Pharmaceutical Biology

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

Description

  • Impact factor
    1.21
  • 5-year impact
    1.06
  • Cited half-life
    5.80
  • Immediacy index
    0.21
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.20
  • Other titles
    Pharmaceutical biology (Online)
  • ISSN
    1744-5116
  • OCLC
    42441900
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

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Taylor & Francis

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Publications in this journal

  • Gurpreet Kaur, Neetu Singh, Sheeba S. Samuel, Himangshu K. Bora, Sharad Sharma, Shakti Deep Pachauri, Anil K. Dwivedi, Hefazat H. Siddiqui, Kashif Hanif
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Withania somnifera (Linn.) Dunal (Solanaceae), a clinically used herbal drug in Ayurveda, shows potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, pro-apoptotic, and cardioprotective effects. However, the efficacy of W. somnifera in pulmonary hypertension (PH), a cardiopulmonary disorder, remains unexplored. Objective: The present study investigates the effect of W. somnifera root powder on monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PH in rats. Materials and methods: In preventive studies, W. somnifera root powder (50 and 100 mg/kg/d, p.o.) was administered from day 1 following single administration of MCT (60 mg/kg, s.c.) in Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats. After 35 d, right ventricular pressure (RVP) was measured in anesthetized rats. Various physical markers of right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) were measured in isolated hearts. Markers of endothelial function, inflammation, and oxidative stress were estimated in lung homogenate. Vasoreactivity of pulmonary arteries was also studied. In therapeutic treatment, W. somnifera (50 and 100 mg/kg/d, p.o.) was administered from day 21 to 35 post-MCT administration. Results: Preventive treatment with 50 and 100 mg/kg W. somnifera significantly reduced the RVP (32.18 ± 1.273 mm Hg and 29.98 ± 1.119 mm Hg, respectively, versus 42.96 ± 1.789 mm Hg of MCT) and all markers of RVH in MCT-challenged rats. There was an improvement in inflammation, oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction, and attenuation of proliferative marker and apoptotic resistance in lungs. Therapeutic treatment with W. somnifera (100 mg/kg) also reduced RVP and RVH. Discussion: This study demonstrated that W. somnifera significantly protected against MCT-induced PH due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, pro-apoptotic, and cardioprotective properties.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 09/2014;
  • Meenu Katoch, Anamika Khajuria, P. R. Sharma, Ajit Kumar Saxena
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    ABSTRACT: Context: For years, natural products from microbes have been used as drugs. Endophytes are the most important fungi that produce many novel metabolites for potential use in pharmacology and agriculture. Objective: The objective of the present study was to explore new endophytes for novel natural products. Materials and methods: An endophyte BAK-I was isolated from the bark of Kigelia africana (Lam.) Beneth (Bignoniaceae). BAK-I was characterized morphologically and on the basis of ITS-5.8S rDNA sequences. BAK-I was fermented to yield an extract, which was evaluated for its anticancer, antimicrobial, and immunomodulatory activities, using MTT, agar well-diffusion, tube dilution method, lymphocyte proliferation, and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α) (by macrophages) evaluation assays. For lymphocyte proliferation and pro-inflammatory cytokines studies, four concentrations were evaluated 10, 30, 100, and 1000 µg/mL and the experiments were conducted for 72 and 48 h, respectively. Results and discussion: The BAK-I showed pink cottony growth. SEM studies showed smooth fusoid-oblong conidia with a truncated base. Furthermore, ITS-5.8S rDNA sequence showed 99% homology with the Botryosphaeria dothidea strain suggesting that the endophyte is a strain of the genus Botryosphaeria. Less than 50% growth inhibition of SF295, Lung A-549, and THP-1 cancer cell lines after treatment with BAK-I extract suggested that it did not have significant cytotoxic potential, whereas it is bactericidal for Gram-positive pathogens MRSA and VRE with MIC value 200 and 250 µg/mL, respectively. To elucidate its immunomodulation potential, splenocyte proliferation studies showed that BAK-1 suppressed the T cell proliferation by 50%. TNF-α evaluation studies also showed that the extract inhibited TNF-α production in a concentration-dependent manner suggesting that it had immunosuppressive potential. Inhibition at 10 µg/mL was found to be 55% as against 48% using β-methasone. Conclusion: The results suggested that BAK-I extract can be used as a potential immunosuppressive agent.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Atorvastatin is a member of the drug class known as statins, which is used for lowering blood cholesterol. Objective: The present study investigates the effect and mechanism of atorvastatin on neointimal hyperplasia after carotid artery injury (CAI) of rat. Materials and methods: Fifty male rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group, sham-operated group, model group, and atorvastatin treatment group. The treatment group was fed with atorvastatin (10 mg/kg) with gastro-gavage at 5 p.m. every day for 28 d after surgery. The control group, model group, and sham-operated group were fed with the same volume of distilled water instead. The proliferations of intimal and medial layers were evaluated by hematoxylin & eosin (H&E) staining. The apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) was determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferased UTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. Plasma concentrations of survivin and sFas were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: Atorvastatin reduced neointimal formation and increased apoptosis of VSMCs in neointima. VSMCs apoptosis emerged at 3 d (8.42 ± 0.449 μm) and the intimal proliferation peaked by the end of 14 d (41.58 ± 1.64 μm). The plasma levels of survivin and sFas were gradually increased with the neointimal hyperplasia and increasingly decreased after atorvastatin treatment. The plasma levels of survivin and sFas in rats were elevated at 3 d (464.80 ± 105.27 pg/ml and 3256.00 ± 478.20 pg/ml, respectively), reached the peak of survivin at 14 d (1089.20 ± 232.32 pg/ml) and sFas at 7 d (4362.00 ± 639.92 pg/ml) and decreased at 28 d (562.00 ± 90.11 pg/ml and 2148.00 ± 257.14 pg/ml, respectively) in the model group. Compared with the model group, the atorvastatin treatment group has significantly less neointimal hyperplasia and more apoptosis of VSMCs. Conclusions: Atorvastatin can inhibit neointimal hyperplasia and promote SMCs apoptosis in neointimal layers, which may be mainly associated with down-regulation of survivin and Fas expression after CAI of rat.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 08/2014; 52(9).
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: Polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) have been used frequently as drug delivery vehicles. Surface modification of polymeric NPs with specific ligands defines a new biological identity, which assists in targeting of the nanocarriers to specific cancers cells. Objective: The aim of this study is to develop a kind of modified vector which could target the cancer cells through receptor-mediated pathways to increase the uptake of doxorubicin (DOX). Methods: Folate (FA)-conjugated PEG-PE (FA-PEG-PE) ligands were used to modify the polymeric NPs. The modification rate was optimized and the physical-chemical characteristics, in vitro release, and cytotoxicity of the vehicle were evaluated. The in vivo therapeutic effect of the vectors was evaluated in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma KB cells baring mice by giving each mouse 100 µl of 10 mg/kg different solutions. Results: FA-PEG-PE-modified NPs/DOX (FA-NPs/DOX) have a particle size of 229 nm, and 86% of drug loading quantity. FA-NPs/DOX displayed remarkably higher cytotoxicity (812 mm(3) tumor volume after 13 d of injection) than non-modified NPs/DOX (1290 mm(3)) and free DOX solution (1832 mm(3)) in vivo. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that the modified drug delivery system (DDS) could function comprehensively to improve the efficacy of cancer therapy. Consequently, the system was shown to be a promising carrier for delivery of DOX, leading to the efficiency of antitumor therapy.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 08/2014; 52(8):978-82.
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Different parts of Muntingia calabura L. (Elaeocarpaceae), or “kerukup siam” in Malay, have been reported to possess medicinal value, supported by a number of scientific studies. Objective: To gather all information related to the ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemical compositions, and pharmacological activities of M. calabura and present them as a comprehensive and systematic review article. Materials and methods: Literature has been retrieved from a number of databases (e.g., Pubmed, Science Direct, Springer Link, etc.). General web searches were also carried out using Google and Yahoo search engines by applying some related search terms (e.g., Muntingia calabura, phytochemical, pharmacological, extract, and traditional uses). The articles related to agriculture, ecology, and synthetic work and those using languages other than English or Malay have been excluded. The bibliographies of papers relating to the review subject were also searched for further relevant references. Results and discussion: The literature search conducted using the above-mentioned Internet search engines only lead to the identification of 36 journals published as early as 1987. From the articles reviewed, M. calabura possessed various pharmacological activities (e.g., cytotoxic, antinociceptive, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory), which supported the folklore claims and could be attributed to its phytoconstituents. Conclusion: Muntingia calabura possesses remarkable medicinal value, which warrants further and in-depth studies. Therefore, this review paper is presented to help guide researchers to plan their future studies related to this plant in the hope of isolating potential leads for future drug development.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Bacopa monniera L. (Scrophulariaceae) is used as a traditional medicine in India for various ailments such as epilepsy, mental disorders, and also as a cardio-tonic. However, its nephroprotective role is still unknown. Objective: The present study assesses the modulatory impact of the alcoholic (ethanol) extract of Bacopa monniera (AEBM) on renal oxido-lipidemic stress in hypercholesterolemic rats. Materials and methods: B. monniera (1 kg) was extracted with 90% ethanol, filtered, and dried (52 g). Group-I rats as control, Group-II rats fed with a hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD) for 45 d [4% cholesterol and 1% cholic acid], Group-III rats fed with HCD for 45 d + AEBM (40 mg/kg, body weight) for last 30 d, and Group-IV AEBM alone rats. Blood and kidney were removed to analyze lipid, antioxidant status, and histological analysis. Result: The levels of total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TG), phospholipids (PLs), renal functional parameters (urea, creatinine, and uric acid), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) products were significantly attenuated (p < 0.01) in AEBM-treated hypercholesterolemic rats. Activities of both enzymic (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and glutathione reductase (GR)) and non-enzymic antioxidant (GSH, Vit-C, and Vit-E) were significantly increased (p < 0.01), on supplementation with AEBM. Administration with AEBM the mRNA levels of eNOS and iNOS genes was significantly up-regulated and down-regulated (p < 0.01). Histomorphological observations also evidenced that AEBM effectively protects the kidney from hypercholesterolemia-mediated oxido-lipidemic damage. Discussion and conclusion: From this study, we hypothesized that AEBM can act as renoprotective agent by attenuating the renal oxido-lipidemic stress via regulating NOS level and thereby protects the nephron in hypercholesterolemic rats.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Lamiaceae) has been used as a traditional herbal preparation for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders in Asian countries for centuries. Objective: To evaluate the effects of S. baicalensis on morphine-induced drug dependence in rats. Materials and methods: In order to evaluate the effect of S. baicalensis and baicalin on morphine-induced dependence-like behavior, a water extract of S. baicalensis [500 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)] or baicalin (50 mg/kg, i.p., a flavonoid found in S. baicalensis) was administered prior to morphine injection [5 and 2.5 mg/kg, respectively, subcutaneously (s.c.)] to rats for 8 and 4 d, respectively. Morphine-induced conditioned place preference was assessed by measuring the time spent in a drug-paired chamber. The effect of S. baicalensis on dopamine receptor supersensitivity (locomotor activity) and dopamine agonist-induced climbing behavior due to a single apomorphine treatment (2 mg/kg, s.c.) was also measured. Results: At 50 mg/kg, a water extract of S. baicalensis decreased morphine (5 mg/kg)-induced conditioned place preference by 86% in rats. Apomorphine (2 mg/kg)-induced locomotor activity (dopamine receptor supersensitivity) in rats and climbing behavior in mice were attenuated after pretreatment with 500 mg/kg of S. baicalensis water extract by 41% and 56%, respectively. In addition, baicalin-reduced morphine-induced conditioned places preference by 86% in rats at 50 mg/kg. Discussion and conclusion: These results suggest that S. baicalensis can ameliorate drug addiction-related behavior through functional regulation of dopamine receptors.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) increases the risk of decrease in bone mineral density (BMD). However, whether calcitrol improves this situation is unknown. Objective: The current study investigates the effects of calcitriol on BMD in patients with esomeprazole therapy. Materials and methods: Three hundred and eighty-six participants with gastrointestinal ulcerations were enrolled and randomly assigned into controlled and supplemented groups. Participants in the controlled group were prescribed esomeprazole (20 mg/qd), while the supplemented group was prescribed esomeprazole (20 mg/qd) and calcitriol (2.5 μg/qd). BMD, serum levels of calcium, carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks (CTX), and alkaline-phosphatase (ALP) were assessed. Results: (1) No significant between-group difference of age, gender, smoking, previous glucocorticoid use and hemoglobin level was found; (2) after 10.6 ± 0.8 d of PPI therapy, BMD T score in the controlled group was slightly increased compared with initial (-1.25 ± 0.08 versus -1.28 ± 0.06, p = 0.084), while there was no change in the supplemented group (-1.25 ± 0.05 versus -1.26 ± 0.03, p = 0.308); (3) during study termination, calcium level in the supplemented group was slightly higher than the controlled group (2.05 ± 0.03 mmol/L versus 2.01 ± 0.05 mmol/L, p = 0.073), while no significant differences of CTX (366.57 ± 43.71 pg/mL versus 373.15 ± 50.23 pg/mL, p = 0.036) and ALP were found among these two groups (50.47 ± 9.32 U/L versus 52.23 ± 10.45 U/L, p = 0.075). Conclusion: Patients with gastrointestinal ulcerations with esomeprazole therapy, calcitriol supplement showed no efficacy on BMD changes.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: Scilla scilloides Druce (Liliaceae) is a folk medicine to treat dermal inflammation; however, the medicinal properties of this plant have not been completely established. Objective: The current study investigates the potent anti-inflammatory effects of S. scilloides bulbs for its traditional usage using lipoxygenase and hyaluronidase as the inflammation model. To gain insight into the active constituents, nine homoisoflavones (1-9) were subsequently tested. Materials and methods: Lipoxygenase and hyaluronidase inhibition of ethyl acetate extract from the bulbs of this plant within 2000 µg/mL or homoisoflavones within 1000 µM were determined by colorimetric methods. RAW264.7 cells were incubated with 10 or 50 µM homoisoflavones plus lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 24 h. The culture media were collected and analyzed for determination of the nitric oxide (NO) level by the colorimetric Griess method to measure the extent of inflammation. Results: The extract exhibited inhibitory effects on lipoxygenase and hyaluronidase activities with IC50 values 31.5 and 169 µg/mL, respectively. Among the nine homoisoflavones tested, four (1 and 3-5) resulted in 79.3-97.9% higher lipoxygenase inhibition than 6.7-32.7% of the others at 500 µM. Calculated IC50 values indicated 5 as the compound responsible for strong lipoxygenase inhibition with 15.8 µM as the IC50 value. In the hyaluronidase assay, all homoisoflavones tested at 1000 µM demonstrated 16.2-58.0% inhibition. Incubating the cells in the presence of all nine homoisoflavones tested at 50 µM significantly suppressed the NO production, downward to 1.5-66.0%, in the LPS-activated macrophage cells as a model. Discussion and conclusion: These results may indicate a potential role of S. scilloides for anti-inflammatory purposes.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: The rizoma of Pulsatilla chinensis (Bunge) Regel has been used as a traditional Chinese medicinal herb for thousands of years. Total saponins from P. chinensis can induce the apoptosis of solid cancer cells; however, their activity on chronic myeloid leukemia and the mechanisms remains unknown. Objective: To study the activity of total saponins and the main active fractions from P. chinensis saponins on chronic myeloid leukemia, and to illustrate the mechanisms underlying the anticancer activities. Materials and methods: The cytotoxic activity were assayed by MTT; cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were tested by flow cytometry system; changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential were determined using JC-1; and the apoptosis signaling pathway was determined by western blotting. Results: We demonstrated that total P. chinensis saponin displayed cytotoxic activity against K562 cell line. In addition, we identified 23-hydroxybetulinic acid (HBA), pulchinenoside A (PA), and anemoside B4 (AB4) from the total saponins, with the most cytotoxic compound HBA. Glycosylation at C3 and C28 of HBA significantly reduces its cytotoxicity. HBA could promote cell cycle arrest at S phase and induce apoptosis via intrinsic pathway. HBA disrupts mitochondrial membrane potential significantly (p < 0.01) and selectively downregulates the levels of Bcl-2, survivin and upregulates Bax, cytochrome C, cleaved caspase-9 and -3. Discussion and conclusion: Total saponins from P. chinensis may be effective natural products against human chronic myelogenous leukemia; HBA is one of the bioactive components responsible for its anticancer activity, and could be further investigated as an alternative therapeutic drug for leukemia.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: Solute carrier transporters (SLCs) are membrane proteins responsible for cellular influx of various substances including many pharmaceutical agents; therefore, they largely impact on drug disposition and elimination in body. Punica granatum Linnaeus (Lythraceae), pomegranate, is a fruit with antidiabetic potential. Oleanolic acid (OA), ursolic acid (UA), and gallic acid (GA) are the major bioactive components of pomegranate. Co-administration of these compounds with other drugs could result in altered drug pharmacokinetics, possibly due to competing for transporter proteins. Objective: We investigated the interactions of these three compounds with the essential hepatic and renal SLC transporters. Materials and methods: Uptake of radiolabeled transporter model substrates was assessed in HEK293 cells over-expressing SLC transporters including the organic anion transporters (OATs), organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) and organic cation transporters (OCTs), in the presence or absence of 10.0 µM UA, OA, or GA. Their IC50 values on specific SLC transporters were also evaluated using varying concentrations of the particular compound (ranging from 0.10 nM to 80.0 µM). Results: Our results demonstrated UA could significantly inhibit OAT3 and OATP2B1 uptake (IC50: 18.9 ± 8.20 µM and 11.0 ± 5.00 µM, respectively) and GA has a pronounced inhibitory effect on OATP1B3 uptake (IC50: 1.60 ± 0.60 μM). Discussion and conclusion: Our study reports the interactions of OA, UA, and GA with the essential SLC transporters. This information may contribute to elucidating the drug-drug/herb interactions involved with these three compounds and form the basis of therapeutic optimization when drugs are co-administered.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: Potentilla mooniana Wight. (Rosaceae) is a plant found in the Himalayan region where the root is traditionally used to treat stomach problems including gastric-ulcer. Objective: To scientifically validate the gastro-protective effect and derive the possible mechanistic activity of the ethanol root extract from P. mooniana (EPM). Materials and methods: The gastroprotective effect of EPM (100-400 mg/kg, p.o.) was evaluated on both the physical (Pyloric ligation, PL; Cold restrain stress, CRS) and chemical (absolute ethanol, EtOH; aspirin, ASP) ulcerogens induced ulceration in rats. The mechanistic activity of EPM was tested on various gastric-ulcer parameters, namely gastric pH, volume, acid-pepsin output, DNA content, histamine level, H(+)K(+)-ATPase activity, mucus content, microvascular permeability, antioxidant markers, and gastric-histopathological study. Results: EPM significantly reduces the ulcer score against all the four tested gastric-ulcer models. In the PL model, EPM showed significant reduction (p < 0.05) in acid-pepsin output and cell shedding; however, no significant effect was observed on gastric volume, cell proliferation, stomach glandular weight, and histamine levels. EPM (400 mg/kg, p.o.) when compared with ulcer control showed significant increase in gastric pH by 41.6% and decrease in H(+)K(+)-ATPase activity by 47.73%. In addition, EPM showed significant increase in mucus content by 58.60% and a decrease in the microvascular permeability of Evans Blue by 85.00%, justifying its protective effects. Furthermore, EPM also showed significant antioxidant activity and histopathologically possessed excellent cytoprotective effect. Conclusion: The gastro-protective effect of EPM is attributed mainly to the defensive mechanism owing to the presence of a good quantity of polyphenolic components.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: Orostachys japonicus (Crassulaceae) is referred to as Wa-song in Korea. It is used as an anti-inflammatory, antifebrile, hemostatic, and anti cancer agent, and as an antidote. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the acute toxicity of the ethyl acetate fraction of O. japonicus (OJE) after the oral administration in Balb/c mice of both sexes. Materials and methods: Mice were oral administered a single doses of 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg of body weight and were monitored for 14 d. Biochemical parameters [aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein (TP), globulin (GB), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine (CR)] and histopathological examination of liver were performed. Results and conclusion: No animals died and no toxic changes were observed in clinical signs, body weight, and organ weight. The LD50 of orally administered OJE was higher than 2000 mg/kg/d in both sexes. No toxicological findings were found in biochemical parameters. In histophathological examination, neutrophilic infiltration was observed at a dose of 2000 mg/kg group in both sexes. These finding suggest that oral administration of OJE does not produce acute toxicity. Therefore, these results could provide satisfactory preclinical evidence of safety to launch clinical trials on standardized formulation of OJE to be a biohealth product.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: Clovers were chosen on the basis of traditional medicine recommendations, agricultural value, or available information on their promising chemical profiles. Objective: This study evaluates and compares free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties of six clover species: Trifolium alexandrinum L. (Leguminosae), Trifolium fragiferum L., Trifolium hybridum L., Trifolium incarnatum L., Trifolium resupinatum var. majus Boiss., and Trifolium resupinatum var. resupinatum L. Materials and methods: Free radical scavenging activity of the extracts (1.5-50 µg/ml) was estimated by reduction of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•)) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic) acid (ABTS(•)) radicals. The Trifolium extract effects on total antioxidant capacity of blood plasma were determined by the reduction of ABTS(•+) and DPPH(•) radicals, as well as with the use of the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay. Results: The UPLC analysis of chemical profiles of the examined extracts showed the presence of three or four groups of phenolic substances, including phenolic acids, clovamides, isoflavones, and other flavonoids. The measurements of free radical scavenging and ferric reducing ability of the examined clover extracts revealed the strongest effect for T. alexandrinum. Furthermore, antioxidant activity assays in human plasma have shown protective effects of all extracts against peroxynitrite-induced reduction of total antioxidant capacity. Conclusions: Trifolium plants may be a rich source of bioactive substances with antioxidant properties. The examined extracts displayed free radical scavenging action and partly protected blood plasma against peroxynitrite-induced oxidative stress; however, the beneficial effects of T. alexandrinum and T. incarnatum seem to be slightly higher.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: Diarrheal disease is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity and accounts for 5-8 million deaths worldwide each year. Salvia connivens Epling (Lamiaceae) is used to treat sore throat, fevers, diarrhea, malaria, and also is used as an antipyretic. Objective: The present study evaluates the efficacy of S. connivens in the treatment of diarrhea using animal models. Materials and methods: The anti-diarrheal effect of methanol extract of S. connivens was investigated on mice with castor oil, arachidonic acid (AA) or prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-induced diarrhea. On Wistar rats, the activity was evaluated on the intestinal transit and Castor oil-induced enteropooling. Results: The methanol extract at doses of 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg on castor oil-induced diarrhea reduced the diarrhea by 32.3, 41.9, 67.7, 74.2, 83.3, and 100%, respectively. Additionally, this extract, at doses of 200 mg/kg, inhibited AA-induced diarrhea by 100%. The methanol extract produced no effect on PGE2-induced diarrhea at the same doses. In Wistar rats, at dose of 200 mg/kg, the methanol extract inhibited intestinal transit and decreased the volume of intestinal secretion induced by castor oil. Discussion: The methanol extract showed anti-diarrheal effect on the animal models used. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, and saponins which may be responsible for this effect. The extract did not cause any mortality or any visible signs of toxicity or differences in food and water uptake were seen. Conclusions: These results justify the use of S. connivens as an anti-diarrheal agent.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: Strictosamide is the main representative constituent of Nauclea officinalis Pierre ex Pitard (Rubiaceae), which has been used for a long time in China to treat diseases related to infection and inflammation, but its pharmacological activities are not well studied. Objective: This work evaluates the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of strictosamide by in vivo experiments. Materials and methods: The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed in mice by models of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced ear edema, acetic acid-elevated vascular permeability, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (CMC-Na)-induced leukocyte migration. The analgesic activity was estimated in mice using acetic acid-induced writhing and hot-plate tests. Compound was injected to mice twice a day for 3 d at doses of 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg. Results: At 20 and 40 mg/kg, strictosamide obviously decreased the TPA-induced mice ear edema (24.7 and 28.1% inhibition, respectively), and significantly inhibited acetic acid-stimulated peritoneal vascular permeability in mice (23.3 and 33.4% inhibition, respectively). It also significantly decreased the leukocytes in the mice peritoneal cavity induced by CMC-Na at all the tested doses (46.0, 49.1, and 58.7% inhibition, respectively). To acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice, strictosamide markedly prolonged the pain latency at 20 and 40 mg/kg and decreased the writhing counts at 40 mg/kg (49.7% inhibition). However, it did not obviously improve the pain threshold of mice in hot-plate test. Discussion and conclusion: Strictosamide may have important effects on inflammation and inflammatory pain. The results provide scientific support for the role of strictosamide in the use of N. officinalis to treat inflammatory diseases.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: Sedum aizoon L. (Crassulaceae) (SA) is widely used to treat various hemorrhages in folk medicine. However, its hemostatic constituents are not yet clear. Objective: The chemical constituents of EtOAc fraction from SA and their hemostatic activity were investigated to provide a basis for the application in folk use. Materials and methods: The chemical constituents were isolated from the aerial parts of SA by column chromatography and identified by IR, MS, and NMR, then tested for hemostatic activity using the capillary method and coagulation assays including blood clotting time in vivo, and prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and thrombin time (TT) in vitro at concentrations of 300.0, 100.0, and 30.0 µg/mL. Results: Eleven compounds were identified as p-hydroxybenzoic acid (1), gallic acid (2), protocatechuic acid (3), vallinic acid (4), thymine (5), caffeic acid (6), 5,7-dihydroxy chromone (7), pyrogallol (8), quercetin (9), kaempferol (10), and luteolin (11). This is the first report of compounds 3-8 being isolated from this plant. Compounds 2 (300.0 and 100.0 µg/mL), 4 (100.0 µg/mL), and 11 (100.0 and 30.0 µg/mL) significantly reduced the clotting time (p < 0.01) with inhibition rates of 34.7, 24.5, 30.3, 25.9, and 36.6%, respectively. For further mechanism study, they also reduced PT (3.5, 2.5, 3.5, 3.5, and 3.8%, respectively), APTT (4.5, 3.3, 11.4, 8.5, and 11.1%, respectively), and TT (20.3, 3.8, 7.6, 6.1, and 10.3%, respectively). Discussion and conclusion: SA produced hemostatic activity possibly related to the presence of gallic acid, vallinic acid, and luteolin, which may be potent candidates of hemostatic drug.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: Hypoxia injury (HI) with its long-term neurological complications is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. Currently, the treatment regimens for hypoxia are aimed only at ameliorating the damage without complete cure. The need, therefore, for novel therapeutic drugs to treat HI continues. Objective: This study investigates the protective effects of the ethanol extract of Cyperus rotundus L. (Cyperaceae) (EECR), a medicinal plant used in Ayurvedic traditional medicine against sodium nitrite-induced hypoxia in rats. Materials and methods: We have evaluated the protective effect of 200 and 400 mg/kg of EECR against sodium nitrite-induced hypoxia injury in rats by assessing the cognitive functions, motor, and behavioral effects of EECR treatment along with the histological changes in the brain. By comparing the protective effects of standard drugs galantamine, a reversible cholinesterase inhibitor and pyritinol, an antioxidant nootropic drug against sodium nitrite-induced hypoxia in rats, we have tested the protective ability of EECR. Results: EECR at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg was able to protect against the cognitive impairments, and the locomotor activity and muscular coordination defects, which are affected by sodium nitrite-induced hypoxia injury in rats. Conclusion: Based on our results, we suggest that the medicinal herb C. rotundus possesses a protective effect against sodium nitrite-induced hypoxia in rats. Further studies on these protective effects of EECR may help in designing better therapeutic regimes for hypoxia injury.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: Despite several phytochemical studies of Nepenthes gracilis Korth (Nepenthaceae), the biological activities of this pitcher plant remain to be explored. Objective: This study evaluates the antifungal activity of N. gracilis extracts, isolates, and characterizes its bioactive compound and evaluates the cytotoxicity of the isolated compound. Materials and methods: Fresh leaves of N. gracilis were sequentially extracted. The fungistatic and fungicidal activities of the extracts were evaluated against six species of fungi of medical importance using a colorimetric broth microdilution method. The most active extract was fractionated by liquid-liquid partitioning and further purified by a preparative thin layer chromatography. Structural elucidation was carried out using FT-IR, GC-MS, and NMR. Cytotoxicity testing against rhesus monkey kidney epithelial cells (LLC-MK2) was assessed by a neutral red uptake (NRU) assay. Results: The hexane extract, which showed the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC), both at 20 μg/mL against Candida albicans, Issatchenkia orientalis, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, was subjected to bioactivity-guided fractionation. The isolated compound exhibited potent activity with the MIC values ranging from 2 to 31 μg/mL against all the fungi. The active compound was identified as plumbagin (5-hydroxy-2-methyl-naphthalene-1,4-dione). The 50% cytotoxicity concentration (CC50) of plumbagin was 0.60 μg/mL. Discussion and conclusion: The selectivity indices of plumbagin against all the fungi were less than 1.0, indicating that plumbagin is more toxic to mammalian than fungal cells. This study provides information on the antifungal properties of N. gracilis leaf extracts, as well as the antifungal and cytotoxicity properties of plumbagin.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 07/2014;

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