International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning (Int J Sustain Dev Plann )

Publisher: WIT Press


The 'International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning' is an international, interdisciplinary journal covering the subjects of environmental design and planning, environmental management, spatial planning, environmental planning, environmental management and sustainable development in an integrated way as well as in accordance with the principles of sustainability. In the beginning of 21st century, despite major scientific and technological accomplishments, the struggle for a cleaner environment as well as for rational organization of space is not settled. It is clear to us that environmentalists, planners, policy makers, engineers and economists have to work together in order to ensure that environmental protection, spatial co-ordination and economic development could all be achieved without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own requirements. In recent years, an increase in spatial and environmental problems in many countries has led to a crisis in environmental planning and management. The increasing urbanization of the world coupled with the issues of environmental pollution, resources shortage and economic restructuring demand that a lot of effort should be required in order to make our cities sustainable. Moreover, problems of sustainable planning and management are not restricted in urban areas, since rural areas face serious environmental challenges. The aim of the 'Sustainable Development and Planning' is to inform its readers quickly on all aspects of environmental planning and management. The Journal includes subjects ranging from social to technical environmental management issues, having always as an axis the concept of sustainable planning and development.

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  • Website
    International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning website
  • Other titles
    International journal of sustainable development and planning (Online), Sustainable development and planning, Sustainable development and planning journal
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  • Material type
    Document, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

WIT Press

  • Pre-print
    • Archiving status unclear
  • Post-print
    • Archiving status unclear
  • Conditions
    • Publisher last contacted on 3rd February 2010
  • Classification
    ​ white

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Urban air quality has deteriorated in last few decades in the mega cities of both developed and developing countries. Many mathematical models have been widely used as prediction tool for urban air quality management in developed countries. However, applications of these models are limited in developing countries including India due to lack of sufficient validation studies. In this paper, three state-of-the-art air quality models namely AERMOD, ADMS-Urban and ISCST3 have been used to predict the air quality at an intersection in Delhi city, India, followed by their performance evaluation and sensitive analysis under different meteorological conditions. The models have been run for different climatic conditions, i.e. summer and winter season to predict the concentration of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and PM2.5 (diameter size less than 2.5 µm). The ISCST3 has performed satisfactorily (d = 0.69) for predicting CO concentrations when compared with AERMOD (d = 0.50) and ADMS-Urban (d = 0.45) for winter period. The ADMS-Urban (d = 0.49) has performed satisfactorily for predicting NO2 concentration when compared with ISCST3 (d = 0.36) and AERMOD (d = 0.32). The AERMOD, ISCST3 and ADMS-Urban have performed satisfactorily for predicting PM2.5 con- centrations having d values as 0.46, 0.45 and 0.43 respectively. All three models have performed satisfactorily for predicting CO concentrations when wind speed was in the range of 0.5–3 m/s and wind direction in the range 90–180 degrees, i.e. downwind direction. The difference in model’s performance may be due to differences in model formulation and the treatment of terrain features. The causal nature of these Gaussian based models may be one of the reasons for difference in performance of the models, because these are sensitive to quality and quantity of input data on meteorology and emission sources.
    International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning 12/2014; 9:778 - 793.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this study, several experiments were performed to decrease volume or weight and detoxification of solid organic wastes produced from various agricultural activities and industries in Japan using the pyrolyzing and/ or carbonizing process. Additionally, these solid organic wastes were also transformed into the stable materials of char (so-called ‘pyrolyzed waste char’). The objective of this study was to develop an effective utilization system of the waste char pyrolyzed and carbonized from the solid industrial organic wastes using the pyrolysis equipment with overheated steam or fluidized bed pyrolysis equipment. From the feasibility study, it was suggested that waste char-biomass briquettes that are produced from the pyrolyzed waste chars of waste tires, cow manure and poultry manure are used instead of the fossil solid fuel (e.g. coal) based on their burning character- istics and analytical results of exhaust gases.
    International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning 10/2014; 9(5):705-716.
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, different carbonization processes were performed for thinning wood waste as organic industrial waste and forestry waste biomass to produce waste wood char, which is used as solid and gaseous fuel. Waste biomass samples were added to Na+ (NaOH) using thermogravimetry with a differential thermal analyser (TG/DTA), where the behaviour of thermal decomposition and the effect of additive amount of alkali metal were investigated. Waste wood char yields were increased at the peak temperature and weight loss was decreased with the increment of Na+ (NaOH) loaded value. The fixed carbon amount of waste wood char was also increased with the maximum Na+ (NaOH) loaded value at 100:1, and then it was decreased. Furthermore, in order to evaluate the effect of Na+ (NaOH) loaded value on char reactivity, an isothermal CO2 gasification experiment was performed at temperatures between 700°C and 900°C for chars obtained by pyrolysis at 900°C. It was shown that the reaction rate was increased with increasing temperature and the reaction rate of raw char was markedly slower than Na+ (NaOH) loaded char. The activation energies of char were in decreasing trend with increasing Na loaded value. However, the activation energies of CO2 gasification of char samples were conversely increased when Na+ loaded on char sample was more than 50:1. If too large amounts of Na+ (NaOH) were loaded on char sample, the rate of gasification reaction and the activation energy will be decreased as Na+ reacts with the char surface covering the gasifying agent.
    International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning 10/2014; 9(5):680-691.
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    ABSTRACT: The liquefaction of waste woody materials in the presence of phenol and acid catalyst is a promising method for converting waste woody materials into phenolic resin. The condensation reaction during the liquefaction process is a major problem for its practical application. The effects of various reaction conditions on the extent of the condensation reaction were investigated. The residue content, molecular weight distributions and phenol concentration were measured to investigate the condensation reaction. As a result, it was observed that the intense reaction conditions caused fast liquefaction and led to a remarkable condensation reaction. It was also found that the residue content began to increase at an earlier reaction time when a more remarkable condensation reaction occurred. These results indicated that the condensation reaction was one of the causes for too much degradation of liquefied wood molecules under intense liquefaction. The phenol concentrations in the liquefaction products were measured to investigate their effect on the condensation reaction. It was shown that the phenol concentration was 8% lower at the end of the reaction when the condensation reaction was high. It was indicated that the drop in phenol concentration suppressed the liquefaction and promoted the condensation reaction. The addition of methanol during the liquefaction process suppressed the condensation reaction. The residue content was 11% when 50% methanol was added, while it reached 66% when methanol was not added. This can be because methanol reduced the bound phenol, which could be a reaction site of condensation reaction.
    International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning 10/2014; 9(5):658-668.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: About 3.9 million tons of agricultural residue waste biomass such as rice husk and straw are stably produced from rice each year in Japan. It is reported that vapor pollutants and particles emitted from the burning of agricultural residue waste biomass such as waste rice husk and straw have serious influences on visibility, human health, and global climate. Therefore, it is necessary to utilize waste rice husk and straw effectively to reduce air pollution. In recent years, there has been an increasing demand for the effective utilization of waste agricultural residue biomass instead of fossil fuel in combustors for farming such as greenhouses heating during the winter season. However, there is a lack of regulations or laws to control air pollution from these small-size combustors in Japan. So far, small-size combustors have been characterized by their structural simplicity and low cost. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate and control the emission of air pollutants such as fine particles (i.e. PM2.5 – particles below 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter) due to the poor combustion performance of small-size combustors. In this study, it was investigated whether it would be possible to utilize biomass fuel selected from waste rice husk and straw of agricultural residue waste biomass based on the laboratory combustion experiments. The emission behavior of harmful suspended particulate matter produced from burning rice husk and straw was evaluated by measuring carbonaceous and ionic composition of PM2.5 in the exhaust gases. From the analytical results, it was found that particulate mass concentrations reduced substantially at high-temperature combustion. However, ionic compositions were increased with the increase in combustion temperature. It can be suggested that stable combustion should be performed under suitable conditions to control air pollutants emitted from biomass fuel, although small-size combustors are still not regulated to control PM2.5 emission.
    International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning 10/2014; 9(5):717-726.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Large amounts of waste fine coals are very difficult to be treated due to the presence of ash and inorganic sulphur compounds. In order to use waste fine coal efficiently, a retrieval technique is necessary for the recovery of combustible contents of coal from fine waste coals. Nowadays, a flotation process has been used for the treatment, but it is impractical for developing countries due to its higher costs. Therefore, oil agglomeration process has been used to deal with these problems. In this study, the factors affecting the coal cleaning efficiency of the oil agglomeration process were investigated with the element contents and chemical structure of three different grade coals. Chemical contents in three different grade coals were determined by proximate and ultimate analyses and the differences in chemical structure of carbonaceous contents of different grade coals were investigated by a Fourier transform-infrared spectrometry. In free coals or their mixed samples, the ratio of ash and carbonaceous contents were maintained to make it homogeneous. From the results of oil agglomeration experiments, it was concluded that the characteristics of agglomerate and the coal cleaning efficiency of oil agglomeration were not only influenced by the type of oils but also by the oxygen contents and the aromatic and aliphatic chemical structures in different grade coals. The oxygenic functional groups of carbonaceous contents in coal samples prevented oil from attaching the carbonaceous surface and form the bulky aggregate. This depressed the combustible matter recovery, but this was resolved by changing the oil types. Oxygen contents in oils such as vegetable oil played a role in bridging material to the oxygenic functional groups of carbonaceous contents in coal samples. Meanwhile, it was observed that aromatic functional groups in carbonaceous contents interacted badly with the aliphatic functional groups in oil due to the resonance inspection of delocalized π electrons. Comparatively carbonaceous contents consisting of more aliphatic series or graphite-reinforced structures were tended to form aggregates easily. Even when different types of coals were used in the oil agglomeration, it was possible to achieve a better efficiency by taking these factors into account. Moreover, by thermogravimetric-derivative thermogravimetric (TG-DTG) analyses, it was found that the combustion characteristics of carbonaceous contents were improved due to oil attachment.
    International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning 10/2014; 9(5):692-704.
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    ABSTRACT: Since fossil energy resources are exhaustible in the world, renewable biomass is considered as one of the useful future resources for energy and materials. In addition, when the biomass grows, it can contribute to the prevention of global warming by circularly absorbing CO2. There are different biomass utilization technologies such as the pyrolysis and gasification, fermentation and combustion. For example, gaseous components are used as chemical products and used for energy production; these can be produced by the pyrolysis or synthesized by gasification. However, there is the problem that condensable organic compounds, so-called ‘tar’ will also be generated during the pyrolysis and gasification processes. Most of the tar components are present as gases at higher temperature inside of the reactors. However, a black oily liquid will be formed, leading to the equipment failure when the temperature is cooled down lower than their boiling points. Therefore, appropriate processing is required. As a processing method, catalytic decomposition of tar has been widely studied. In the present study, it was carried out for the thermal decomposition of cellulose in the experimental apparatus connecting two reaction tubes. Tar and gases generated by the thermal decomposition of cellulose in the first reactor can be pyrolyzed with catalytic cracking in the second reactor. Tar contents were firstly cooled and collected. At the same time, the amount of gases was measured by a gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector and a gas chromatograph with a thermal conductivity detector. Then, K and Ca were selected as the catalyst of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals contained in the waste biomass, which were present in the state of oxide or carbonate during the pyrolysis and gasification. The amount of condensable products was decreased by installing catalytic contents of K2CO3 and Ca(OH)2. Additionally, the amount of gaseous products was increased. It can be concluded that an alkali metal compound (K2CO3) and an alkaline earth compound (CaO) have a catalytic effect to decompose tar contents, which can enhance gaseous production in the secondary reaction.
    International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning 10/2014; 9(5):669-679.
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    ABSTRACT: Experimental investigation of dispersion from ground source on a single building model was performed. The measurements were conducted in boundary layer wind tunnel in Aerospace Research and Test Establishment (VZLU). Simple rectangular building model, gas fl ow controllers and fl ame ionization detectors were used for these experiments. Emissions presented non-buoyant and heavy gases emitted out of a ground-level point source. Tracing gas (ethane) was used for the concentration measurements. Effect of changing source concentration and source distance was studied both on windward and leeward side of the model building. Signifi cant differences between these two basic cases were observed.
    International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning 03/2014;
  • C. Musvoto, K. Nortje, M. Murambadoro
    International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning 01/2014; 9(3):445-463.
  • Jiao Jinpeng
    International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning 01/2014; 9(3):464-471.
  • International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning 01/2014; 9(3):400-416.
  • International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning 01/2014; 9(3):362-375.
  • International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning 01/2014; 9(1):54-73.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Our planet has limited resources, and due to our increasing demands on a variety of products, we rely on the availability of primary and secondary resources. This paper will give an overview on the required information received from processing secondary resources. It is possible to assess the quality of the generated material flows with this information. By describing the material characteristics and the material flow uncertainties, a forecast of the material’s future potential to replace primary resources may be possible. Future prospects of the quality of secondary resources, including their input and output properties may be helpful to assess their potential to substitute primary resource for example. It is the contribution of the paper to point out the necessity of knowing the whole life cycle of a product to gain the best available end-of-life option. The case study of scrap tire recycling gives an example of assessing the material’s properties. Modelling recycling processes offers the potential of identifying the processing steps with regard to the main material flows and emissions to reduce the environmental impact and improve the economics. Material fl ow assessment and life cycle assessment can support the determination of the future potential of waste streams entering the recycling process. Some material flows are appropriate to replace primary resources without loss of quality. But other materials are only useful for products with minor quality. Some materials are made to never separate by itself, and therefore pure material flows are impossible to achieve. A model that considers different material properties of material flows helps to evaluate the global recycling potential. Therefore, material qualities have to be defined to make an assessment of sustainable management of secondary resources possible. A concept of developing a model that addresses this issue is presented in this paper. The aim of the model is to predict secondary material flows that are of equal quality of primary material flows. These material flows are then suitable to substitute primary resources which results in global savings in resources, both material and energy.
    International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning 01/2014; 9(1):90-105.
  • International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning 01/2014; 9(1):74-89.
  • P. Ivehammar, J. Jernberg
    International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning 01/2014; 9(2):301-316.
  • M. G. Miguez, A. P. Veról, F. C. B. Mascarenhas, R. B. Santos
    International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning 01/2014; 9(2):225-236.
  • International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning 01/2014; 9(2):211-224.