Spirulina could be a useful coadjuvant agent within clinical practice for treatment of these or other pollutants poisonings.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 10/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2015.1077464
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    ABSTRACT: Context: The flower bud of Tussilago farfara L. (Compositae) (FTF) is one of the traditional Chinese medicinal herbs used to treat cough, phlegm, bronchitic, and asthmatic conditions. Objective: The objective of this study is to isolate four caffeoylquinic acids from the ethyl acetate extract (EtE) of FTF and to evaluate their antitussive, expectorant, and anti-inflammatory activities. Materials and methods: The structures of compounds 1-4 isolated from EtE were determined by spectral analysis. Mice were orally treated with these compounds and their mixture (in a ratio of 5:28:41:26 as in EtE) at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg once daily for 3 d. The antitussive and expectorant activities were evaluated separately with the ammonia liquor-induced model and the phenol red secretion model. The anti-inflammation activity was evaluated using leukocyte count in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after ammonia liquor-induced acute airway inflammation. Results: The four compounds were identified as chlorogenic acid (1), 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (2), 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid (3), and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (4). All compounds, especially compound 4 (58.0% inhibition in cough frequency), showed a significant antitussive effect. However, the mixture was the most effective to inhibit the cough frequency by 61.7%. All compounds also showed a significant expectorant effect, while compound 2 was the most potent to enhance the phenol red secretion by 35.7%. All compounds significantly alleviated inflammation, but compound 4 showed the strongest effect to inhibit the leukocytosis by 49.7%. Discussion and conclusion: The caffeoylquinic acids and their mixture, exhibiting significant antitussive, expectorant, and anti-inflammatory effects, could be considered as the main effective ingredients of FTF, and they may act in a collective and synergistic way.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 10/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2015.1075048
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    ABSTRACT: Content: Eupatorium cannabinum L. (Asteraceae) is as a potential source of biologically active compounds. The plant is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of diarrhea and livers diseases. Objective: The present study provides investigation on pharmacological properties (antioxidant and toxic activities) of essential oils of E. cannabinum, collected from 11 wild populations in Lithuania. Materials and methods: Twenty-two hemp agrimony essential oil samples were prepared by hydrodistillation according to the European Pharmacopoeia, and their chemical composition was determined by GC-FID and GC-MS. Compositional data were subjected to principal components analysis (PCA). Instead of conventional spectrophotometric methods, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV) techniques were applied to determine antioxidant activity of hemp agrimony essential oils. Meanwhile, toxicity of the oils was determined using brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) assay. Results: Chemical profiles of E. cannabinum oils were described according to the first predominant components: germacrene D (≤22.0%), neryl acetate (≤20.0%), spathulenol (≤27.2%), and α-terpinene (11.5%). For the first time, α-zingiberene (≤7.8%) was found to be among three major constituents (as the second one) for hemp agrimony oils. SWV measurements revealed that oxidation potentials of compounds present in the oils are lower (below 0.1 V) compared with that of well-known antioxidant quercetin (0.15 V). Toxicity tests evaluated that hemp agrimony oils containing predominant amounts of germacrene D and neryl acetate were notably toxic (LC50 value 16.3-22.0 μg/mL). Conclusion: The study provided some new data concerning chemical composition and pharmaceutical properties of E. cannabinum essential oils.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 10/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2015.1078384
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Kurarinone, the most abundant prenylated flavonoid in Sophora flavescens Aiton (Leguminosae), is a promising antitumor therapeutic. However, it shows significant hepatotoxicity. Furthermore, how kurarinone is metabolized in humans remains unclear. Objective: The objective of this study is to investigate kurarinone metabolism in human liver microsomes (HLMs) and the role of metabolism in kurarinone-induced cytotoxicity. Materials and methods: The UDP-glucuronosyltransferase isoforms (UGTs) involved in kurarinone glucuronidation were identified using chemical inhibitors (100-1000 µM phenylbutazone; 10-100 µM β-estradiol; 10-100 µM 1-naphthol; 10-500 µM propofol; and 100-1000 µM fluconazole) and recombinant human UGTs. Kurarinone (2-500 µM) was incubated with HLMs and UGTs (0.5 mg/mL) for 15 min to determine enzyme kinetic parameters. The IC50 value of kurarinone (10-200 µM) was evaluated in a HLMs/3T3 cell co-culture system. Results: Kurarinone is extensively converted to two glucuronides (M3 and M4) in HLMs. M3 formation was catalyzed by multiple UGT1As, with UGT1A3 showing the highest intrinsic clearance (120.60 mL/min/mg). M4 formation was catalyzed by UGT1A1, UGT2B4, and UGT2B7. UGT1A1 showed the highest intrinsic clearance (60.61 mL/min/mg). The kinetic profiles of the five main UGTs and HLMs fit substrate inhibition kinetics, with Km values ranging from 5.20 to 46.52 µM, Vmax values ranging from 0.20 to 3.06 µmol/min/mg, and Ksi values ranging from 25.58 to 230.30 µM. The kurarinone IC50 value was 93 μM in the control group, 102 μM in HLMs with NADPH, and 160 μM in HLMs with UDPGA. Discussion and conclusion: Kurarinone glucuronidation is a detoxification pathway. This information may help to elucidate the risk factors regulating kurarinone toxicity.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 10/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2015.1070876
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    ABSTRACT: The antidiabetic drug metformin exhibits antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects in various cells, suggesting its potential to treat a variety of malignant and non-malignant hyperplastic diseases. Clinical studies indicate that psoriasis patients with metformin treatment have a better response than those without metformin. The present study evaluates the antiproliferative activity and anti-inflammatory responses of metformin in human keratinocytes in vitro and explores the underlying mechanisms. HaCaT cells were incubated with metformin at 0, 25, 50, and 100 mM for 48 h. Antiproliferative activity was evaluated by MTT and apoptotic response was examined by flow cytometry. ELISA was used to detect IL-6, TNF-α, and VEGF protein expression. Western blot was used to investigate the expression of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and its downstream effectors p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K). The survival rates of HaCaT cells treated with metformin at 50 mM were reduced to 75.6, 59.4, and 30.3% at 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. The number of apoptotic HaCaT cells was significantly increased at 50 mM metformin after 48 h treatment. Metformin can exert an anti-inflammatory effect by direct inhibition of IL-6, TNF-α, and VEGF. Metformin at 50 mM significantly reduced the phosphorylation of mTOR and p70S6K, by 49.0 and 62.1%, respectively. Metformin treatment significantly inhibited proliferation and proinflammatory responses in HaCaT cells by a mechanism associated with inhibition of the mTOR signaling pathway. The results indicate that metformin may be used as a potential therapeutic agent for psoriasis.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 08/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2015.1057652
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    ABSTRACT: Curcumol has recently attracted special attention due to its potential activities in many chronic disorders. Moreover, the traditional role of turmeric [Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae)] in suppression of hyperglycemia is of great interest. The present work explores the potential acute and subchronic antihyperglycemic, antinociceptive, and in vivo antioxidant effects of curcumol in alloxan-diabetic mice. Bio-guided fractionation, column-chromatography, and GC-MS were utilized to identify the most active compound of turmeric (curcumol). Turmeric (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg), the curcumol rich fraction (CRF) (7 mg/kg), and curcumol (20, 30, and 40 mg/kg) were assessed for their acute (6 h) and subchronic (8 d) antihyperglycemic potentials and antinociceptive effects (8 weeks) were measured, using hot-plate and tail-flick latencies and von-Frey filaments method and in vivo antioxidant effects in alloxan-diabetic mice. The most-active turmeric fraction was found to be rich in curcumol (45.5%) using GC-MS analysis method. The results proved that the highest dose levels of turmeric extract and curcumol exerted remarkable hypoglycemic activity with 41.4 and 39.3% drop in the mice glucose levels after 6 h, respectively. Curcumol (40 mg/kg) was found to be 9.4% more potent than turmeric extract (100 mg/kg) in subchronic management of diabetes. Curcumol also showed a significant improvement of peripheral nerve function as observed from the latency and tactile tests. The antioxidant potential of curcumol may cause its ability to ameliorate diabetes and diabetes-related complications. Curcumol, a natural metabolite with a good safety-profile, showed results comparable with tramadol in reversing diabetes-induced tactile allodynia and hyperalgesia.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 08/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Ischemia/hypoxia and reperfusion impair mitochondria and produce a large amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which lead to mitochondrial and brain damage. Furthermore, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) as a cytoprotective gene protects cells against ROS-induced cell death in ischemia-reperfusion injury. Induction of HO-1 is involved in cytoprotective effects of taxol. We hypothesize that taxol protects cardiac myocytes possibly by preserving myocardial mitochondrial function and inducing HO-1 expression through the JNK pathway. In this project, the perfused Langendorff hearts isolated from rats were randomly divided into five groups: control, ischemic, ischemic + taxol (0.1 μM), ischemic + taxol (0.3 μM), and ischemic + taxol (1 μM). Briefly, following a 15 min equilibration period, the control group was subject to normoxic perfusion for 120 min; the ischemia group, normoxic reperfusion for 120 min after 30 min ischemia; the taxol groups, normoxic reperfusion for 120 min after 30-min ischemia with taxol (0.1, 0.3, or 1 μM). The microtubule disruption score, ROS levels, and the activity of mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes I and III were examined by using immunohistochemical methods and free radical detection kits. Western blot assay was employed to study the underlying mechanisms. After Taxol treatment (0.1 µM), the ischemic microtubule disruption score was reduced to 9.8 ± 1.9%. The study revealed that 0.1, 0.3, and 1 μM taxol reduced the level of ROS by 33, 46 and 51%, respectively (p < 0.05). In additional, 0.3 and 1 μM taxol dramatically increased the activity of mitochondrial electron transport chain complex I (99.11 ± 2.59, 103.49 ± 3.89) and mitochondrial electron transport chain complex III (877.82 ± 12.08; 907.42 ± 16.21; 914.73 ± 19.39, *p < 0.05). Additionally, phosphorylation levels of JNK1 were significantly increased in the taxol group. Furthermore, the expression level of HO-1 increased with taxol treatments, which could be inhibited by the specific inhibitor of JNK, SP600125. Taxol stabilized microtubules and effectively reduced ROS levels during ischemia. It also preserved the activity of mitochondrial complexes I and III. Interestingly, taxol induced the expression of HO-1 via the JNK pathway in cardiac myocytes.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 08/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract CONTEXT: During diabetes mellitus, non-enzymatic reaction between amino groups of protein and carbonyl of reducing sugars (Millard reaction) is responsible for the major diabetic complications. Various efforts have been made to influence the process of protein glycation. OBJECTIVES: This review article provides an extensive survey of various studies published in scientific literature to understand the process of protein glycation and its measurement. Moreover, evaluation and identification of potential inhibitors (antiglycation agents) of protein glycation from natural and synthetic sources and their mechanism of action in vitro and in vivo are also addressed. METHOD: In this review article, the mechanism involved in the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is discussed, while in second and third parts, promising antiglycation agents of natural and synthetic sources have been reviewed, respectively. Finally, in vivo studies have been addressed. This review is mainly compiled from important databases such as Science, Direct, Chemical Abstracts, SciFinder, and PubMed. RESULTS: During the last two decades, various attempts have been made to inhibit the process of protein glycation. New potent inhibitors of protein glycation belonging to different classes such as flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenes, benzenediol Schiff bases, substituted indol, and thio compounds have been identified. CONCLUSION: Antiglycation therapy will be an effective strategy in future to prevent the formation of AGEs for the management of late diabetic complications Current review article highlighted various compounds of natural and synthetic origins identified previously to inhibit the protein glycation and formation of AGEs in vitro and in vivo. KEYWORDS: Advanced glycation end products; antiglycation activity; hyperglycemia; protein glycation; reducing sugars
    Pharmaceutical Biology 08/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: The nephron-protective efficacy of Abelmoschus manihot (Linn.) Medicus (Malvaceae) has been proved by randomized controlled clinical trial. Flavonoids are main active components of A. manihot, which can be transformed into glucuronide/sulfate conjugates in vivo. Exploring the pharmacokinetic profile of these conjugates is necessary to further elucidate the mechanism of action. Flavonoid fraction of A. manihot (FFA) was extracted from A. manihot flower with ethanol. FFA (400 mg/kg) was orally given to normal rats and chronic kidney disease (CKD) model rats. Blood samples were collected at 5, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 240, 360, and 720 min after administration. The plasma concentrations of quercetin and isorhamnetin glucuronide/sulfate conjugates were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. In normal rats, AUC of quercetin-glucuronide conjugates, isorhamnetin-glucuronide conjugates, quercetin-sulfate conjugates, and isorhamnetin-sulfate conjugates was 459.45 ± 192.70, 1153.01 ± 697.04, 417.81 ± 220.31, and 2475.19 ± 1085.22 μmol h/L, respectively. While AUC of quercetin and isorhamnetin was 5.47 ± 2.54 and 30.73 ± 25.95 μmol h/L. AUC of the glucuronide-sulfate conjugates of quercetin and isorhamnetin is 125-times higher than that of aglycone (quercetin and isorhamnetin), showing that glucuronide/sulfate conjugates represent the major circulating forms of A. manihot flavonoid in vivo. AUC of isorhamnetin-glucuronide conjugates and quercetin-sulfate conjugates was 719.65 ± 619.22 and 275.49 ± 1 60.95 μmol h/L, indicating that less conjugated metabolites were formed in CKD rats compared with normal rats. The ratio of AUCglucuronide/sulfate/AUCaglycone decreased from 125 to 104, which implied the impaired phase II metabolism ability in CKD rat. Glucuronide-sulfate conjugates provide an important clue for further elucidating the activity of conjugated metabolites and their relationship with the nephroprotective efficacy of A. manihot. It is necessary to take caution when extrapolating pharmacokinetics parameters from healthy animals in designing pharmacological studies.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 07/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2015.1068337
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    ABSTRACT: Medicinal plants have been recognized as useful remedies for primary health care. Accordingly, Cucurbita pepo L. (Cucurbitaceae) (pumpkin) and Linum usitatissimum (L.) Griesb. (Linaceae) (linseed) which have extracted oil with prominent pharmacological properties are investigated as possible burn healing treatments. The present study assesses the healing potential of pumpkin and linseed extracted oils on rats. Uniform deep second-degree burns were induced on the dorsum of 24 rats, randomly divided into four groups. The burns were measured, photographed, and topically treated with saline solution, "Cytol Centella®", pumpkin, and linseed-extracted oils (0.52 µl/mm(2) of oil) each 2 d (up until day 33). Post-burning of the 33rd day, biopsies were histologically assessed. At the end of the experiment, the rat groups treated with linseed, pumpkin oils, and "Cytol Centella®" had higher percentage of wound contraction (98.68, 96.71, and 92.54%, respectively) than the control group (58.38%). Wound biopsies from rats treated with extracted oils showed the best tissue regeneration proprieties as compared with the other groups. The histomorphometric analysis of biopsies revealed that linseed oil could significantly stimulate angiogenesis (55.6% ± 7.25). The pumpkin oil, and Cytol Centella® could significantly increase the collagen production 64.9% ± 5.94, and 61.2% ± 7.36, respectively. Overall, our study has given for the first time scientific evidence of the healing efficiency of pumpkin and linseed oils on burn-wounds.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 07/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2015.1067233
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Alkaloids of Piper longum L. (Piperaceae) (PLA) include piperine and piperlonguminine. Piper longum and piperine have multiple biological properties including antioxidant activity. Objective: The present study investigated the neuroprotective effects of PLA in a MPTP-induced mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Materials and methods: PLA was prepared by extracting the dry seed of P. longum using 85% ethanol. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were divided into eight groups of 12 rats each. Experimental and control groups received an equivalent volume of saline, 0.5% CMC-Na, and 0.1% Tween 80, treated groups received oral PLA (30, 60, and 120 mg/kg), other groups treated with piperine (60 mg/kg) or Madopar (50 mg/kg). The PLA prevention group (PLA-Pr) administrated PLA (120 mg/kg) for 1 week before MPTP challenged. Except for the PLA-Pr group, others were treated for seven consecutive weeks. Parkinson's disease was induced by injecting MPTP intraperitoneally (25 mg/kg) twice weekly for five consecutive weeks. Dopaminerigic (DA) neurons and their metabolism were detected by UFLC-MS/MS. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunohistochemistry assay and Western blotting were performed. The antioxidant enzymatic levels were determined by kit-based assays. Results: The LD50 value of PLA was determined at 1509 mg/kg of body weight. PLA (60 mg/kg) can significantly increase total movement time and distance (p < 0.05), increase levels of DA (p < 0.05) and DOPAC (p < .05), increase glutathione (GSH) level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity (p < 0.05), and decrease the lipid peroxidation of malondiadehycle (MDA) (p < 0.05) in PLA-treated groups as compared with the control group. Discussion and conclusion: Our results indicate that PLA possesses neuroprotective effects and has ameliorative properties in dopaminergic neurons.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 07/2015; 53(10):1516-24. DOI:10.3109/13880209.2014.991835
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    ABSTRACT: Patrinia villosa (Thunb.) Juss (Valerianaceae) is an important ancient herbal medicine widely used for inflammation, wound healing, and abdominal pain. But little is known of the phytochemical constituents of this herbal plant. The objective of this study is to isolate and identify the bioactive components from P. villosa. A 70% EtOH extract of P. villosa was subjected to normal-phase silica, ODS silica gel column chromatography, and semi-preparative HPLC chromatography after partitioned successively with light petroleum, dichloromethane and n-BuOH. Chemical structures of the compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including UV, 1D-NMR, 2D-NMR, HR-ESI-MS, and CD spectra. The cytotoxic activity of the new component was determined with the SMMC-7721 cell line using the MTT method after incubation for 48 h. A new flavonoid named patriniaflavanone A (1) along with four known compounds was isolated from P. villosa. The four known compounds were identified as luteolin 7-O-glucuronide-6″-methyl ester (2), p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid methyl ester (3), trans-caffeic acid (4), and trans-caffeic acid methylate (5) by comparison of their spectral data with the reported data. The IC50 value of patriniaflavanone A (1) on SMMC-7721 was 61.27 μM. This is the first report on the isolation and identification of patriniaflavanone A (1), and compounds 2-5 were isolated for the first time from the title plant. Patriniaflavanone A (1) exhibited moderate cytotoxic activity.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 07/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2015.1064449
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    ABSTRACT: Euphorbia hirta L. (Euphorbiaceae) has been used as a folk remedy in Southeast Asia for the treatment of various ailments. The current study evaluates the cytotoxicity, cell-cycle arrest, and apoptotic induction by E. hirta in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Cytotoxic activity of methanol extract of whole part of E. hirta was determined by the MTT assay at various concentrations ranging from 1.96 to 250.00 µg/mL in MCF-7 cells. Cell morphology was assessed by light and fluorescence microscopy. Apoptosis and cell-cycle distribution were determined by annexin V staining and flow cytometry. DNA fragmentation, caspase activity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays were performed using the commercially available kits. To identify the cytotoxic fraction, E. hirta extract was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation. Euphorbia hirta exhibited significant inhibition of the survival of MCF-7 cells and the half inhibitory concentration (IC50) values was 25.26 µg/mL at 24 h. Microscopic studies showed that E. hirta-treated cells exhibited marked morphological features characteristic of apoptosis. Euphorbia hirta extract also had an ignorable influence on the LDH leakage and generating intracellular ROS. The flow cytometry study confirmed that E. hirta extract induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. Euphorbia hirta also resulted in DNA fragmentation in MCF-7 cells. Moreover, E. hirta treatment resulted in the accumulation of cells at the S and G2/M phases as well as apoptosis. The caspase activity study revealed that E. hirta extract induced apoptosis through the caspase-3-independent pathway by the activation of caspase-2, 6, 8, and 9. Euphorbia hirta hexane fraction, namely HFsub4 fraction, demonstrated highest activity among all the fractions tested with an IC50 value of 10.01 µg/mL at 24 h. This study revealed that E. hirta induced apoptotic cell death and suggests that E. hirta could be used as an apoptosis-inducing anticancer agent for breast cancer treatment with further detailed studies.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 07/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2015.1064451
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    ABSTRACT: Gleditsia triacanthos L. (Leguminosae) pods are used in folk medicine for pain relief as anodyne and narcotic. The objective of this study is to evaluate analgesic activity of Gleditsia triacanthos methanolic fruit extract (MEGT) and its saponin-containing fraction (SFGT). Peripheral analgesic activity was assessed using the acetic acid-induced writhing model in mice at doses of 140, 280, and 560 mg/kg and formalin test in rats at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg doses. Central analgesic activity was evaluated using the hotplate method in rats (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg). In the writhing test, six mice groups treated with MEGT and SFGT found ED50 values 268.2 and 161.2 mg/kg, respectively, displayed a significant decrease in writhing count compared with the group treated with standard drug indomethacin (14 mg/kg). SFGT (280 and 560 mg/kg) showed 64.94 and 70.78% protection, respectively, which are more than double % protection caused by indomethacin (31.82%). In the formalin test, MEGT and SFGT (ED50 values 287.6 and 283.4 mg/kg for phase I as well as 295.1 and 290.4 mg/kg for phase II, respectively) at 400 mg/kg showed significant % inhibition in both phase I (18.86 and 52.57%) and phase II (39.36 and 44.29%) with reference to 10 mg/kg indomethacin (56.0 and 32.29%). MEGT and SFGT caused significant delay in responses in hotplate model (ED50 values 155.4 and 200.6 mg/kg, respectively) compared with that of 10 mg/kg indomethacin at 30, 60, and 120 min. Central and peripheral analgesic activities induced by Gleditsia triacanthos fruits might account for its uses in folk medicine.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 07/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2015.1064450
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Musca domestica Linn. maggot is a traditional Chinese medicine. In our previous studies, Musca domestica maggot protein-enriched fraction and polypeptide extract (molecular weight <30 kD) were found to reverse endothelial cell dysfunction in atherosclerotic lesions. Objective: This study determines whether and how M. domestica maggot polypeptide extract affects the dysfunction of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) induced by macrophages (Mφ). Materials and methods: HUVEC and early-activated THP-1 Mφ (incubated with LPS of 1 μg/ml for 2 h) were co-cultured in a Transwell system. The effects of Musca domestica maggot polypeptide extract (with increasing concentrations, i.e., 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 20.0, and 40.0 µg/ml) on the proliferation and migration HUVEC and their secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were determined by flow cytometry, modified Boyden chamber assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) after incubation for 24 h. Results: Musca domestica maggot polypeptide extract decreased the proliferation of HUVEC in a concentration-dependent manner, with a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of 22.16 ± 1.48 µg/ml, and effectively inhibited HUVEC migration (EC50 = 35.15 ± 2.03 µg/ml) and VEGF secretion (EC50 = 28.64 ± 1.29 µg/ml). Discussion and conclusion: Musca domestica maggot polypeptide extract can inhibit the dysfunction of HUVEC induced by early-activated THP-1 Mφ.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 07/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2015.1060506
  • Pharmaceutical Biology 07/2015; 53(12):1-2. DOI:10.3109/13880209.2015.1058399