Pharmaceutical Biology

Publisher: Informa Healthcare

Journal description

Current impact factor: 1.21

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2011 Impact Factor 0.878

Additional details

5-year impact 1.06
Cited half-life 5.80
Immediacy index 0.21
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.20
Other titles Pharmaceutical biology (Online)
ISSN 1744-5116
OCLC 42441900
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

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Informa Healthcare

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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Soybean and its fermented products are the most common source of isoflavones in human food. The present study quantifies the major glycosides and aglycones in soybean and its fermented product tempeh isoflavone extracts. The comparision of antioxidant effects and BACE1 inhibitory activity between the isoflavones of soybean and tempeh were also established. The major isoflavones such as daidzein and genistein (aglycones), and their sugar conjugates (glycosides) daidzin and genistin in soybean and tempeh isoflavones were quantified using HPLC analysis. Comparative studies on BACE 1 (β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 or β-secretase 1) inhibition and free-radical scavenging activities (diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferrous ion chelating ability) were conducted. The amount of actives (mg/100 g) in soybean isoflavone compared with tempeh isoflavone is as follows: daidzein 16.72 mg/100 g versus 38.91 mg/100 g, genistein 11.10 mg/100 g versus 24.03 mg/100 g, daidzin 6.16 mg/100 g versus 0.69 mg/100 g, and genistin 24.61 mg/100 g versus 6.57 mg/100 g. The IC50 values of soybean and tempeh isoflavones against BACE1 were 10.87 and 5.47 mg/ml, respectively. The tempeh isoflavone had a more potent DPPH free-radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 2.67 mg/ml) than the soybean isoflavone (IC50 = 10 mg/ml). The ferrous ion chelating ability of the isoflavones was practically similar (IC50 = 10.40 mg/ml, soybean and 11.13 mg/ml, tempeh). The present study indicates that tempeh is a healthy supplement to alleviate oxidative stress through the enrichment of aglycones.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 05/2015; 53(5):758-766. DOI:10.3109/13880209.2014.942791
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    ABSTRACT: Ultraviolet radiation (UV) was reported to cause oxidative stress. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae) calyx is commonly used in traditional Asian and African medicines and possesses strong antioxidant capacity due to its anthocyanin (ANTH) content. This study researched the possible protective role of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx extract (HSCE) in UVC exposure of rats. Levels of serum enzymes, renal function tests, and some oxidant/antioxidant biomarkers of skin, lens, and retina tissues were monitored. Rats were exposed to UVC 4 h daily for 40 d and simultaneously received HSCE containing 2.5, 5, and 10 mg doses of ANTH in drinking water. Significant (p < 0.05) increases in the levels of serum aminotransferases, lactate dehydrogenase, urea, creatinine, and uric acid were noted after UVC exposure. In skin, lens, and retina tissues, total oxidant status, oxidative stress index, lipid peroxidation, and protein oxidation escalated markedly (p < 0.05) whereas total antioxidant status, reduced glutathione, and superoxide dismutase decreased dramatically (p < 0.05) related to UVC. Co-administration of HSCE with each ANTH dose significantly (p < 0.05) reversed aforementioned parameters (except total oxidant status) almost in all tissues. The LD50 of HSCE in rats was determined to be above 5000 mg/kg. Our data revealed that HSCE has a remarkable potential to counteract UVC-caused impairments, probably through its antioxidant and free radical-defusing effects. Therefore, HSCE could be useful against some cutaneous and ocular diseases in which UV and oxidative stress have a role in the etiopathogenesis.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 03/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2014.980586
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: meso-Zeaxanthin (MZ) is a xanthophyll carotenoid with profound antioxidant activity. Objective: Oxidative stress plays a decisive role in numerous degenerative diseases including cancer. The present study evaluates anti-inflammatory effect of MZ. Materials and methods: Balb/c mice were treated with different doses of MZ (50 and 250 mg/kg b.wt, orally) 5 d before subcutaneous injection of carrageenan (1%), dextran (1%), and formalin (2%). Paw edema formation in MZ-treated and -untreated animals was measured using vernier calipers. Anti-inflammatory activity of MZ against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory model was studied by culturing macrophages in the presence and absence of LPS (5 μg/ml) and different concentrations of MZ (5, 10, and 25 μg/ml). After 24 h, the effect of MZ on pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in macrophages was analyzed by ELISA and its effect on various inflammatory genes was studied by RT-PCR. Results: MZ administration at different doses significantly (p < 0.001) inhibited paw edema induced by carrageenan, dextran, and formalin in mice. MZ also exhibited profound anti-inflammatory effect against LPS-induced inflammation in macrophages. Increased production of nitric oxide, C-reactive proteins, and various pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6) in LPS-stimulated macrophages was significantly reduced by MZ treatment. Moreover, LPS-stimulated up-regulated mRNA expression of various inflammatory mediator genes like COX-2, TNF-α, and iNOS was down-regulated by MZ administration. Discussion and conclusion: MZ has potent anti-inflammatory effect which can be due to its down-regulated expression of various inflammatory mediator genes. Since cancer is considered as an inflammatory disease, the present study points towards the importance of MZ in chemo-preventive strategy.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 03/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2014.950673
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: Vitex negundo Linn. (Verbenaceae) is traditionally used in hyperactive respiratory disorders. This study explored the mechanisms underlying the effectiveness of Vitex negundo in hyperactive respiratory disorders. Crude extract of V. negundo leaves was obtained. For in vivo bronchodilatory activity in anesthetized rats, different doses (1, 3, 10, 30, and 50 mg/kg) of the crude extract of V. negundo (Vn.Cr) were tested. The underlying mechanisms were studied in isolated guinea pig tracheal strips, suspended in organ baths at 37 °C. Intravenous doses of the crude extract of Vn.Cr showed dose-dependent bronchodilatory effect (9-50%) against carbachol (CCh; 100 µg/kg)-induced bronchoconstriction, similar to aminophylline. In isolated guinea-pig tracheal strips, Vn.Crrelaxed CCh (1 µM) and high K(+) pre-contractions with respective EC50 values of 0.72 (0.48-1.10; n = 5) and 3.38 mg/mL (1.84-6.21; n = 4), similar to papaverine. Diltiazem also relaxed both contractions with more potency against high K(+) pre-contraction (p < 0.05). Pre-incubation of the tracheal strips with Vn.Cr potentiated the isoprenaline inhibitory concentration response curves (CRCs), similar to papaverine. The inhibitory effect against CCh and high K(+) suggests involvement of phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitory pathway(s), in addition to an inhibitory effect on Ca(++) entry. This finding was further strengthened when pre-treatment of the tracheal strips potentiated the isoprenaline CRCs. RESULTS suggest Vn.Cr possesses a combination of papaverine-like PDE inhibitor and diltiazem-like Ca(++) entry blocking constituents, which partly explain its bronchodilatory effect, thus validating its medicinal importance in asthma.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 03/2015; 53(3):340-4. DOI:10.3109/13880209.2014.919327
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: Genistein, one of the isoflavones derived from soybean seeds, has been reported to exert multiple bioactivities. However, the mechanism of its action on the central nervous system is not fully understood. Objective: To investigate the cytoprotection of genistein and its molecular mechanism against H2O2-induced cell death in primary rat cortical neurons. Materials and methods: Genistein (0.01, 0.1, and 1 μM) were added into the primary rat neurons 24 h before and co-cultured with 500 μM H2O2 for 1 h. Neuronal injury was assessed by MTT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, and Hoechst33258 staining. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation induced by H2O2 was determined. Neuronal apoptosis was evaluated by Bcl-2/Bax ratio as well as by caspase-9 and caspase-3 activities. The protein levels and phosphorylation of NF-κB/p65, IκB, JNK, and ERK were detected by western blots. Results: Genistein pretreatment attenuated H2O2-mediated neuronal viability loss, nuclear condensation, and ROS generation in a concentration-dependent manner. Genistein exerted anti-apoptotic effects by reversing the apoptotic factors Bcl-2 and Bax ratio, along with the suppression of caspase-9 and caspase-3 activities. In addition, genistein down-regulated the expression of NF-κB/p65, and suppressed the phosphorylation of p65 and IκB. Genistein also inhibited H2O2-induced activation of the MAPK-signaling pathway including JNK and ERK. Discussion and conclusion: The results indicated that genistein effectively protects cortical neurons against oxidative stress at least partly via inactivation of NF-κB as well as MAPK-signaling pathways, and suggested the possibility of this antioxidant for the prevention and treatment of stroke.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 02/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2014.962057
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: The number of multidrug resistant (MDR) microorganisms is increasing and the antimicrobial resistance expressed by these pathogens is generating a rising global health crisis. In fact, there are only a few antimicrobial agents left that can be used against MDR bacteria and fungi. Objective: In this study, the antimicrobial activities of selected natural products from the flora of Northern Ontario against selected microorganisms are reported. Materials and methods: Plants were collected from Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada, and ethanol extracts were prepared using EtOH:H2O (1:1, v/v). Fungal cultures used in this study were Candida albicans ATCC 10231 and Schizosaccharomyces octosporus. Bacterial cultures employed included Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Mycobacterium phlei ATCC 11758, and Streptococcus lactis ATCC 19435. The microplate resazurin assay was used to screen for antimicrobial activity. Results: Extracts of four plant species Chimaphila umbellata L. (Pyrolaceae), Betula papyrifera Marshall (Betulaceae), Rhus typhina L. (Anacardiaceae), and Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall (Oleaceae), and six compounds (gallic acid, ethyl gallate, caffeic acid, sinapic acid, gentisic acid, and chlorogenic acid) demonstrated antibacterial or antifungal activities with MICs ranging from 62.5 to 1000 µg/mL, respectively, for a chemical fraction of an extract from Betula papyrifera against the bacterium S. aureus. Discussion and conclusion: The present study has shown that certain plant extracts and select fractions and standard chemical compounds exhibit antimicrobial effects. Prince's Pine, Chimaphila umbellate, White Birch, Betula papyrifera, Staghorn Sumac, Rhus typhina, and Green Ash, Fraxinus pennsylvanica were the principal extracts exhibiting notable antibacterial and/or antifungal activities; while gallic acid, ethyl gallate, and caffeic acid demonstrated antibacterial activities and sinapic acid, gentisic acid, and chlorogenic acid demonstrated antifungal activities.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 02/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2014.942867
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: Ostrich (Struthio camelus) egg possesses a high amount of food proteins and thus plays an important role in nutrition. Objective: Ostrich egg white proteins were hydrolyzed with pepsin and pancreatin to examine its antioxidant properties and further characterized the most active peptide. Materials and methods: Ostrich egg white protein hydrolysate (OEWPH) was fractionized using reversed phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The antioxidant activity of OEWPH and its HPLC fraction were investigated based on their scavenging capacity1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), superoxide ([Formula: see text]), hydroxyl (OH(•-)) radicals, and Cu(+2) chelating. In a wound healing assay, paravertebral excision (1 cm diameter) was made on the skin and the percentage of wound closure was measured at defined intervals (0, 3, 7, and 14 d). Results: A potent antioxidant peptide named DG-10 with the sequence DAESLSRLLG (MW: 1060.18 ± 0.5 Da) was identified from OEWPH. The peptide DG-10 showed DPPH (IC50 = 0.0085 mg/ml), ABTS(•+) (IC50 = 0.56 mg/ml), superoxide (IC50 = 0.36 mg/ml), and hydroxyl (IC50 = 0.4 mg/ml) radical scavenger and copper chelating activity (IC50 = 0.28 mg/ml). In vitro cultured HFLF-pI 5, the cell model, also revealed that DG-10 could protect HFLF-pI 5 cells against H2O2-treated necrosis. Ointment composed of DG-10 peptide exhibited wound-healing properties on adult rats (Wistar strain). The percentage of wound closure in peptide-treated group was 98% by day 14. Discussion and conclusion: Our results suggested that DG-10 is a natural agent obtained from ostrich egg possessing considerable antioxidant and wound-healing properties.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 02/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2014.962061
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: There is an ever-growing need to develop green, non-toxic, and eco-friendly procedures for synthesis and assembly of nanoparticles (NPs) with the desired morphologies and sizes. The hydroalcoholic extract of Persian oak leaves [Quercus brantii Lindl. (Fagaceae)] contains high content of phenolic and flavonoid compounds with strong antioxidant activities, and it seems that this plant can be considered a good candidate for metal nanoparticle synthesis. Objective: The potential of Q. brantii leaves in the production of silver NPs and the effect of the extract ethanol concentration on the produced NPs were studied. Materials and methods: Quercus brantii leaves were freshly collected, air-dried at room temperature, powdered, and sieved. Hydroalcoholic extracts (70% and 96%) were prepared by percolation of the plant powder. The reaction mixtures contained (final concentrations): AgNO3 (1 mM) as the substrate, plant extract as the biocatalyst, and phosphate buffer (pH = 7, 100 mM) as the reaction medium. Silver ions were determined using atomic absorption analysis. Particle size distribution of NPs was analyzed using Nano-Zeta Sizer (Malvern Instruments Ltd, Malvern, UK). Samples for TEM were prepared by drop-coating the silver nanoparticle suspensions onto carbon-coated copper grids. Results: Hydroalcoholic extract (96%) of Q. brantii successfully produced quite small (as small as 0.83 nm and the mean size of 6 nm), spherical, and poly-dispersed NPs with low aggregates. The conversion was fast and completed in 5 h. Discussion and conclusion: This plant and the extraction method seem to be quiet attractive for industrial scale production of NPs.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 02/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2014.942868
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: 3,4-Dihydroxyacetophenone (DHAP) has been reported to possess cardiovascular pharmacological effects. Objective: This study was designed to determine whether DHAP could improve endothelial function in obese rats. Materials and methods: Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, obesity, and DHAP groups and fed a normal, high-fat, and high-fat plus DHAP (10 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) diet, respectively, for 8 weeks. Endothelial-dependent vasodilatation was assessed. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and nitric oxide (NO) production in endothelial cells were determined. Nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-κB) expression and superoxide production in aorta were evaluated. Results: DHAP treatment significantly decreased plasma triglycerides (0.94 ± 0.31 mmol/l versus 1.36 ± 0.29 mmol/l, p < 0.05) and free fatty acids (0.53 ± 0.15 mmol/l versus 0.99 ± 0.24 mmol/l, p < 0.05), reduced serum tumor necrosis factor α (35.56 ± 9.28 pg/ml versus 68.3 ± 10.24 pg/ml, p < 0.05) and malondialdehyde (2.94 ± 0.58 pg/ml versus 6.45 ± 0.70 pg/ml, p < 0.05), and increased serum adiponectin levels (164.5 ± 34.5 μg/l versus 84.5 ± 20.4 μg/l, p < 0.05). DHAP enhanced endothelial-dependent vasodilatation and improved endothelial function in obese rats (p < 0.05). eNOS activity and NO production in endothelial cells significantly decreased and NF-κB activation and superoxide production in aorta significantly increased in obese rats compared with the control group (p < 0.05). However, DHAP treatment significantly up-regulated the eNOS-NO pathway and decreased NF-κB activation and superoxide production (p < 0.05). Conclusion: DHAP improved endothelial function in obese rats. This beneficial effect may be associated with up-regulation of the eNOS-NO pathway by improving lipid metabolism and reducing oxidative stress and inflammation activity.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 02/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2014.962060
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: Hyperlipidemia is known to be a major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) which include atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, and stroke. Although there are a large number of anti-hyperlipidemic drugs available, unfortunately, they all have side effects. Objective: Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae) is a plant used to treat cardiac disorders in the traditional Ayurveda medicine in India. The objective of this study was to assess the anti-hyperlipidemic properties of a methanol (MeOH) bark extract of T. chebula. Materials and methods: Acute toxicity studies were performed according to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guideline no. 423 using various doses (5, 50, 300, and 2000 mg/kg) of T. chebula bark. Anti-hyperlipidemic effect of MeOH bark extract of T. chebula at doses of 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg and fasting glucose levels after treatment with MeOH bark extract of T. chebula at doses of 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg were analyzed using commercially available kits. Results: Acute toxicity studies did not show any morbidity and mortality at various doses. The MeOH extract of T. chebula bark at doses of 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg significantly lowered serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Moreover, the extract of T. chebula and the positive control atorvastatin-treated groups of animals showed a significant increase in the serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic animals. Conclusion: The overall results confirm that the bark extract of T. chebula possesses significant anti-hyperlipidemic activity.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 01/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2014.962058
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: Thai/Lanna medicinal plant recipes have been used for the treatment of several diseases including oral and cervical cancers. Objective: To investigate anti-proliferative activity on human cervical (HeLa) and oral (KB) cancer cell lines of medicinal plants selected from Thai/Lanna medicinal plant recipe database "MANOSROI III". Materials and methods: Twenty-three methanolic plant crude extracts were tested for phytochemicals and anti-proliferative activity on HeLa and KB cell lines for 24 h by the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay at the doses of 1 × 10(1)-1 × 10(-6 )mg/ml. The nine extracts with the concentrations giving 50% growth inhibition (GI50) lower than 100 µg/ml were further semi-purified by liquid/liquid partition in order to evaluate and enhance the anti-proliferative potency. Results: All extracts contained steroids/triterpenoids, but not xanthones. The methanolic extracts of Gloriosa superba L. (Colchinaceae) root and Albizia chinensis (Osbeck) Merr. (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae) wood gave the highest anti-proliferative activity on HeLa and KB cell lines with the GI50 values of 0.91 (6.0- and 0.31-fold of cisplatin and doxorubicin) and 0.16 µg/ml (28.78- and 82.29-fold of cisplatin and doxorubicin), respectively. Hexane and methanol-water fractions of G. superba exhibited the highest anti-proliferative activity on HeLa and KB cell lines with the GI50 values of 0.15 (37- and 1.9-fold of cisplatin and doxorubicin) and 0.058 µg/ml (77.45- and 221.46-fold of cisplatin and doxorubicin), respectively. Discussion and conclusion: This study has demonstrated the potential of plants selected from MANOSROI III database especially G. superba and A. chinensis for further development as anti-oral and cervical cancer agents.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 01/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2014.959613
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: In Arabic folk medicine, the seeds of Phoenix dactylifera L. (Arecaceae) have been used to manage diabetes for many years. Few studies have reported the antidiabetic effect of P. dactylifera seeds; however, their effect on diabetic complications is still unexplored. Objective: The present study investigates the protective effect of P. dactylifera seeds against diabetic complications in rats. Material and methods: The aqueous suspension of P. dactylifera seeds (aqPDS) (1 g/kg/d) was orally administered to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats for 4 weeks. The serum biochemical parameters were assessed spectrophotometrically. Furthermore, oxidative stress was examined in both liver and kidney tissues by assessment of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), nitric oxide (NO), reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase, and catalase. Results: Oral administration of aqPDS significantly ameliorated the elevated levels of glucose (248 ± 42 versus 508 ± 60 mg/dl), urea (32 ± 3.3 versus 48.3 ± 5.6 mg/dl), creatinine (2.2 ± 0.35 versus 3.8 ± 0.37 mg/dl), ALT (29.6 ± 3.9 versus 46.4 ± 5.9 IU/l), and AST (73.3 ± 13 versus 127.8 ± 18.7 IU/l) compared with the untreated diabetic rats. In addition to significant augmentation in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, there was reduction in TBARS and NO levels and improvement of histopathological architecture of the liver and kidney of diabetic rats. Discussion and conclusion: The aqPDS showed potential protective effects against early diabetic complications of both liver and kidney. This effect may be explained by the antioxidant and free radical scavenging capabilities of P. dactylifera seeds.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 01/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2014.942790
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. (Labiatae) has been widely used for treating diabetes for centuries. Salvianolic acid B (SalB) is the main bioactive component in Salvia miltiorrhiza; however, its antidiabetic activity and possible mechanism are not yet clear. Objective: To investigate the effects of SalB on glycometabolism, lipid metabolism, insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and glycogen synthesis in type 2 diabetic rat model. Materials and methods: High-fat diet (HFD) and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were randomly divided into model group, SalB subgroups (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg), and rosiglitazone group. Results: Compared with the model group, SalB (100 and 200 mg/kg) significantly decreased blood glucose (by 23.8 and 21.7%; p < 0.05 and p < 0.01) and insulin (by 31.3 and 26.6%; p < 0.05), and increased insulin sensitivity index (by 10.9 and 9.3%; p < 0.05). They also significantly decreased total cholesterol (by 24.9 and 27.9%; p < 0.01), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (by 56.2 and 64.6%; p < 0.01), non-esterified fatty acids (by 32.1 and 37.9%; p < 0.01), hepatic glycogen (by 41.3 and 60.5%; p < 0.01), and muscle glycogen (by 33.2 and 38.6%; p < 0.05), and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (by 50.0 and 61.4%; p < 0.05 and p < 0.01), which were originally altered by HFD and streptozotocin. In addition, SalB (200 mg/kg) markedly decreased triglyceride and malondialdehyde (by 31.5 and 29.0%; p < 0.05 and p < 0.01), and increased superoxide dismutase (by 56.6%; p < 0.01), which were originally altered by HFD and streptozotocin. Discussion and conclusion: The results indicate that SalB can inhibit symptoms of diabetes mellitus in rats and these effects may partially be correlated with its insulin sensitivity, glycogen synthesis and antioxidant activities.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 01/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2014.959611
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: Effective drugs to treat osteoarthritis (OA) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are needed. Objective: To identify essential oils (EOs) with anti-inflammatory activity in cell models of OA and IBD. Materials and methods: EOs from Eryngium duriaei subsp. juresianum (M. Laínz) M. Laínz (Apiaceae), Laserpitium eliasii subsp. thalictrifolium Sennen & Pau (Apiaceae), Lavandula luisieri (Rozeira) Rivas-Martínez (Lamiaceae), Othantus maritimus (L.) Hoff. & Link (Asteraceae), and Thapsia villosa L. (Apiaceae) were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The anti-inflammatory activity of EOs (5-200 μg/mL) was evaluated by measuring inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation (total and phosphorylated IκB-α), in primary human chondrocytes and the intestinal cell line, C2BBe1, stimulated with interleukin-1β (IL-1β) or interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), respectively. Results: The EO of L. luisieri significantly reduced iNOS (by 54.9 and 81.0%, respectively) and phosphorylated IκB-α (by 87.4% and 62.3%, respectively) in both cell models. The EO of E. duriaei subsp. juresianum caused similar effects in human chondrocytes, but was inactive in intestinal cells, even at higher concentrations. The EOs of L. eliasii subsp. thalictrifolium and O. maritimus decreased iNOS expression by 45.2 ± 8.7% and 45.2 ± 6.2%, respectively, in C2BBe1 cells and were inactive in chondrocytes. The EO of T. villosa was inactive in both cell types. Discussion and conclusion: This is the first study showing anti-inflammatory effects of the EOs of L. luisieri and E. duriaei subsp. juresianum. These effects are specific of the cell type and may be valuable to develop new therapies or as sources of active compounds with improved efficacy and selectivity towards OA and IBD.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 01/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2014.970701