Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology

Publisher: Taylor & Francis (Routledge)

Journal description

Current impact factor: 2.16

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2011 Impact Factor 2.133

Additional details

5-year impact 2.12
Cited half-life 0.00
Immediacy index 0.35
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.72
Other titles Journal of clinical and experimental neuropsychology (Online)
ISSN 1744-411X
OCLC 42679018
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Taylor & Francis (Routledge)

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    • STM: Science, Technology and Medicine
    • Publisher last contacted on 25/03/2014
    • This policy is an exception to the default policies of 'Taylor & Francis (Routledge)'
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: The cognitive reserve hypothesis suggests that across the lifespan, higher education, regular participation in social or mentally stimulating activities, and complexity of occupation increase an individual's resistance to dementia. However, there is currently no consensus regarding how to assess or measure cognitive reserve. Method: We performed a systematic review of reviews focused on the concept of cognitive reserve to examine key elements of the definition and highlight limitations. We searched, MEDLINE (OvidSP), the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar, and PubMed. Results: Five systematic reviews were identified. These incorporated findings from cohort, cross-sectional, and case-control studies, and the outcomes examined included Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, nonspecified dementia, all dementias, and cognitive decline or cognitive impairment. Education, occupation, and leisure or mentally stimulating activities were suggested to supply cognitive reserve and offer a protective effect against the risk of dementia. Premorbid IQ and socioeconomic status have not been investigated as thoroughly and showed inconsistent results. Two of the reviews showed that when combining different indicators in the analyses/definition, including education, occupation, mentally stimulating activities, and premorbid IQ, cognitive reserve had a protective effect against cognitive decline. However, other indicators may also supply the reserve, including dietary habits and genetic indicators, but research is lacking with regard to creating a full cognitive reserve model. Conclusions: This review highlights the lack of consensus regarding a definition of cognitive reserve. Further research is required to clarify how the indicators already identified may provide cognitive reserve and offer a protective effect against dementia. Agreement on the indicators that constitute the cognitive reserve model is needed before testing possible interventions that may increase the reserve supply and improve cognition.
    Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 03/2015; DOI:10.1080/13803395.2014.1002759
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: The Executive Interview (EXIT25) is an effective measure of executive dysfunction, but may be inefficient due to the time it takes to complete 25 interview-based items. The current study aimed to examine psychometric properties of the EXIT25, with a specific focus on determining whether a briefer version of the measure could comprehensively assess executive dysfunction. Method: The current study applied a graded response model (a type of item response theory model for polytomous categorical data) to identify items that were most closely related to the underlying construct of executive functioning and best discriminated between varying levels of executive functioning. Participants were 660 adults ages 40 to 96 years living in West Texas, who were recruited through an ongoing epidemiological study of rural health and aging, called Project FRONTIER. The EXIT25 was the primary measure examined. Participants also completed the Trail Making Test and Controlled Oral Word Association Test, among other measures, to examine the convergent validity of a brief form of the EXIT25. Results: Eight items were identified that provided the majority of the information about the underlying construct of executive functioning; total scores on these items were associated with total scores on other measures of executive functioning and were able to differentiate between cognitively healthy, mildly cognitively impaired, and demented participants. In addition, cutoff scores were recommended based on sensitivity and specificity of scores. Conclusion: A brief, eight-item version of the EXIT25 may be an effective and efficient screening for executive dysfunction among older adults.
    Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 03/2015; DOI:10.1080/13803395.2014.1002757
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Despite the consensus pointing out the importance of cultural variables in neuropsychological assessments, empirical studies within cross-cultural neuropsychology continue to be limited. The Cross-Linguistic Naming Test (CLNT) is a naming test that is supposed to have no influence from cultural variables. The aim of this paper is to determine the psychometric properties of the CLNT and its discriminatory validity (Experiment 1) and to determine the performance of the CLNT in different cultures (Experiment 2). Method: Three groups followed the CLNT in Experiment 1: dementia patients, individuals with subjective memory complaints, and neurologically healthy volunteers. Three groups followed the CLNT in Experiment 2: Colombians, Moroccans, and Spaniards. Results: The results showed that the psychometric properties of the CLNT are appropriate and that this test obtains a high specificity but a low sensitivity. Furthermore, no differences were found in the CLNT among the three cultural groups. Discussion: The CLNT may be appropriate for the screening of naming impairment in Colombian, Moroccan, and Spanish cultures.
    Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 03/2015; 37(1):1-11. DOI:10.1080/13803395.2014.1003533
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction. This study was designed to assess sex differences in older adults (55-65 years old) in executive functions and to examine the influence of hormone therapy (HT) in postmenopausal women. Method. We have assessed task performance in memory, visuospatial, and executive functions in 29 women using HT, 29 women who never used HT, and 30 men. Results. Men outperformed never users in task switching and updating. HT users outperformed never users in updating. HT users outperformed never users and men in visual divided attention. Discussion. The present study support previous findings that sex and HT impact cognition and bring new insights on sex and HT-related differences in executive functions.
    Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 02/2015; 37(2):1-16. DOI:10.1080/13803395.2014.1000267
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Previous research has identified a relation between impulsiveness and substance use, as well as performance on certain tests of executive functioning. However, no prior research has investigated these relations in Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Iraqi Freedom, or Operation New Dawn (OEF/OIF/OND) veterans with and without a history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Method: The present study utilized a sample of 127 veterans (55 controls, 72 mTBI). Relations among health behaviors, cognition, and domain scores (attentional, motor, and nonplanning impulsiveness) of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11) were examined using regression analyses. Results: Nonplanning impulsiveness was associated with higher Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) score. Attentional and motor impulsiveness were not associated with performance on any measures of behavior or cognition. The relationship between nonplanning impulsiveness and alcohol misuse was not influenced by history of mTBI. Conclusions: These results partially support previous findings and indicate that an association between impulsiveness and problematic behaviors exists in OEF/OIF/OND veterans, regardless of TBI history.
    Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 02/2015; 37(1):1-8. DOI:10.1080/13803395.2014.989817
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Mentalizing ability is the issue in the social cognition of patients with brain injury that has received the most attention. The present study investigated mentalization ability in patients with prefrontal cortex damage. The aims of this study were to investigate: (a) whether patients with prefrontal cortex damage are impaired in mentalizing ability, including theory of mind (ToM) and empathy; (b) whether patients with ventromedial prefrontal cortex damage are impaired in different aspects of ToM; (c) whether patients with ventromedial prefrontal cortex damage are impaired in different aspects of empathy; and (d) whether impairment of mentalizing ability in patients with prefrontal cortex damage can be explained by executive dysfunction. Method: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Matrix Reasoning subtest, working memory, executive function, theory of mind, and empathy assessments were conducted on eight patients with ventromedial prefrontal cortex damage, 15 patients with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex damage, and 19 normal comparisons matched for level of education and intelligence. Results: The results showed that performance on affective and nonverbal theory of mind was significantly lower in patients with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex damage than in the comparison group. Performance on personal distress items of empathy was significantly lower in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex damage group than in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex damage group. In addition, further multiple regression analysis showed that affective theory of mind could be explained by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-Modified (WCST-M), with an explained variance of up to 44%. Conclusion: The present study suggests that the impairment of mentalizing ability in patients with prefrontal cortex damage is partially the result of executive dysfunction.
    Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 02/2015; 37(2):1-12. DOI:10.1080/13803395.2014.992864
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction. The influence of education and oral word-reading ability on cognitive performance was examined in a sample of 1510 nondemented elders differing in socioeconomic status (SES) from three Spanish communities. Method. All individuals were enrolled in the Neurological Disorders in Central Spain, a population-based epidemiological study in central Spain. They completed a detailed demographic survey and a short standardized neuropsychological battery assessing psychomotor speed, attention, language, and memory. The Word Accentuation Test (WAT) was used as measure of oral reading ability. The influence of education and oral reading on cognitive performance was determined by multiple linear regression models, first controlling for demographics (age and sex), and subsequently for the WAT score and education. The contribution of socioeconomic conditions was addressed by stratifying the sample into groups of high and low SES. Results. The WAT showed a significant independent effect on cognitive scores, generally greater than that predicted by demographics. The higher predictive power of oral word reading on cognitive scores compared to education was consistent across the three communities. Although the variance explained by WAT was very similar in areas with diverse SES (low vs. high), WAT scores accounted for slightly more variance in naming and memory tasks in low SES areas. In contrast, the variance explained by WAT was higher for verbal fluency and the Trail-Making Test in areas with high SES. Conclusion. Oral word-reading ability predicts cognitive performance better than years of education across individuals with different SES. The influence of WAT may be modulated by SES and cognitive task properties.
    Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 02/2015; DOI:10.1080/13803395.2014.989819
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    ABSTRACT: Between 40-65% of multiple sclerosis patients experience cognitive deficits, with processing speed and working memory most commonly affected. This pilot study investigated the effect of computerized cognitive training focused on improving processing speed and working memory. Participants were randomized into either an active or a sham training group and engaged in six weeks of training. The active training group improved on a measure of processing speed and attention following cognitive training, and data trended toward significance on measures of other domains. Results provide preliminary evidence that cognitive training with multiple sclerosis patients may produce moderate improvement in select areas of cognitive functioning.
    Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 02/2015; DOI:10.1080/13803395.2014.989818
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Decisions regarding return to play after sports-related concussion partially revolve around athletes' self-reported symptoms. Given this emphasis on symptoms, it would be beneficial to be able to identify characteristics that could predict which athletes may be susceptible to developing an increase in postconcussion symptoms following head injury. The purpose of this study was to describe the symptoms that athletes endorse immediately following concussion and to determine what impact injury-related characteristics have on the development of postconcussion symptoms within the first week following concussion. Method: Participants included 54 collegiate athletes who sustained concussions and were referred to our concussion management program for postconcussion testing. The main outcome measures included the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale and an interview querying athletes' retrospective symptoms over time, starting immediately postinjury. Results: Descriptive statistics revealed that the most common immediate symptoms following concussion include dizziness (endorsed by 83.6% of the sample), headache (65.5%), feeling in a fog (61.8%), and visual disturbance (60.0%). Logistic regression analyses indicated that retrograde and anterograde amnesia, as well as loss of consciousness, were not significantly predictive of postconcussion symptoms within one week following concussion (p > .05). However, the total symptom score assessed immediately postinjury, in addition to endorsing immediate headache symptoms following concussion, reliably predicted a higher level of symptom reporting in the first week following concussion (p < .05). Finally, receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, using 80% sensitivity to predict the high postconcussion symptom group, established cutoff scores of 7.5 for the immediate total symptom score and 0.5 for immediate headache. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate the importance of evaluating symptoms immediately following concussion. Athletes who endorse more immediate postconcussion symptoms, especially headache symptoms, may be at risk for greater and more severe postconcussion symptoms within the first week following concussion. The present findings have implications for the management and treatment of sports-related concussions.
    Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 02/2015; DOI:10.1080/13803395.2015.1004303
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Deficits in attentional abilities can significantly impact rehabilitation and recovery from traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study investigated the nature and recovery of preattentive (parallel) and attentive (serial) visual search abilities after TBI. Method: Participants were 40 individuals with moderate to severe TBI who were tested following emergence from posttraumatic amnesia and approximately 8 months post injury, as well as 40 age- and education-matched controls. Preattentive (automatic) and attentive (controlled) visual search situations were created by manipulating the saliency of the target item amongst distractor items in visual displays. The relationship between preattentive and attentive visual search rates and follow-up community integration were also explored. Results: The results revealed intact parallel (automatic) processing skills in the TBI group both postacutely and at follow-up. In contrast, when attentional demands on visual search were increased by reducing the saliency of the target, the TBI group demonstrated poorer performances than the control group both postacutely and 8 months post injury. Neither preattentive nor attentive visual search slope values correlated with follow-up community integration. Conclusions: These results suggest that utilizing intact preattentive visual search skills during rehabilitation may help to reduce high mental workload situations, thereby improving the rehabilitation process. For example, making commonly used objects more salient in the environment should increase reliance or more automatic visual search processes and reduce visual search time for individuals with TBI.
    Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 02/2015; DOI:10.1080/13803395.2014.998170
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) paradigms are used to investigate successful forgetting of irrelevant information. Responses to the RIF paradigm can vary substantially, but to date there has been limited investigation of the individual difference factors that contribute to RIF performances. This study investigated whether individual differences in baseline RIF ability impacted on RIF performance after temporarily induced frontal dysfunction. To examine this question, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) function was temporarily reduced using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Method: Fourteen individuals received tDCS (sham/active) on two separate occasions and completed a RIF paradigm within 30 minutes of receiving tDCS. Results: As expected, the group of individuals who demonstrated high levels of RIF after sham tDCS demonstrated a significant reduction in RIF performance after active tDCS. Unexpectedly, however, those individuals who demonstrated low or reverse RIF effects after sham tDCS showed a significant increase in RIF after active tDCS. Conclusions: This is the first study to show that individual differences in premorbid RIF affect RIF performance after temporary reduction in left DLPFC function. These findings suggest that premorbid RIF ability may be an important factor to consider when investigating the impact of frontal dysfunction on RIF in patient populations.
    Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 02/2015; DOI:10.1080/13803395.2014.993307
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    ABSTRACT: Although chronic pain patients commonly report problems with concentration and memory, recent research indicates that induced pain alone causes little or no impairment on several Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) subtests, suggesting that cognitive complaints in chronic pain may be attributable to factors other than pain. The current studies examined potential effects of induced pain on Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) visual working memory index (VWM) subtests (Experiment 1, n = 32) and on the immediate portions of WMS-IV auditory memory (IAM) subtests (Experiment 2, n = 55). In both studies, participants were administered one of two subtests (Symbol Span or Spatial Addition for Experiment 1; Logical Memory or Verbal Paired Associates for Experiment 2) normally and were then administered the alternate subtest while experiencing either cold pressor pain induction or a nonpainful control condition. Results indicate that induced pain in nonclinical volunteers did not impair performance on either VWM or IAM performance, suggesting that pain alone does not account for complaints or deficits in these domains in chronic pain patients. Nonpainful variables such as sleep deprivation or emotional disturbance may be responsible for reported cognitive complaints in chronic pain patients.
    Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 02/2015; DOI:10.1080/13803395.2014.1002756
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Cognitive impairment is a highly prevalent, disabling, and poorly managed consequence of multiple sclerosis (MS). Exercise training represents a promising approach for managing cognitive impairment in this population. However, there is limited evidence supporting an optimal exercise stimulus for improving cognition in MS. The current study compared the acute effects of moderate-intensity treadmill walking, moderate-intensity cycle ergometry, and guided yoga with those of quiet rest on executive control in 24 persons with relapsing-remitting MS without impaired cognitive processing speed using a within-subjects, repeated measures design. Method: Participants completed four experimental conditions that consisted of 20 minutes of moderate-intensity treadmill walking exercise, moderate-intensity cycle ergometer exercise, guided yoga, and quiet rest in a randomized, counterbalanced order. Participants underwent a modified-flanker task as a measure of executive control immediately prior to and following each condition. Results: Repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVAs) indicated general pre-to-post improvements in reaction time, but not accuracy, on the modified-flanker task for all three exercise modalities compared with quiet rest. However, there were additional, selective pre-to-post reductions in the cost of interfering stimuli on reaction time on the modified-flanker task for treadmill walking, F(1, 23) = 4.67, p = .04, ηp(2) = .17, but not cycle ergometry, F(1, 23) = 0.12, p = .73, ηp(2) < .01, or guided yoga, F(1, 23) = 0.73, p = .40, ηp(2) = .03, compared with quiet rest. Conclusions: The present results support treadmill walking as the modality of exercise that might exert the largest beneficial effects on executive control in persons with relapsing-remitting MS without impaired cognitive processing speed. This represents an exciting starting point for delineating the appropriate exercise stimulus (i.e., modality and intensity) for inclusion in a subsequent longitudinal exercise training intervention for improving cognitive performance in this population.
    Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 02/2015; DOI:10.1080/13803395.2014.1001723
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    ABSTRACT: Despite their widespread use in research and clinical practice, the cognitive abilities purportedly assessed by different verbal fluency task variants remain unclear and may vary across different healthy and clinical populations. The overarching aim of this study was to identify which cognitive abilities contribute to phonemic, semantic, excluded letter, and alternating verbal fluency tasks and whether these contributions differ across younger and older healthy adults. Method: Ninety-six younger (18-36 years) and 83 older (65-87 years) healthy participants completed measures of estimated verbal intelligence, semantic retrieval, processing speed, working memory, and inhibitory control, in addition to phonemic, semantic, excluded letter, and alternating fluency tasks. Eight hierarchical multiple regressions were conducted across the four fluency variants and two age groups to identify which cognitive variables uniquely contributed to these fluency tasks. Results: In the younger group, verbal intelligence and processing speed contributed to phonemic fluency, semantic retrieval to semantic fluency, processing speed and working memory to excluded letter fluency, and semantic retrieval to alternating fluency. In contrast, in the older group, verbal intelligence contributed to phonemic fluency, no cognitive variables contributed to semantic fluency, inhibition to excluded letter fluency, and verbal intelligence to alternating fluency. Conclusions: Our findings highlight that both lower and higher order cognitive skills contribute to verbal fluency tasks; however, these contributions vary considerably across fluency variants and age groups. The heterogeneity of cognitive determinants of verbal fluency, across variants and age, may explain why older people performed less proficiently on semantic and excluded letter fluency tasks while no age effects were found for phonemic and alternating fluency. Interpretation of verbal fluency performances need to be tailored according to which verbal fluency variant and age group are used.
    Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 02/2015; DOI:10.1080/13803395.2014.988125
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    ABSTRACT: No studies to date have investigated the Boston Naming Test (BNT) as an embedded performance validity test (PVT). This study investigated the classification accuracy of the Boston Naming Test (BNT) and the Verbal Fluency Test (FAS and Animal Fluency), as embedded PVTs in a compensation-seeking mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) sample (N = 57) compared to a non-compensation-seeking moderate-to-severe TBI (STBI) sample (N = 61). Participants in the MTBI sample who failed two or more PVTs were included, as were STBI participants who passed all PVTs. The classification accuracy of the individual tests and a logistically derived combined (LANGPVT) measure were studied. Results showed significant group differences (p < .05) on BNT, Animal Fluency, and LANGPVT between the MTBI and STBI groups. However, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses indicated that only LANGPVT had acceptable classification accuracy (area under the curve > .70). Setting specificity at approximately .90, the recommended LANGPVT cutoff scores had sensitivity of .26. Results indicated that, similar to other embedded PVTs, these measures had low sensitivity when adequate specificity levels were maintained. However, extremely low scores on these measures are unlikely to occur in non-compensation-seeking, non-language-impaired, STBI cases.
    Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 02/2015; DOI:10.1080/13803395.2014.1002758
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    ABSTRACT: Gist reasoning (abstracting meaning from complex information) was compared between adults with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI, n = 30) at least one year post injury and healthy adults (n = 40). The study also examined the contribution of executive functions (working memory, inhibition, and switching) and memory (immediate recall and memory for facts) to gist reasoning. The correspondence between gist reasoning and daily function was also examined in the TBI group. Results indicated that the TBI group performed significantly lower than the control group on gist reasoning, even after adjusting for executive functions and memory. Executive function composite was positively associated with gist reasoning (p < .001). Additionally, performance on gist reasoning significantly predicted daily function in the TBI group beyond the predictive ability of executive function alone (p = .011). Synthesizing and abstracting meaning(s) from information (i.e., gist reasoning) could provide an informative index into higher order cognition and daily functionality.
    Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 01/2015; 37(2):1-10. DOI:10.1080/13803395.2014.994478
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Significant evidence has demonstrated that Type 2 diabetes mellitus and related precursors are associated with diminished neurocognitive function and risk of dementia among older adults. However, very little research has examined relations of glucose regulation to neurocognitive function among older adults free of these conditions. The primary aim of this investigation was to examine associations among fasting glucose, glucose tolerance, and neurocognitive function among nondiabetic older adults. The secondary aim was to examine age, gender, and education as potential effect modifiers. Method: The study employed a cross-sectional, correlational study design. Participants were 172 older adults with a mean age of 64.43 years (SD = 13.09). The sample was 58% male and 87% White. Participants completed an oral glucose tolerance test as part of a larger study. Trained psychometricians administered neuropsychological tests that assessed performance in the domains of response inhibition, nonverbal memory, verbal memory, attention and working memory, visuoconstructional abilities, visuospatial abilities, psychomotor speed and executive function, and motor speed and manual dexterity. Linear multiple regressions were run to test study aims. Results: No significant main effects of fasting glucose and 2-hour glucose emerged for performance on any neurocognitive test; however, significant interactions were present. Higher fasting glucose was associated with poorer short-term verbal memory performance among men, but unexpectedly better response inhibition and long-term verbal memory performance for participants over age 70. Higher 2-hour glucose values were associated with reduced divided attention performance among participants with less than a high school education. Conclusions: Mixed findings suggest that glucose levels may be both beneficial and deleterious to neurocognition among nondiabetic older adults. Additional studies with healthy older adults are needed to confirm this unexpected pattern of associations; however, findings have implications for the importance of maintaining healthy glucose levels in older adulthood.
    Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 01/2015; DOI:10.1080/13803395.2014.985189