Pharmaceutical Biology Journal Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: Informa Healthcare

Current impact factor: 1.24

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 1.241
2013 Impact Factor 1.337
2012 Impact Factor 1.206
2011 Impact Factor 0.878
2010 Impact Factor 0.638
2009 Impact Factor 0.672
2008 Impact Factor 0.488
2007 Impact Factor 0.364
2006 Impact Factor 0.397
2005 Impact Factor 0.394
2004 Impact Factor 0.441
2003 Impact Factor 0.413
2002 Impact Factor 0.262
2001 Impact Factor 0.312
2000 Impact Factor 0.132
1999 Impact Factor 0.164

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 1.19
Cited half-life 5.20
Immediacy index 0.36
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.23
Other titles Pharmaceutical biology (Online)
ISSN 1744-5116
OCLC 42441900
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Informa Healthcare

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 months embargo
  • Conditions
    • On author's personal website or institution website
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged
    • Non-commercial
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • NIH funded authors may post articles to PubMed Central for release 12 months after publication
    • Wellcome Trust authors may deposit in Europe PMC after 6 months
  • Classification

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Context: Morus nigra L. (Moraceae) has various uses in traditional medicine. However, the effect of M. nigra on cognitive impairment has not been investigated yet. Objective: The objective of this study is to determine the phenolic acid content and DNA damage protection potential of M. nigra leaf extract and to investigate the extract effect on cognitive impairment and oxidative stress in aging mice. Materials and methods: Phenolic acid content was determined by quantitative chromatographic analysis. DNA damage protection potential was evaluated on pBR322 plasmid DNA. Thirty-two Balb-C mice were randomly divided into four groups (control, d-galactose, d-galactose + M. nigra 50, and d-galactose + M. nigra 100). Mice were administered d-galactose (100 mg/kg, subcutaneous) and M. nigra (50 or 100 mg/kg, orally) daily for 8 weeks. Behavioral responses were evaluated with Morris water maze. Activities of antioxidant enzymes and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) were assayed in serum, brain, and liver. Results: In extract, vanillic (632.093 μg/g) and chlorogenic acids (555.0 μg/g) were determined. The extract between 0.02 and 0.05 mg/mL effectively protected all DNA bands against the hazardous effect of UV and H2O2. Morus nigra significantly improved learning dysfunctions (p < 0.01), increased memory retention (p < 0.01), reduced MDA levels (p < 0.05), and elevated SOD, GPx, and CAT activities (p < 0.05) compared with the d-galactose group. Discussion and conclusion: These results show that M. nigra has the potential in improving cognitive deficits in mice and that M. nigra may be useful to suppress aging, partially due to its scavenging activity of free radicals and high antioxidant capacity.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 10/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2015.1101476
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Breast cancer seriously harms the health of women and there are currently few therapeutic options for patients with breast cancer. Objective: Effects of ginsenoside compound K (CK) in combination with cisplatin (DDP) on the proliferation, apoptosis, and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) of MCF-7 cells were studied. Materials and methods: MCF-7 cells were divided into CK (50 μmol/L) group, DDP (10 mg/L) group, CK (50 μmol/L) +DDP (10 mg/L) group, and control (CON) group. The cells in the CON group were not treated with any drugs. Proliferation, apoptosis, expression of E-cadherin, N-cadherin, vimentin, protein kinase B (Akt), phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), and level of fibronectin (FN) in MCF-7 cells were detected by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT), flow cytometry, western blotting, and enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. Results: The proliferation inhibition rates in CK, DDP, and CK + DDP groups at 48 h were 19.18 ± 2.25, 21.34 ± 2.84, and 43.37 ± 5.62, respectively. The apoptosis rates were 2.85 ± 0.56, 13.37 ± 2.28, 20.04 ± 2.92, and 30.78 ± 4.64 at 24 h and 3.14 ± 0.72, 20.36 ± 3.28, 27.58 ± 4.09, and 41.62 ± 5.83 at 48 h in CON, CK, DDP, and CK + DDP groups, respectively. CK or DDP alone and their combination all could reduce the levels of N-cadherin, vimentin, p-Akt/Akt, and FN and elevate level of E-cadherin. Discussion and conclusion: Both CK and DDP can inhibit the proliferation, EMT, and induce the apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, which may be related to the PI3K/Akt pathway. In addition, the combination of CK with DDP can produce a better effect.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 10/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2015.1101142
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    ABSTRACT: Context: The main barrier for transdermal delivery is the obstacle property of the stratum corneum. Many types of chemical penetration enhancers have been used to breach the skin barrier; among the penetration enhancers, terpenes are found as the most highly advanced, safe, and proven category. Objective: In the present investigation, the terpenes anethole, menthone, and eugenol were used to enhance the permeation of valsartan through rat skin in vitro and their enhancement mechanism was investigated. Materials and methods: Skin permeation studies of valsartan across rat skin in the absence and the presence of terpenes at 1% w/v, 3% w/v, and 5% w/v in vehicle were carried out using the transdermal diffusion cell sampling system across rat skin and samples were withdrawn from the receptor compartment at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 24 h and analysed for drug content by the HPLC method. The mechanism of skin permeation enhancement of valsartan by terpenes treatment was evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results: All the investigated terpenes provided a significant (p < 0.01) enhancement in the valsartan flux at a concentration of 1%, and less so at 3% and 5%. The effectiveness of terpenes at 1% concentration was in the following order: anethole > menthone > eugenol with 4.4-, 4.0-, and 3.0-fold enhancement ratio over control, respectively. DSC study showed that the treatment of stratum corneum with anethole shifted endotherm down to lower melting point while FTIR studies revealed that anethole produced maximum decrease in peak height and area than other two terpenes. Conclusion: The investigated terpenes can be successfully used as potential enhancers for the enhancement of skin permeation of lipophilic drug.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 10/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2015.1100639
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Several plant-derived natural products have been used in clinical phase for applications in neurological, cardiovascular, and inflammatory diseases. Arbutus andrachne L. (Ericacea) is an evergreen shrub native to the Mediterranean region. Traditionally, the fruits and leaves of Arbutus tree are well known and used as antiseptics, diuretics, blood tonic, and laxatives. Objective: Data regarding the biological effects of compounds derived from the Lebanese Arbutus andrachne are not available. In the present work, we studied the antioxidant activity of methanol extracts of leaves, fruits, and roots of the plant against electrolysis; together with their effects on the cardiodynamics of isolated perfused rabbit hearts. Materials and methods: In vitro electrolysis of the different root, leaves, and fruits methanol extracts was evaluated by the amount of free radicals that has been reduced by increasing the concentration of root extracts ranging from 0.5 to 2 mg after 1, 2, 3, and 4 min. Left ventricular pressure (LVP), heart rate (HR), and coronary flow (CR) were investigated in isolated rabbit heart after administration of 0.5, 1, 2, and 2 mg of each methanol extracts plotted against time (0, 0.5, 1.5, 5, and 10 min), according to the Langendorff method. Lipid peroxidation study was performed by the colorimetric method on myocard tissue after incubation with 500 μl of the different methanol extracts. The amount of MDA was determined at 500 nm absorbance after 5 min incubation. Results: Among the different methanol extracts, the roots showed the highest in vitro antioxidant activity, particularly observed at concentration of 2 mg which completely inhibits free radical generation after 4 min. LVP decreases by 32% at the dose of 2 mg of root extracts after 5 min. No significant effect was observed by the three tested extracts on the heart rate. The three methanol extracts did not show any significant effect on the coronary flow. Moreover, the roots show an increase in the coronary flow at a concentration of 1 and 2 mg/ml during 1 min. Electrolysis on heart tissue treated with the roots extracts shows a decrease in the MDA level from 70.51 ± 6.71 to 48.58 ± 4.15 nmole/g of tissue. Discussion and conclusion: Methanol extracts of the roots possess antihypertensive effect that may result from its ability to decrease the LVP together with its protective role by inhibiting free radical generation and significantly decreasing the MDA level of heart tissue.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 10/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2015.1100638
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Thymoquinone (TQ), an active component of Nigella sativa L. (Ranunculaceae), possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties. Polycystic ovary syndrome exhibits chronic inflammatory behavior, thus might involve nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling and related molecular factors. Objective: The objective of the present study is to investigate and validate the effect of TQ in polycystic ovary (PCO) rat. Materials and methods: To validate the effect of TQ (1 µM/ml), NF-κB activation, COX2 (cyclooxygenase-2) expression and reactive oxygen species (ROS) induction were studied in the KK1 cell line. To evaluate the effect of TQ (2 mg/200 µl olive oil/rat; sc) with an in vivo system, ovulation rate, levels of key ovulation mediators, and ovarian gelatinases activity were compared in superovulated, PCO, and RU486 + TQ-treated Wistar rats. Results: In vitro studies showed that NF-κB nuclear translocation, COX2, and ROS expression were repressed via TQ supplementation in RU486-treated KK1 cells. Pretreatment of TQ in the PCO rat model induced significant restoration of normal physio-molecular behavior of ovary, such as reduced cysts formation, increased ovulation rate, and normalization of key ovarian factors [like TNF-α-stimulated gene/protein 6, hyaluronan, hyaluronan-binding protein 1, COX2, matrix metalloproteinases (membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase, MMP9 and MMP2)], tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2), and gelatinases (like MMP9 and -2) activity during follicular maturation. Discussion and conclusion: Overall, most of the above molecular changes are regulated via NF-κB pathway, thus TQ, due to its modulatory effect on the NF-κB signaling, could elevate normal ovarian phenotype and physiological function in the PCO model, indicating its remarkable potential as a remedy for rat PCO.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 10/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2015.1072565
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    ABSTRACT: Context: One traditional medicines, Hypericum perforatum L. (Hypericaceae), possesses several beneficial effects against depression, ulcers, dyspepsia, abdominal pains, burns, bacterial infections, migraine headaches, and sciatica. Objective: The present study investigates the antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extract (HP-EtOH) of H. perforatum and its sub-extracts, namely n-hexane (HP-hexane), chloroform (HP-CHCl3), ethyl acetate (HP-EtOAc), n-butanol (HP-n-BuOH), and water (HP-H2O) extracts, against Streptococcus mutans, S. sobrinus, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and methods: For the evaluation of the antimicrobial activity, flowering aerial parts of H. perforatum were extracted with EtOH and then this extract was fractionated to obtain five sub-extracts in different polarities. Antimicrobial activities of HP-EtOH and its sub-extracts against Streptococcus mutans, S. sobrinus, L. plantarum, and E. faecalis were assessed by using colorimetric micro-well dilution at concentration ranges of 64-0.5 μg/ml as well as resazurin microplate and modified microtiter-plate assays between the ranges of 100 and 0.78125 μg/ml. Results: According to the results of the present study, HP-H2O sub-extract displayed strong antibacterial activity (MIC values 8 μg/mL) against S. sobrinus and L. plantarum, and exerted moderate activity against S. mutans and E. faecalis at 32 and 16 μg/mL concentrations, respectively. Other sub-extracts also demonstrated antimicrobial activity against S. sobrinus at a concentration of 16 μg/mL. HP-EtOAc and HP-n-BuOH showed antimicrobial activity against L. plantarum and HP-EtOAc and HP-H2O were also active against E. faecalis at the same concentrations (16 μg/mL). Conclusion: According to the results, we suggest that H. perforatum could be employed as a natural antibacterial agent in oral care products.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 10/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2015.1102948
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Solenostemon monostachyus P. Beauv (Lamiaceae) is an important herb used traditionally in the treatment of malaria, fever, and other diseases. Objectives: Antiplasmodial and antipyretic activities of S. monostachyus aerial extract were evaluated to ascertain the folkloric claim of its antimalarial and antipyretic activities. Materials and methods: The extract (75-225 mg/kg) and fractions (chloroform and aqueous; 150 mg/kg) of S. monostachyus were investigated for suppressive, prophylactic, and curative antiplasmodial activities against chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium berghei infections in Swiss albino mice and for antipyretic activity against 2,4-dinitrophenol and yeast-induced pyrexia. Artesunate (5 mg/kg) and pyrimethamine (1.2 mg/kg) were used as positive controls for antiplasmodial models. Thin films made from tail blood of each mouse were used to assess the level of parasitaemia of the mice. Results: The extract/fractions progressively reduced parasitaemia induced by chloroquine sensitive P. berghei infection in prophylactic (28.48-71.72%), suppressive (12.52-72.47%), and curative (22.4-82.34%) models in mice. These reductions were statistically significant (p < 0.01-0.001). They also improved significantly (p < 0.01-0.001) the mean survival time (MST) from 12.26 to 25.63 d relative to control (11.36 d). The activities of extract/fractions were incomparable with that of the standard drugs used (artesunate and pyrimethamine). The extract exerted prominent inhibition of pyrexia on dinitrophenol (87.33-90.11%, 5 h) and yeast (56.22-65.33, 5 h) induced pyrexia. Inhibition was significant (p < 0.05-0.001) from 3 to 5 h post-administration of extract and in a dose-dependent fashion. Conclusion: The plant may possess antiplasmodial and antipyretic effects which may in part be mediated through the chemical constituents of the plant.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 10/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2015.1070880
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    ABSTRACT: Context: More analgesic compounds are needed in medicine against pain since the available drugs displayed secondary effects. Natural products are a source of molecules to develop new analgesics, using the information of plants, applied against pain, with effects such as pungency, tingling, and needle, due to their possible role in the central nervous system (NCS). Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae) leaves are usually bitten to flavor the mouth and possess this type effect in lips and tongues; due to this fact the structure of the bioctive compound could be the source of other types of analgesics. Objective: The objective of this study is to determine the causal agent of the pungent effect in mandarin essential oil. Materials and methods: Mandarin essential oil was obtained and then purified by column chromatography. Each fraction was tested and pungency was detected only in the first fraction which was pure. Results: The compound responsible for the pungency in the essential oils of leaves from Citrus reticulata (mandarin) was purified and the structure was assigned as methyl-N-methylanthranilate, on the basis of NMR 1D and 2D and MS. This substance corresponds to another type of molecule involving an antinociceptive effect. Conclusions: Terpenes are compounds found in essential oils. The compound responsible for the pungency of mandarin and other citrus leaves was isolated, and surprisingly it was identified as a methyl-N-methylanthranilate. This kind of molecules with this activity could be used to discover new analgesics in human therapy against pain.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 10/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2015.1044618
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Cipura paludosa Aubl. (Iridaceae) is widely used in folk medicine to treat several ailments. Experimental studies have confirmed its anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and neuroprotective effects. Objective: This study evaluates the possible antiproliferative potential of the crude methanol extract and three isolated compounds from the bulbs of C. paludosa. Materials and methods: Phytochemical analysis was carried out by conventional chromatographic techniques, and the resulting compounds were identified by NMR (1)H and (13)C. The antiproliferative activity was analysed using the sulforhodamine B assay. Results: Crude methanol extract of C. paludosa bulbs showed GI50 values of between 1.6 and 30.8 μg/mL. The naphthoquinone derivatives (eleutherine, isoeleutherine, and eleutherol) isolated from the bulbs of C. paludosa exhibited promising cytotoxicity against several human tumour cell lines, especially the two main compounds, eleutherine and isoeleutherine, against glioma and breast cancer cell lines, with TGI values of between 2.6 and 13.8 μg/mL. Conclusion: Cipura paludosa bulbs produce active principles with relevant antiproliferative potential, such as naphthoquinone derivatives, identified as eleutherine, isoeleutherine, and eleutherol. This is the first report indicating C. paludosa with antiproliferative potential.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 10/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2015.1091847
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    ABSTRACT: Context: The effect of 6-gingerol (6G), the bioactive component of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae), in the reduction of Vibrio cholerae (Vibrionaceae)-induced inflammation has not yet been reported. Objective: This study reports the anti-inflammatory effect of 6-gingerol against V. cholerae-induced inflammation in intestinal epithelial (Int 407) cells. Materials and methods: Cell viability assay was performed to determine the working concentration of 6G. Elisa and RT-PCR were performed with Int 407 cells treated with 50 mM 6G and 100 multiplicity of infection (MOI) V. cholerae for 0, 2, 3, 3.5, 6 and 8 h to determine the concentration of IL-8, IL-6, IL-1a and IL-1b in both protein and RNA levels. Furthermore, the effect of 50 mM 6G on upstream MAP-kinases and NF-jB signalling pathways was evaluated at 0, 10, 15, 30, 60 and 90 min. Results: The effective dose (ED50) value of 6G was found to be 50 mM as determined by cell viability assay. Pre-treatment with 50 mM 6G reduced V. cholerae infection-triggered levels of IL-8, IL-6, IL-1a and IL-1b by 3.2-fold in the protein level and two-fold in the RNA level at 3.5 h. The levels of MAPkinases signalling molecules like p38 and ERK1/2 were also reduced by two- and three-folds, respectively, after 30 min of treatment. Additionally, there was an increase in phosphorylated IkBa and down-regulation of p65 resulting in down-regulation of NF-jB pathway. Conclusion: Our results showed that 6G could modulate the anti-inflammatory responses triggered by V. cholerae-induced infection in intestinal epithelial cells by modulating NF-jB pathway.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 10/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2015.1110598.
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Xysmalobium undulatum (L.) Aiton f var. (Asclepiadaceae), commonly known as uzara, is an ethnomedicinally important plant from southern Africa used to treat a variety of ailments. In addition to local use in African Traditional Medicine (ATM), formulations containing uzara have been successfully marketed by a number of pharmaceutical companies. Despite its commercialization, published adequate quality control (QC) protocols are lacking. Objective: The study was conducted to develop QC protocols for uzara based on chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. Materials and methods: High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) were used to develop phytochemical fingerprints of ethanolic root extracts of 47 uzara samples collected from eight distinct localities in South Africa. Mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy was also explored as a suitable alternative technique for rapid and economic quantification of uzarin. Results: Adequate chromatographic profiles were obtained using both HPTLC and LC-MS analyses. The chromatographic patterns showed qualitative similarities among plants collected from different locations. The levels of uzarin, the major constituent of uzara, were highly variable between locations, ranging from 17.8 to 139.9 mg/g (dry weight). A good coefficient of determination (R(2 )= 0.939) and low root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP = 7.9 mg/g) confirmed the accuracy of using MIR-PLS calibration models for the quantification of uzarin. Discussion and conclusion: Both HPTLC and LC-MS can be used as tools in developing quality control procedures for uzara. MIR in combination with chemometrics provides a fast alternative method for the quantification of uzarin.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 10/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2015.1073335
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Fungal infections caused by fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans are an intractable clinical problem, calling for new efficient antifungal drugs. Kaempferol, an active flavonoid, has been considered a potential candidate against Candida species. Objective: This work investigates the resistance reversion of kaempferol in fluconazole-resistant C. albicans and the underlying mechanism. Materials and methods: The antifungal activities of fluconazole and/or kaempferol were assessed by a series of standard procedures including broth microdilution method, checkerboard assay and time-kill (T-K) test in nine clinical strains as well as a standard reference isolate of C. albicans. Subsequently, the morphological changes, the efflux of rhodamine 6G, and the expressions of CDR 1, CDR 2, and MDR 1 were analysed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), inverted fluorescence microscope and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in C. albicans z2003. Results: For all the tested C. albicans strains, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of fluconazole and kaempferol ranged 0.25-32 and 128-256 μg/mL with a range of fractional inhibitory concentration index of 0.257-0.531. In C. albicans z2003, the expression of both CDR 1 and CDR 2 were decreased after exposure to kaempferol alone with negligible rhodamine 6G accumulation, while the expression of CDR 1, CDR 2 and MDR 1 were all decreased when fluconazole and kaempferol were used concomitantly with notable fluorescence of rhodamine 6G observed. Discussion and conclusion: Kaempferol-induced reversion in fluconazole-resistant C. albicans might be likely due to the suppression of the expression of CDR1, CDR2 and MDR1.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 10/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2015.1091483
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Quercetin, a flavonoid, has been tried in traditional medicine for treating many disorders and reported to have inhibitory action on PI3 kinase. Objective: This study investigates the effect of quercetin on testosterone propionate induced polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) model, which shows both metabolic and endocrine features of PCOS. Materials and methods: Female pre-pubertal Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal control, PCOS control, quercetin, and metformin treated. PCOS was induced by testosterone propionate (10 mg/kg, s.c.) and treatments were carried out orally at the dose of 150 mg/kg from the 6th week. At the 6th and 10th week, blood was collected to investigate metabolic indices, and reproductive biochemical parameters including morphology of ovary, uterus, and estrous cyclicity were assessed. The ovaries were processed to determine CYP17A1 gene expression. Results: The treatment with quercetin did not modify body weight gain but uterine (296.7 ± 5.11 versus 263.0 ± 8.60 mg) and ovary weights (49.5 ± 1.93 versus 37.8 ± 3.43 mg) were found to be decreased significantly (p <0.05) as compared with the PCOS control group. The PCOS control group showed hyperinsulinemia, hyperandrogenemia, and dyslipidemia. Treatment with quercetin showed statistically significant (p <0.01) improvement in insulin (12.46 ± 0.3 versus 10.0 ± 0.28 μU/ml), testosterone (0.65 ± 0.02 versus 0.29 ± 0.02 μU/ml), luteinising hormone (20.6 ± 0.28 versus 15.1 ± 0.36 U/ml), and lipid profile. Histological examination of ovary and uterus confirmed the disease occurrence and remission state in the diseased and treated groups, respectively. Quercetin also demonstrated PI3 kinase inhibition in a docking study and decreased CYP17A1 gene expression. Discussion and conclusion: Thus, we can conclude that quercetin may have beneficial effect in PCOS by virtue of inhibition of PI3K which attributes to a decrease in the expression of CYP17A1 gene, having a key role in steroidogenesis.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 10/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2015.1091482
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Ganoderma triterpenoids (GTs) have been recognised as an important bioactive ingredient in Ganoderma Lucidum (Leyss. ex Fr.) Karst. (Polyporaceae), widely used for treating and preventing chronic hepatopathy of various etiologies. Objective: The objective of this study is to better understand the hepatoprotective effect of GTs and to enhance their use in food supplement pharmaceutical and medical industries. Materials and methods: HepG2 cells were pretreated in the presence or absence of GTs (50, 100 and 200 μg/ml) for 4 h, then exposed with 60 μmol/L of t-BHP for an additional 4 h. The cell viability was evaluated by MTT method. ALT, AST and LDH production in culture medium and intracellular MDA, GSH and SOD levels were determined. Moreover, the total triterpenoid content and chemical constituents in GTs were detected by ultraviolet spectrophotometry and HPLC/Q-TOF-MS, respectively. Results: GTs (50, 100 and 200 μg/ml) significantly increased the relative cell viability by 4.66, 7.78 and 13.46%, respectively, and reduced the level of ALT by 11.44%, 33.41% and 51.24%, AST by 10.05%, 15.63% and 33.64%, and LDH by 16.03%, 23.4% and 24.07% in culture medium, respectively. GTs could also remarkably decrease the level of MDA and increase the content of GSH and SOD in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, the total triterpenoid content in GTs was 438 mg GAAEs/g GTs. And 16 triterpenoids in GTs were identified or tentatively characterised. Discussion and conclusion: Our results showed that GTs had potent cytoprotective effect against oxidative damage induced by t-BHP in HepG2 cells, thus suggesting their potential use as liver protectant.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 10/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2015.1091481