Pharmaceutical Biology Journal Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: Informa Healthcare

Journal description

Current impact factor: 1.34

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 1.337
2012 Impact Factor 1.206
2011 Impact Factor 0.878
2010 Impact Factor 0.638
2009 Impact Factor 0.672
2008 Impact Factor 0.488
2007 Impact Factor 0.364
2006 Impact Factor 0.397
2005 Impact Factor 0.394
2004 Impact Factor 0.441
2003 Impact Factor 0.413
2002 Impact Factor 0.262
2001 Impact Factor 0.312
2000 Impact Factor 0.132
1999 Impact Factor 0.164

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 1.06
Cited half-life 5.80
Immediacy index 0.21
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.20
Other titles Pharmaceutical biology (Online)
ISSN 1744-5116
OCLC 42441900
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Informa Healthcare

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 months embargo
  • Conditions
    • On author's personal website or institution website
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged
    • On a non-profit server
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • NIH funded authors may post articles to PubMed Central for release 12 months after publication
    • Wellcome Trust authors may deposit in Europe PMC after 6 months
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The antidiabetic drug metformin exhibits antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects in various cells, suggesting its potential to treat a variety of malignant and non-malignant hyperplastic diseases. Clinical studies indicate that psoriasis patients with metformin treatment have a better response than those without metformin. The present study evaluates the antiproliferative activity and anti-inflammatory responses of metformin in human keratinocytes in vitro and explores the underlying mechanisms. HaCaT cells were incubated with metformin at 0, 25, 50, and 100 mM for 48 h. Antiproliferative activity was evaluated by MTT and apoptotic response was examined by flow cytometry. ELISA was used to detect IL-6, TNF-α, and VEGF protein expression. Western blot was used to investigate the expression of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and its downstream effectors p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K). The survival rates of HaCaT cells treated with metformin at 50 mM were reduced to 75.6, 59.4, and 30.3% at 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. The number of apoptotic HaCaT cells was significantly increased at 50 mM metformin after 48 h treatment. Metformin can exert an anti-inflammatory effect by direct inhibition of IL-6, TNF-α, and VEGF. Metformin at 50 mM significantly reduced the phosphorylation of mTOR and p70S6K, by 49.0 and 62.1%, respectively. Metformin treatment significantly inhibited proliferation and proinflammatory responses in HaCaT cells by a mechanism associated with inhibition of the mTOR signaling pathway. The results indicate that metformin may be used as a potential therapeutic agent for psoriasis.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 08/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2015.1057652
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    ABSTRACT: Curcumol has recently attracted special attention due to its potential activities in many chronic disorders. Moreover, the traditional role of turmeric [Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae)] in suppression of hyperglycemia is of great interest. The present work explores the potential acute and subchronic antihyperglycemic, antinociceptive, and in vivo antioxidant effects of curcumol in alloxan-diabetic mice. Bio-guided fractionation, column-chromatography, and GC-MS were utilized to identify the most active compound of turmeric (curcumol). Turmeric (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg), the curcumol rich fraction (CRF) (7 mg/kg), and curcumol (20, 30, and 40 mg/kg) were assessed for their acute (6 h) and subchronic (8 d) antihyperglycemic potentials and antinociceptive effects (8 weeks) were measured, using hot-plate and tail-flick latencies and von-Frey filaments method and in vivo antioxidant effects in alloxan-diabetic mice. The most-active turmeric fraction was found to be rich in curcumol (45.5%) using GC-MS analysis method. The results proved that the highest dose levels of turmeric extract and curcumol exerted remarkable hypoglycemic activity with 41.4 and 39.3% drop in the mice glucose levels after 6 h, respectively. Curcumol (40 mg/kg) was found to be 9.4% more potent than turmeric extract (100 mg/kg) in subchronic management of diabetes. Curcumol also showed a significant improvement of peripheral nerve function as observed from the latency and tactile tests. The antioxidant potential of curcumol may cause its ability to ameliorate diabetes and diabetes-related complications. Curcumol, a natural metabolite with a good safety-profile, showed results comparable with tramadol in reversing diabetes-induced tactile allodynia and hyperalgesia.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 08/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Ischemia/hypoxia and reperfusion impair mitochondria and produce a large amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which lead to mitochondrial and brain damage. Furthermore, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) as a cytoprotective gene protects cells against ROS-induced cell death in ischemia-reperfusion injury. Induction of HO-1 is involved in cytoprotective effects of taxol. We hypothesize that taxol protects cardiac myocytes possibly by preserving myocardial mitochondrial function and inducing HO-1 expression through the JNK pathway. In this project, the perfused Langendorff hearts isolated from rats were randomly divided into five groups: control, ischemic, ischemic + taxol (0.1 μM), ischemic + taxol (0.3 μM), and ischemic + taxol (1 μM). Briefly, following a 15 min equilibration period, the control group was subject to normoxic perfusion for 120 min; the ischemia group, normoxic reperfusion for 120 min after 30 min ischemia; the taxol groups, normoxic reperfusion for 120 min after 30-min ischemia with taxol (0.1, 0.3, or 1 μM). The microtubule disruption score, ROS levels, and the activity of mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes I and III were examined by using immunohistochemical methods and free radical detection kits. Western blot assay was employed to study the underlying mechanisms. After Taxol treatment (0.1 µM), the ischemic microtubule disruption score was reduced to 9.8 ± 1.9%. The study revealed that 0.1, 0.3, and 1 μM taxol reduced the level of ROS by 33, 46 and 51%, respectively (p < 0.05). In additional, 0.3 and 1 μM taxol dramatically increased the activity of mitochondrial electron transport chain complex I (99.11 ± 2.59, 103.49 ± 3.89) and mitochondrial electron transport chain complex III (877.82 ± 12.08; 907.42 ± 16.21; 914.73 ± 19.39, *p < 0.05). Additionally, phosphorylation levels of JNK1 were significantly increased in the taxol group. Furthermore, the expression level of HO-1 increased with taxol treatments, which could be inhibited by the specific inhibitor of JNK, SP600125. Taxol stabilized microtubules and effectively reduced ROS levels during ischemia. It also preserved the activity of mitochondrial complexes I and III. Interestingly, taxol induced the expression of HO-1 via the JNK pathway in cardiac myocytes.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 08/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract CONTEXT: During diabetes mellitus, non-enzymatic reaction between amino groups of protein and carbonyl of reducing sugars (Millard reaction) is responsible for the major diabetic complications. Various efforts have been made to influence the process of protein glycation. OBJECTIVES: This review article provides an extensive survey of various studies published in scientific literature to understand the process of protein glycation and its measurement. Moreover, evaluation and identification of potential inhibitors (antiglycation agents) of protein glycation from natural and synthetic sources and their mechanism of action in vitro and in vivo are also addressed. METHOD: In this review article, the mechanism involved in the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is discussed, while in second and third parts, promising antiglycation agents of natural and synthetic sources have been reviewed, respectively. Finally, in vivo studies have been addressed. This review is mainly compiled from important databases such as Science, Direct, Chemical Abstracts, SciFinder, and PubMed. RESULTS: During the last two decades, various attempts have been made to inhibit the process of protein glycation. New potent inhibitors of protein glycation belonging to different classes such as flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenes, benzenediol Schiff bases, substituted indol, and thio compounds have been identified. CONCLUSION: Antiglycation therapy will be an effective strategy in future to prevent the formation of AGEs for the management of late diabetic complications Current review article highlighted various compounds of natural and synthetic origins identified previously to inhibit the protein glycation and formation of AGEs in vitro and in vivo. KEYWORDS: Advanced glycation end products; antiglycation activity; hyperglycemia; protein glycation; reducing sugars
    Pharmaceutical Biology 08/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: The nephron-protective efficacy of Abelmoschus manihot (Linn.) Medicus (Malvaceae) has been proved by randomized controlled clinical trial. Flavonoids are main active components of A. manihot, which can be transformed into glucuronide/sulfate conjugates in vivo. Exploring the pharmacokinetic profile of these conjugates is necessary to further elucidate the mechanism of action. Flavonoid fraction of A. manihot (FFA) was extracted from A. manihot flower with ethanol. FFA (400 mg/kg) was orally given to normal rats and chronic kidney disease (CKD) model rats. Blood samples were collected at 5, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 240, 360, and 720 min after administration. The plasma concentrations of quercetin and isorhamnetin glucuronide/sulfate conjugates were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. In normal rats, AUC of quercetin-glucuronide conjugates, isorhamnetin-glucuronide conjugates, quercetin-sulfate conjugates, and isorhamnetin-sulfate conjugates was 459.45 ± 192.70, 1153.01 ± 697.04, 417.81 ± 220.31, and 2475.19 ± 1085.22 μmol h/L, respectively. While AUC of quercetin and isorhamnetin was 5.47 ± 2.54 and 30.73 ± 25.95 μmol h/L. AUC of the glucuronide-sulfate conjugates of quercetin and isorhamnetin is 125-times higher than that of aglycone (quercetin and isorhamnetin), showing that glucuronide/sulfate conjugates represent the major circulating forms of A. manihot flavonoid in vivo. AUC of isorhamnetin-glucuronide conjugates and quercetin-sulfate conjugates was 719.65 ± 619.22 and 275.49 ± 1 60.95 μmol h/L, indicating that less conjugated metabolites were formed in CKD rats compared with normal rats. The ratio of AUCglucuronide/sulfate/AUCaglycone decreased from 125 to 104, which implied the impaired phase II metabolism ability in CKD rat. Glucuronide-sulfate conjugates provide an important clue for further elucidating the activity of conjugated metabolites and their relationship with the nephroprotective efficacy of A. manihot. It is necessary to take caution when extrapolating pharmacokinetics parameters from healthy animals in designing pharmacological studies.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 07/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2015.1068337
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    ABSTRACT: Medicinal plants have been recognized as useful remedies for primary health care. Accordingly, Cucurbita pepo L. (Cucurbitaceae) (pumpkin) and Linum usitatissimum (L.) Griesb. (Linaceae) (linseed) which have extracted oil with prominent pharmacological properties are investigated as possible burn healing treatments. The present study assesses the healing potential of pumpkin and linseed extracted oils on rats. Uniform deep second-degree burns were induced on the dorsum of 24 rats, randomly divided into four groups. The burns were measured, photographed, and topically treated with saline solution, "Cytol Centella®", pumpkin, and linseed-extracted oils (0.52 µl/mm(2) of oil) each 2 d (up until day 33). Post-burning of the 33rd day, biopsies were histologically assessed. At the end of the experiment, the rat groups treated with linseed, pumpkin oils, and "Cytol Centella®" had higher percentage of wound contraction (98.68, 96.71, and 92.54%, respectively) than the control group (58.38%). Wound biopsies from rats treated with extracted oils showed the best tissue regeneration proprieties as compared with the other groups. The histomorphometric analysis of biopsies revealed that linseed oil could significantly stimulate angiogenesis (55.6% ± 7.25). The pumpkin oil, and Cytol Centella® could significantly increase the collagen production 64.9% ± 5.94, and 61.2% ± 7.36, respectively. Overall, our study has given for the first time scientific evidence of the healing efficiency of pumpkin and linseed oils on burn-wounds.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 07/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2015.1067233
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    ABSTRACT: Patrinia villosa (Thunb.) Juss (Valerianaceae) is an important ancient herbal medicine widely used for inflammation, wound healing, and abdominal pain. But little is known of the phytochemical constituents of this herbal plant. The objective of this study is to isolate and identify the bioactive components from P. villosa. A 70% EtOH extract of P. villosa was subjected to normal-phase silica, ODS silica gel column chromatography, and semi-preparative HPLC chromatography after partitioned successively with light petroleum, dichloromethane and n-BuOH. Chemical structures of the compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including UV, 1D-NMR, 2D-NMR, HR-ESI-MS, and CD spectra. The cytotoxic activity of the new component was determined with the SMMC-7721 cell line using the MTT method after incubation for 48 h. A new flavonoid named patriniaflavanone A (1) along with four known compounds was isolated from P. villosa. The four known compounds were identified as luteolin 7-O-glucuronide-6″-methyl ester (2), p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid methyl ester (3), trans-caffeic acid (4), and trans-caffeic acid methylate (5) by comparison of their spectral data with the reported data. The IC50 value of patriniaflavanone A (1) on SMMC-7721 was 61.27 μM. This is the first report on the isolation and identification of patriniaflavanone A (1), and compounds 2-5 were isolated for the first time from the title plant. Patriniaflavanone A (1) exhibited moderate cytotoxic activity.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 07/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2015.1064449
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    ABSTRACT: Euphorbia hirta L. (Euphorbiaceae) has been used as a folk remedy in Southeast Asia for the treatment of various ailments. The current study evaluates the cytotoxicity, cell-cycle arrest, and apoptotic induction by E. hirta in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Cytotoxic activity of methanol extract of whole part of E. hirta was determined by the MTT assay at various concentrations ranging from 1.96 to 250.00 µg/mL in MCF-7 cells. Cell morphology was assessed by light and fluorescence microscopy. Apoptosis and cell-cycle distribution were determined by annexin V staining and flow cytometry. DNA fragmentation, caspase activity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays were performed using the commercially available kits. To identify the cytotoxic fraction, E. hirta extract was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation. Euphorbia hirta exhibited significant inhibition of the survival of MCF-7 cells and the half inhibitory concentration (IC50) values was 25.26 µg/mL at 24 h. Microscopic studies showed that E. hirta-treated cells exhibited marked morphological features characteristic of apoptosis. Euphorbia hirta extract also had an ignorable influence on the LDH leakage and generating intracellular ROS. The flow cytometry study confirmed that E. hirta extract induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. Euphorbia hirta also resulted in DNA fragmentation in MCF-7 cells. Moreover, E. hirta treatment resulted in the accumulation of cells at the S and G2/M phases as well as apoptosis. The caspase activity study revealed that E. hirta extract induced apoptosis through the caspase-3-independent pathway by the activation of caspase-2, 6, 8, and 9. Euphorbia hirta hexane fraction, namely HFsub4 fraction, demonstrated highest activity among all the fractions tested with an IC50 value of 10.01 µg/mL at 24 h. This study revealed that E. hirta induced apoptotic cell death and suggests that E. hirta could be used as an apoptosis-inducing anticancer agent for breast cancer treatment with further detailed studies.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 07/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2015.1064451
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    ABSTRACT: Gleditsia triacanthos L. (Leguminosae) pods are used in folk medicine for pain relief as anodyne and narcotic. The objective of this study is to evaluate analgesic activity of Gleditsia triacanthos methanolic fruit extract (MEGT) and its saponin-containing fraction (SFGT). Peripheral analgesic activity was assessed using the acetic acid-induced writhing model in mice at doses of 140, 280, and 560 mg/kg and formalin test in rats at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg doses. Central analgesic activity was evaluated using the hotplate method in rats (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg). In the writhing test, six mice groups treated with MEGT and SFGT found ED50 values 268.2 and 161.2 mg/kg, respectively, displayed a significant decrease in writhing count compared with the group treated with standard drug indomethacin (14 mg/kg). SFGT (280 and 560 mg/kg) showed 64.94 and 70.78% protection, respectively, which are more than double % protection caused by indomethacin (31.82%). In the formalin test, MEGT and SFGT (ED50 values 287.6 and 283.4 mg/kg for phase I as well as 295.1 and 290.4 mg/kg for phase II, respectively) at 400 mg/kg showed significant % inhibition in both phase I (18.86 and 52.57%) and phase II (39.36 and 44.29%) with reference to 10 mg/kg indomethacin (56.0 and 32.29%). MEGT and SFGT caused significant delay in responses in hotplate model (ED50 values 155.4 and 200.6 mg/kg, respectively) compared with that of 10 mg/kg indomethacin at 30, 60, and 120 min. Central and peripheral analgesic activities induced by Gleditsia triacanthos fruits might account for its uses in folk medicine.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 07/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2015.1064450
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Musca domestica Linn. maggot is a traditional Chinese medicine. In our previous studies, Musca domestica maggot protein-enriched fraction and polypeptide extract (molecular weight <30 kD) were found to reverse endothelial cell dysfunction in atherosclerotic lesions. Objective: This study determines whether and how M. domestica maggot polypeptide extract affects the dysfunction of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) induced by macrophages (Mφ). Materials and methods: HUVEC and early-activated THP-1 Mφ (incubated with LPS of 1 μg/ml for 2 h) were co-cultured in a Transwell system. The effects of Musca domestica maggot polypeptide extract (with increasing concentrations, i.e., 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 20.0, and 40.0 µg/ml) on the proliferation and migration HUVEC and their secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were determined by flow cytometry, modified Boyden chamber assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) after incubation for 24 h. Results: Musca domestica maggot polypeptide extract decreased the proliferation of HUVEC in a concentration-dependent manner, with a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of 22.16 ± 1.48 µg/ml, and effectively inhibited HUVEC migration (EC50 = 35.15 ± 2.03 µg/ml) and VEGF secretion (EC50 = 28.64 ± 1.29 µg/ml). Discussion and conclusion: Musca domestica maggot polypeptide extract can inhibit the dysfunction of HUVEC induced by early-activated THP-1 Mφ.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 07/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2015.1060506
  • Pharmaceutical Biology 07/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2015.1058399
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    ABSTRACT: TGF-β plays a central role in hypertrophic scar (HS) formation and development. This study investigated the role of a TGF-β antagonist peptide in inhibiting fibrotic behavior of human HS-derived fibroblasts (HSFs). HSFs were seeded at a density of 3.1 × 10(4)/cm(2) and were subjected to treatment of peptide antagonist (30 μM) or TGF-β receptor inhibitor LY2109761 (10 μM) or without treatment followed by the analyses of quantitative PCR, Elisa, in vitro wounding and fibroblast-populated collagen lattice (FPCL) assays. qPCR and Elisa analyses showed that the peptide could, respectively, reduce the gene (at 48 h) and protein (at 72 h) expression levels of collagen I (86 ± 4.8%; 56.6 ± 7.3%), collagen III (73 ± 10.7%; 43.7 ± 7.2%), fibronectin (90 ± 8.9%; 21.1 ± 2.8%), and TGF-β1 (85 ± 9.3%; 25.0 ± 9.4%) as opposed to the non-treated group (p < 0.05), as the LY2109761 group similarly did. Cell proliferation was also significantly inhibited at day 5 (CCK-8 assay) by both peptide and LY2109761 treatments compared with the non-treated group (p < 0.05). The peptide also significantly inhibited cell migration as opposed to blank control at 24 h (43 ± 6.7% versus 60 ± 2.1%, p < 0.05) and at 48 h (63.9 ± 3.1% versus 95 ± 4.1%, p < 0.05). Similar to LY2109761, the peptide antagonist significantly reduced HS FPCL contraction compared with the non-treated group with significant differences in surface area at 48 h (0.71 ± 0.06 cm(2) versus 0.51 ± 0.06 cm(2), p < 0.05) and at 72 h (0.65 ± 0.02 cm(2) versus 0.42 ± 0.01 cm(2), p < 0.05). The TGF-β antagonist peptide may serve as an important drug for HS prevention and reduction given the obvious benefits of good biosafety, low cost, and easy manufacture and delivery.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 07/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2015.1059862
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    ABSTRACT: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease. Resveratrol (RSV) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) are safe representatives of natural and synthetic antioxidants, respectively. The objective of this study was to evaluate protective effects of RSV and NAC, compared with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), on experimental NAFLD. NAFLD was induced by feeding rats a methionine choline-deficient diet (MCDD) for four cycles, each of 4 d of MCDD feeding and 3 d of fasting. Animals were divided into normal control, steatosis control, and five treatment groups, receiving UDCA (25 mg/kg/d), RSV (10 mg/kg/d), NAC (20 mg/kg/d), UDCA + RSV, and UDCA + NAC orally for 28 d. Liver integrity markers (liver index and serum transaminases), serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), glucose, albumin, renal functions (urea, creatinine), lipid profile (total cholesterol; TC, triglycerides, high density lipoproteins, low density lipoproteins; LDL-C, very low density lipoproteins, leptin), and oxidative stress markers (hepatic malondialdehyde; MDA, glutathione; GSH, glutathione-S-transferase; GST) were measured using automatic analyzer, colorimetric kits, and ELISA kits, supported by a liver histopathological study. RSV and NAC administration significantly improved liver index (RSV only), alanine transaminase (52, 52%), TNF-α (70, 70%), glucose (69, 80%), albumin (122, 114%), MDA (55, 63%), GSH (160, 152%), GST (84, 84%), TC (86, 86%), LDL-C (83, 81%), and leptin (59, 70%) levels compared with steatosis control values. A combination of RSV or NAC with UDCA seems to ameliorate their effects. RSV and NAC are effective on NAFLD through antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and lipid-lowering potentials, where as RSV seems better than UDCA or NAC.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 07/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2015.1060247
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    ABSTRACT: Curcumin is a polyphenolic compound extracted from rhizomes of the tropical plant Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae) and it has antitumor, antioxidative, and anti-inflammatory effects. However, its effects on leukemia cell proliferation and invasion are not clear. This study investigates the effects of curcumin on acute monocytic leukemia SHI-1 cells at the molecular level. The effects of SHI-1 cells treated with 6.25-25 μM curcumin for 12-48 h were measured by MTT assay, flow cytometry, and Matrigel transwell assay; the underlying molecular mechanisms were assessed by quantitative PCR, Western blotting, and gelatin zymography. Treatment of SHI-1 cells with curcumin inhibited cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and the IC50 values at 12, 24, and 48 h were 32.40, 14.13, and 9.67 μM. Curcumin inhibited SHI-1 cell proliferation by arresting the cells in the S-phase, increasing the number of Annexin V-FITC(+)/PI(-) cells and promoting the loss of △Ψm. The results of PCR and Western blotting showed that curcumin increased the FasL mRNA level; inhibited Bcl-2, NF-κB, and ERK expression; and activated P38 MAPK, JNK, and caspase-3. Additionally, curcumin partially suppressed SHI-1 cell invasion and attenuated the mRNA transcription and secretion of MMP-2 and MMP-9. This study demonstrates that curcumin not only induces SHI-1 cell apoptosis, possibly via both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways triggered by JNK, P38 MAPK and ERK signaling, but also partially suppresses SHI-1 cell invasion, likely by reducing the levels of transcription and secretion of MMP-2 and MMP-9.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 07/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2015.1060508
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    ABSTRACT: Dichapetalum filicaule Breteler (Dichapetalaceae) is a rare species occurring only in Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana. Although research on several species of the genus has produced interesting bioactive compounds, particularly the Dichapetalins, a novel class of triterpenoids with antineoplastic properties, there is virtually no information on the ethnobotanical uses and chemical constituents of D. filicaule. The phytochemical and anthelminthic activities of the constituents of D. filicaule were investigated. Chemical constituents of the petroleum ether, chloroform-acetone, and methanol root extracts of D. filicaule were isolated by column chromatography and characterized by their physico-chemical properties, 1-D and 2-D NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. In vitro anthelminthic activity of the extracts and compounds against the human hookworm, Necator americanus, Stiles 1902 (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) was determined within a concentration range of 2500-250 μg/ml using the Egg Hatch Inhibition (EHI) Assay. The hookworm species were identified using a published polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. A new dichapetalin, dichapetalin X (1), together with the known dichapetalin A (2), pomolic acid (3), glycerol monostearate (4), D:A-friedooleanan-3β-ol (5), and D:A-friedooleanan-3-one (6) were isolated. Compounds 1, 2, and 4 exhibited EHI with IC50 values of 523.2, 162.4, and 306.0 μg/ml, respectively, against the hookworm. The positive control albendazole gave an IC50 value of 93.27 μg/ml. This is the first report of the phytochemical investigation of D. filicaule. The study has yielded a new dichapetalin and also demonstrated the potential anthelminthic properties of the constituents.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 06/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2015.1059861
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    ABSTRACT: Natural products are good sources of natural dietary antioxidants that are believed to protect the body against hepatotoxic effect induced by oxidative stress. Hedyotis diffusa Willd (Rubiaceae) (HDW) is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb that has been shown to possess a variety of antioxidant properties. The present study examines and explains the cell protective property of HDW water extract (WEHDW). 2,2-Diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) hydrazyl (DPPH) assay was used to measure the free radical scavenging property of WEHDW (0.001-10 mg/mL). The protective effect of WEHDW (0.3-10 mg/mL 2 h pretreatment) against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, 200 μM for 6 h) induced cytotoxicity in human hepatic cells, LO2, was evaluated using cell viability assay and nuclear staining. The molecular pathway of WEHDW's effect was investigated by using Western blot assay. WEHDW had a 50% scavenging concentration (SC50) at 0.153 mg/mL in the DPPH assay. Exposure of LO2 cells to H2O2 resulted in apoptosis which could be markedly attenuated by pre-treating WEHDW in a concentration-dependent manner (0.5, 1, 3, 5, or 10 mg/mL) (all with p < 0.001, versus control). Moreover, Hoechst (nuclear) staining showed that 1 mg/mL WEHDW could protect LO2 cells by attenuating apoptotic cell death mediated by H2O2. It was found that WEHDW reversed H2O2-induced activation of MEK/ERK pathway and H2O2-induced inhibition of P13-K/AKT/GSK3β pathway in LO2 cells. WEHDW may help to improve the antioxidant defense system, resulting in prevention of oxidative stress-related fatty liver diseases.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 06/2015; DOI:10.3109/13880209.2015.1056310