Ophthalmic epidemiology

Publisher: International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology, Informa Healthcare

Journal description

Current impact factor: 1.15

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 1.148
2013 Impact Factor 1.271
2012 Impact Factor 2.182
2011 Impact Factor 1.453
2010 Impact Factor 1.364
2009 Impact Factor 1.927
2008 Impact Factor 1.369
2007 Impact Factor 1.341
2006 Impact Factor 1.64
2005 Impact Factor 1.19
2004 Impact Factor 1.246

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 1.71
Cited half-life 7.30
Immediacy index 0.39
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.56
Other titles Ophthalmic epidemiology (Online)
ISSN 1744-5086
OCLC 42207974
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Informa Healthcare

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 months embargo
  • Conditions
    • On author's personal website or institution website
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged
    • Non-commercial
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • NIH funded authors may post articles to PubMed Central for release 12 months after publication
    • Wellcome Trust authors may deposit in Europe PMC after 6 months
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the quality and efficacy of the Ban Phaeo Mobile Eye Clinic (BPMEC) model in providing cataract surgery to rural Thailand. Retrospective review of 4-week postoperative visual acuity (VA) of 7040 patients receiving unilateral cataract surgery at 75 sites from October 2008 to March 2011. BPMEC conducted screening, surgery, and follow-up at partnering local hospitals that otherwise do not offer eye care. The primary outcome was achievement of VA ≥20/70, which was secondarily analyzed by cataract extraction method (phacoemulsification, phaco, or extracapsular cataract extraction, ECCE) and intraocular lens (IOL) type (foldable acrylic or rigid polymethylmethacrylate). Preoperatively, 249 eyes (4%) had uncorrected VA ≥20/70. Four weeks postoperatively, 5957 (85%) had VA ≥20/70, 3288 (47%) had VA ≥20/40, and 69 (1%) were lost to follow-up. Phaco was performed in 6324 eyes (90%), 1581 (25%) receiving foldable IOLs. A total of 1403 eyes (89%) undergoing phaco with a foldable IOL had postoperative VA ≥20/70, compared to 4058 (85%) and 496 (69%) of those undergoing phaco with a rigid IOL (p < 0.05) and ECCE with a rigid IOL (p < 0.001), respectively. Overall, 37 eyes were left aphakic. Reported intraocular complications included zonular dehiscence (37 eyes), retained lens fragment (2 eyes), wound leakage (1 eye), and posterior capsule tear (1 eye). The 4-week uncorrected postoperative VAs met the World Health Organization's quality target of VA ≥20/70 for eyes undergoing phaco and were comparable to those published by an urban hospital in Bangkok.
    Ophthalmic epidemiology 08/2015; 22(4):266-273. DOI:10.3109/09286586.2015.1009120
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    ABSTRACT: To estimate the prevalence and causes of visual impairment and blindness in Shanxi Province, China. Data were obtained from the Second National Sampling Survey of Disability conducted in 2006. Blindness and visual impairment were defined as best corrected visual acuity <3/60 and <6/18, respectively, in the better-seeing eye. Standardized ophthalmologic examinations were administered to participants aged 0-80 years in 2006. Visual acuity (VA) was measured using a Standard Logarithmic Visual Acuity E chart (Snellen) for subjects aged 7 years and older. Participants younger than 7 years were examined using special experiments or the Childhood Graphical Visual Chart. The prevalence of visual impairment and blindness in Shanxi was estimated to be 0.6% (466/75,016) among persons up to 80 years old. The prevalence in rural areas (0.7%; 351/48,137) was significantly higher than that in urban areas (0.4%; 115/26,879) and was higher in females (0.8%; 298/36,933) than in males (0.4%; 168/38,083). The most common cause of visual impairment and blindness was cataract (44.9%), followed by retinopathy and choroidopathy (12.5%), hereditary and developmental disorders (10.3%), corneal disease (5.2%), and refractive error (4.9%). Prevalences of visual impairment and blindness in women and in rural areas were higher than in men and urban areas, and increased with age. Cataract was the most prevalent cause of visual impairment and blindness. Based on the findings from this study, we suggest that provision of support and welfare services should be organized.
    Ophthalmic epidemiology 08/2015; 22(4):239-245. DOI:10.3109/09286586.2015.1009119
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    ABSTRACT: To study the effect of multimedia education on acceptance of comprehensive eye examinations (CEEs), critical for detecting glaucoma and diabetic eye disease, among rural Chinese patients using a randomized, controlled design. Patients aged ≥40 years were recruited from 52 routine clinic sessions (26 intervention, 26 control) conducted at seven rural hospitals in Guangdong, China. Subjects answered demographic questionnaires, were tested on knowledge about CEEs and chronic eye disease, and were told the cost of examination (range US$0-8). At intervention sessions, subjects were cluster-randomized to view a 10-minute video on the value of CEEs and retested. Control subjects were not retested. Trial outcomes were acceptance of CEEs (primary outcome) and final knowledge scores (secondary outcome). At baseline, >70% (p = 0.70) of both intervention (n = 241, 61.2 ± 12.3 years) and control (n = 218, 58.4 ± 11.7 years) subjects answered no knowledge questions correctly, but mean scores on the test (maximum 5 points) increased by 1.39 (standard deviation 0.12) points (p < 0.001) after viewing the video. Intervention (73.0%) and control (72.9%) subjects did not differ in acceptance of CEEs (p > 0.50). In mixed-effect logistic regression models, acceptance of CEEs was associated with availability of free CEEs (odds ratio 18.3, 95% confidence interval 1.32-253.0), but not group assignment or knowledge score. Acceptance was 97.5% (79/81) when free exams were offered. Education increased knowledge about but not acceptance of CEEs, which was generally high. Making CEEs free could further increase acceptance.
    Ophthalmic epidemiology 08/2015; 22(4):283-290. DOI:10.3109/09286586.2015.1056812
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    ABSTRACT: To assess post-cataract surgery intermediate-term (>6 months) data of visual acuity (VA), surgical complications, refractive outcomes, quality of life (QOL) and visual function (VF) from a non-governmental organization program in Indonesia. Retrospective cohort study design. Participants were a selection of patients who underwent cataract surgery by the John Fawcett Foundation between 2006 and 2011, with at least 6 months follow-up. Patients underwent comprehensive ophthalmic examinations. QOL and VF questionnaires were administered. From a total of 1557 invited to attend, 547 patients participated; 99.8% of eyes had presenting VA <6/60. At day 1 postoperatively, 52.1% of patients had a good outcome by World Health Organization criteria (unaided VA ≥ 6/18). Six months or later postoperatively, 85% of eyes had best-corrected VA ≥ 6/18 and 5.6% of eyes had best-corrected VA < 3/60. At final follow-up, mean postoperative spherical equivalent refraction was -2.35 diopters (standard deviation 1.75, n = 542). On a scale of 1-100, median converted values for QOL were 25.0 preoperatively and 74.0 postoperatively, a statistically significant improvement (p < 0.001). Of eyes with VA better than 3/60 on postoperative day 1, 5.7% (95% confidence interval 3.6-7.9%) became blind (VA < 3/60) at the 6-month or later time point. Cataract surgery in this population markedly improved QOL, despite a trend towards myopic refractive outcomes. These findings raise questions about biometric methodology, intraocular lens power calculations and refractive targets. Postoperative day 1 VA data may be a reasonable proxy of the intermediate-term rate of non-blind eyes.
    Ophthalmic epidemiology 08/2015; 22(4):274-282. DOI:10.3109/09286586.2015.1008104
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate current delivery of glaucoma care in Botswana; in particular, the service infrastructure available and glaucoma-related workload. A multi-center cross-sectional study was undertaken comprising government eye care institutions and ophthalmic personnel across Botswana. Data on human resources, equipment types and numbers, diagnostic criteria routinely used, treatments routinely provided, and new and repeat glaucoma consultations were obtained through quantitative and qualitative surveys. In 27 government eye care institutions there were two general ophthalmologists, neither of whom had a subspecialty interest in glaucoma, 64 ophthalmic nurses, two optometrists, one low vision therapist, one refractionist, and two equipment technicians. Only 8.5% of available ophthalmic human resources were taken up with provision of glaucoma care. About 1/3 of hospitals did not have tonometers, most primary hospitals lacked slit lamp biomicroscopes and most hospitals lacked sensitive diagnostic equipment. A diagnosis of glaucoma was made by either an ophthalmic nurse or an ophthalmologist, but only 10% of institutions could meet recommendations for follow-up assessment. Topical glaucoma medications were prescribed by almost all hospital clinics, usually by ophthalmic nurses. Drug choices were largely determined by local availability. Glaucoma surgery accounted for 0.8% of total eye operations. Glaucoma patients took up 8.5% of total clinic visits. The total number of glaucoma visits was highest in the two hospitals with ophthalmologists. New glaucoma cases took up 10.3% of total glaucoma visits. This study highlights the challenges faced in caring for glaucoma patients in Botswana; in particular, lack of professional human resources, equipment and availability of effective treatments.
    Ophthalmic epidemiology 07/2015; DOI:10.3109/09286586.2015.1010689
  • Ophthalmic epidemiology 07/2015; 22(3). DOI:10.3109/09286586.2015.1045987
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence of trachoma and risk factors associated with the disease in rural areas of the Sistan-va-Baluchestan province in Iran from 2012-2013. Population-based prevalence data for trachoma is lacking in this region. In this population-based cross-sectional study, 80 clusters were selected using a systematic and probability proportional to size method. All participants underwent clinical eye examinations according to the World Health Organization simplified trachoma grading system. The prevalence of follicular trachoma (TF) in children aged 1-9 years and the prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis (TT) in women aged over 15 years were the most important clinical indicators of trachoma. The study surveyed 8187 individuals and analyzed 7912 participants (96.6%) including 3737 children aged 1-9 years and 4175 females >15 years. The prevalence of TF and TT in the relevant indicator groups were 0.59% (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.36-0.89%) and 0.02% (95% CI 0.00-0.13%), respectively. Previously, trachoma prevalence data for this region were lacking. This study confirms that the Sistan-va-Baluchestan region is not endemic for trachoma. This has important implications for national trachoma elimination activities.
    Ophthalmic epidemiology 07/2015; 22(3). DOI:10.3109/09286586.2015.1037400
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the relationship between postoperative scar height and surgical success of the bilamellar tarsal rotation (BLTR) procedure, commonly used to correct trichiasis secondary to trachoma. Using data from the Partnership for the Rapid Elimination of Trachoma surgical trial, comparing the new trachomatous trichiasis (TT) clamp with standard BLTR instrumentation, 145 sequential participants (245 eyelids) at their 1-year postoperative visit were examined. We measured internal and external scar heights from the upper eyelid margin for nasal, central and temporal sections and compared these to recurrence location at 1 year. We calculated odds of location-specific postoperative trichiasis and examined possible risk factors associated with postoperative trichiasis. A total of 77 eyelids (31%) had postoperative trichiasis, which most commonly occurred centrally. Regardless of instrumentation used, the closer the internal scar was to the eyelid margin, the higher the proportion that had recurrence, until 4.5 mm, at which point, the proportion leveled off. In bivariate analyses, the odds of central recurrence were significantly higher at all three locations when the internal scar height was <4.5 mm compared to higher scars. In multivariate analyses, central scar height <4.5 mm and severe baseline trichiasis were independently associated with central postoperative trichiasis. Internal scar height <4.5 mm measured 1 year after surgery is more likely to be associated with postoperative trichiasis. Given these findings and the current World Health Organization recommendation for an incision height of 3.0 mm, further study into optimum incision height to minimize postoperative trichiasis is warranted.
    Ophthalmic epidemiology 07/2015; 22(3). DOI:10.3109/09286586.2015.1036299
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    ABSTRACT: Trachoma surveillance is most commonly performed by direct observation, usually by non-ophthalmologists using the World Health Organization (WHO) simplified grading system. However, conjunctival photographs may offer several benefits over direct clinical observation, including the potential for greater inter-rater agreement. This study assesses whether inter-rater agreement of trachoma grading differs when trained graders review conjunctival photographs compared to when they perform conjunctival examinations in the field. Three trained trachoma graders each performed an independent examination of the everted right tarsal conjunctiva of 269 children aged 0-9 years, and then reviewed photographs of these same conjunctivae in a random order. For each eye, the grader documented the presence or absence of follicular trachoma (TF) and intense trachomatous inflammation (TI) according to the WHO simplified grading system. Inter-rater agreement for the grade of TF was significantly higher in the field (kappa coefficient, κ, 0.73, 95% confidence interval, CI 0.67-0.80) than by photographic review (κ = 0.55, 95% CI 0.49-0.63; difference in κ between field grading and photo grading 0.18, 95% CI 0.09-0.26). When field and photographic grades were each assessed as the consensus grade from the three graders, agreement between in-field and photographic graders was high for TF (κ = 0.75, 95% CI 0.68-0.84). In an area with hyperendemic trachoma, inter-rater agreement was lower for photographic assessment of trachoma than for in-field assessment. However, the trachoma grade reached by a consensus of photographic graders agreed well with the grade given by a consensus of in-field graders.
    Ophthalmic epidemiology 07/2015; 22(3). DOI:10.3109/09286586.2015.1035792
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    ABSTRACT: A prevalence survey for active trachoma in children aged under 10 years and trichiasis in women aged 40 years and older was carried out in four districts in the Sololá region in Guatemala, which is suspected of still having a trachoma problem. Population-based surveys were undertaken in three districts, within 15 randomly selected communities in each district. In addition, in a fourth district that borders the third district chosen, we surveyed the small northern sub-district, by randomly selecting three communities in each community, 100 children aged under 10 years were randomly selected, and all females over 40 years. Five survey teams were trained and standardized. Trachoma was graded using the World Health Organization simplified grading scheme and ocular swabs were taken in cases of clinical follicular or inflammatory trachoma. Prevalence estimates were calculated at district and sub-district level. Trachoma rates at district level varied from 0-5.1%. There were only two sub-districts where active trachoma approached 10% (Nahualá Costa, 8.1%, and Santa Catarina Costa, 7.3%). Trichiasis rates in females aged 40 years and older varied from 0-3%. Trachoma was likely a problem in the past. Trachoma is disappearing in the Sololá region in Guatemala. Health leadership may consider further mapping of villages around the areas with an especially high rate of trachoma and infection, and instituting trichiasis surgery and active trachoma intervention where needed.
    Ophthalmic epidemiology 06/2015; 22(3):231-6. DOI:10.3109/09286586.2015.1037846
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the magnitude of trachoma and the prevalent forms of the disease, and to provide baseline data for the establishment of a trachoma control program in Jigawa State, northwestern Nigeria. A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in Jigawa State in May 2007 using a 2-stage cluster random sampling technique to select 4598 persons from 40 villages based on probability proportional to size. All participants were examined using a penlight and a 2.5 × binocular loupe for signs of trachoma, and graded using the World Health Organization (WHO) simplified grading system. A total of 4598 people were seen with 99.96% coverage. Of these, 2460 (53.5%) were female and 2138 (46.5%) were male. Mean age was 21.6 years ( ± 19.8 years). The prevalence of follicular trachoma in children aged ≤9 years was 20.5% (95% confidence interval, CI, 18.7-22.4%) with no difference between the sexes. The prevalence of trichiasis in adults aged ≥15 years was 5%, and the prevalence was higher in females than males (odds ratio 2.60, 95% CI 2.06-3.28; p < 0.001). Trachoma is a major problem in Jigawa State; there is a need to train trichiasis surgeons and empower them to carry out community-based surgery. District-level prevalence of trachoma needs to be determined to know which aspects of the WHO SAFE strategy (surgery, antibiotics, facial cleanliness and environmental improvements) need to be emphasized in each district.
    Ophthalmic epidemiology 06/2015; 22(3):184-9. DOI:10.3109/09286586.2015.1037399
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    ABSTRACT: The World Health Organization aims to eliminate blinding trachoma by 2020 using the SAFE strategy: Surgery for trichiasis, Antibiotics, Facial cleanliness and Environmental improvement. Trachoma is hyperendemic on the remote Bijagos Archipelago of Guinea-Bissau, West Africa. Sociocultural factors remain unexplored here, despite their potential impact on disease control, particularly through the "F" and "E" aspects. By examining these, we aim to illuminate this population's unreported health beliefs, hygiene behaviors and disease perceptions. This understanding will help to optimize future public health interventions, and guide the distribution of limited healthcare resources. Two unmatched interview series were conducted 1 year apart on Bubaque Island in the Bijagos Archipelago; one in rural villages using purposive snowball sampling, the other in a semi-urban settlement, using random-cluster sampling. Interviews were conducted and recorded in Kriolu, the local dialect, by a supervised local field assistant before translation into English for conventional content analysis. Trachoma was unheard of in either series, despite ongoing local trachoma research. A heterogeneous range of disease etiology and preventative measures were suggested, but the importance of hygiene was more widely reported by semi-urban interviewees. Although western medicine was well regarded, traditional practices continued, particularly in the rural populations. Differences in knowledge, beliefs and behaviors were apparent between the two series. Despite widespread rudimentary knowledge of disease prevention, targeted education might benefit both communities, particularly basic hygiene education for rural communities. Healthcare access should also be improved for rural populations. The impact of these measures could be assessed by future fieldwork.
    Ophthalmic epidemiology 06/2015; 22(3):190-9. DOI:10.3109/09286586.2015.1036889
  • Ophthalmic epidemiology 06/2015; 22(3):145-7. DOI:10.3109/09286586.2015.1037847
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the risk of infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in children who are migrants to communities who are undergoing mass drug administration (MDA), and if their neighborhoods have higher rates of infection over time. In four communities in Kongwa, Tanzania, all children were enrolled in a longitudinal study of infection and trachoma. New children were identified at census updates as having not been in the community at the previous census. Within communities, neighborhoods were defined as spatially close groups of households, or "balozi". All children in the communities were invited to be examined for trachoma, and have ocular swabs taken for evidence of infection. Trachoma was graded using the World Health Organization simplified grading scheme, and swabs were processed using Amplicor. Children who were migrants were more likely to be infected and to have trachoma than children who were resident in the community, which was significant by the time of the survey following the third year of MDA (odds ratio, OR, 2.49, 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.03-6.05). The neighborhoods where newcomers resided were more likely to have infection a year later than neighborhoods with no migrants, which was most pronounced following the third year of MDA (OR 2.86, 95% CI 1.07-7.65). Migrants to communities may be an important source of re-emergent infection, especially as MDA lowers infection among residents. Highly migrant populations may need a special surveillance and treatment program to avoid slowing progress in communities under MDA.
    Ophthalmic epidemiology 06/2015; 22(3):170-5. DOI:10.3109/09286586.2015.1010687