AIDS Research and Therapy (AIDS Res Ther)
AIDS Research and Therapy is an Open Access, online journal that publishes peer-reviewed research articles from scientists working to prevent the spread of AIDS. AIDS Research and Therapy aims to publish basic science as well as clinically important research articles that impact on abating the spread of AIDS. This multidisciplinary journal aims to keep scientists and clinicians abreast of the latest research on HIV-1. It will publish articles on novel and developing treatment strategies for AIDS, as well as on the outcomes of established treatment strategies. Original research articles on animal models that form an essential part of the AIDS treatment research will also be published. The ultimate goal of the journal's focus is to lead bench research to bedside practice to combat AIDS. AIDS is spreading at alarming rates in several African and Asian countries. Thus, any development that occurs in combating AIDS should be disseminated as rapidly as possible through the world. Although there are several AIDS-related journals in print, none of them are openly accessible to the world through the Internet. AIDS Research and Therapy will provide an Open Access journal specifically devoted to HIV-1 and AIDS research.
- Impact factor2.54
- WebsiteAIDS Research and Therapy website
Material typeDocument, Periodical, Internet resource
Document typeInternet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper
Publications in this journal
Article: A possible role for CCR5 in the progression of atherosclerosis in HIV-infected patients: a cross-sectional study.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Chemokines can block viral entry by interfering with HIV co-receptors and are recognised mediators of atherosclerosis development. A number of experimental drugs that inhibit HIV entry arrest the development of atherosclerosis in animal models. We hypothesised that the expression of chemokine receptors in circulating leukocytes is associated with the rate of atherosclerosis progression in HIV-infected patients. METHODS: The increase in intima-media thickness during a 2-year follow-up was used to classify HIV-infected patients (n = 178) as progressors (n = 142) or non-progressors (n = 36) with respect to atherosclerosis. Logistic regression was used to assess variables associated with atherosclerosis progression. Mutations in the CCR5Delta32, CCR2 64I, and CX3CR1 (T280M and V249I) co-receptors as well as the levels of CCR5, CXCR4, CX3CR1, and CCR2 mRNA expression in circulating leukocytes were analysed as independent variables. RESULTS: Among the baseline variables, only genetic variants explained the dichotomous outcome. The expression of CCR2 and CXCR4 did not discriminate between progressors and non-progressors. Conversely, CCR5 and CX3CR1 expression was higher in not only progressors but also patients with detectable viral load. The logistic regression, however, demonstrated a significant role for CCR5 expression as a predictor of atherosclerosis progression (B = 2.1, OR = 8.1, p = 0.04) and a negligible effect for CXC3R1 and CCR2 expression. CONCLUSIONS: Available CCR5 antagonists should be investigated for their potential to delay the course of atherosclerosis in HIV-infected patients.AIDS Research and Therapy 05/2013; 10(1):11.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: During the HIV-1 replication cycle, several molecules including chemokine receptors and cholesterol are crucial, and are therefore potential targets for therapeutic intervention. Indeed statins, compounds that inhibit cellular synthesis of cholesterol and have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties were shown to inhibit HIV-1 infection by R5 tropic strains but not by X4 strains in vitro, mainly by altering the chemokine receptor/ligands axes. Therefore, the objective of this study was to characterize in vivo, the capacity of statins to modulate in HIV seronegative and chronically HIV-1-infected adults the expression of CCR5 and CXCR4, of their ligands and the tropism of circulating HIV-1 strains. METHODS: Samples from asymptomatic HIV-1-infected adults enrolled in a clinical trial aimed at evaluating the antiretroviral activity of lovastatin were used to evaluate in vivo the modulation by lovastatin of CCR5, CXCR4, their ligands, and the shift in plasma viral tropism over one year of intervention. In addition, ten HIV negative adults received a daily oral dose of 40 mg of lovastatin or 20 mg of atorvastatin; seven other HIV negative individuals who received no treatment were followed as controls. The frequency and phenotype of immune cells were determined by flow-cytometry; mRNA levels of chemokine receptors and their ligands were determined by real-time PCR. Viral tropism was determined by PCR and sequencing, applying the clonal and clinical model of analyses. RESULTS: Our study shows that long-term administration of lovastatin in HIV-infected individuals does not induce a shift in viral tropism, or induce a significant modulation of CCR5 and CXCR4 on immune cells in HIV-infected patients. Similar results were found in HIV seronegative control subjects, treated with lovastatin or atorvastatin, but a significant increase in CCL3 and CCL4 transcription was observed in these individuals. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that long-term administration of statins at therapeutic doses, does not significantly affect the expression of HIV-1 co-receptors or of their ligands. In addition it is important to point out that based on the results obtained, therapeutic administration of statins in HIV-infected patients with lipid disorders is safe in terms of selecting X4 strains.AIDS Research and Therapy 05/2013; 10(1):10.
Article: Increasing Hepatitis C treatment uptake among HIV-infected patients using an HIV primary care model.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Access to Hepatitis C (HCV) care is low among HIV-infected individuals, highlighting the need for new models to deliver care for this population. METHODS: Retrospective cohort analysis that compared the number of HIV patients who initiated HCV therapy: hepatology (2005--2008) vs. HIV primary care model (2008--2011). Logistic-regression modeling was used to ascertain factors associated with HCV therapy initiation and achievement of sustained viral response (SVR). RESULTS: Of 196 and 163 patients that were enrolled in the HIV primary care and hepatology models, 48 and 26 were treated for HCV, respectively (p = 0.043). The HIV/HCV-patient referral rate did not differ during the two study periods (0.10 vs. 0.12/patient-yr, p = 0.18). In unadjusted analysis, predictors (p < 0.05) of HCV treatment initiation included referral to the HIV primary care model (OR: 1.7), a CD4+ count >=400/mm3 (OR: 1.8) and alanine aminotranferase level >=63U/L (OR: 1.9). Prior psychiatric medication use correlated negatively with HCV treatment initiation (OR: 0.6, p = 0.045). In adjusted analysis the strongest predictor of HCV treatment initiation was CD4+ count (>=400/mm3, OR: 2.1, p = 0.01). There was no significant difference in either clinic model (primary care vs. hepatology) in the rates of treatment discontinuation due to adverse events (29% vs. 16%), loss to follow-up (8 vs. 8%), or HCV SVR (44 vs. 35%). CONCLUSIONS: Using a HIV primary care model increased the number of HIV patients who initiate HCV therapy with comparable outcomes to a hepatology model.AIDS Research and Therapy 03/2013; 10(1):9.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to increase among certain populations including young men who have sex with men (MSM). College campuses represent a potential setting to engage young adults and institute prevention interventions including HIV testing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate testing practices for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) on college campuses. METHODS: Medical directors at four-year residential baccalaureate college health centers in New England were surveyed from June, 2011 to September, 2011. Thirty-one interviews were completed regarding experiences with HIV testing, acute HIV infection, other STI testing, and outreach efforts targeting specific at-risk groups such as MSM. RESULTS: Among schools that responded to the survey, less than five percent of students were tested for HIV at their local college health center in the past academic year (2010--2011). Significant barriers to HIV testing included cost and availability of rapid antibody testing. One-third of college health medical directors reported that their practitioners may not feel comfortable recognizing acute HIV infection. CONCLUSIONS: Improved HIV testing practices are needed on college campuses. Programs should focus on outreach efforts targeting MSM and other at-risk populations.AIDS Research and Therapy 03/2013; 10(1):8.
Article: Prevalence of intestinal parasite and associated risk factors among HIV/AIDS patients with pre-ART and on-ART attending dessie hospital ART clinic, Northeast Ethiopia.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Intestinal parasites are a major concern in most developing countries where HIV/AIDS case are concentrate and almost 80% of AIDS patients die of AIDS-related infections. In the absence of ART, HIV/AIDS patients in developing countries unfortunately continue to suffer from the consequences of opportunistic parasites. But this prevalence has dramatically decreased in countries where antiretroviral agents are widely available. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasite and risk factor among pre- ART and on ART adult HIV/ AIDS patients attending ART clinic in Dessie hospital. METHODS: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted among pre-ART and on ART adult HIV/AIDS patients of Dessie Hospital. A total of 272 (136 from each group) study subjects were selected by using systematic random sampling. Stool sample was collected and processed using direct wet mount, formol-ether concentration technique and modified Ziehl-Neelson staining techniques. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on Sociodemographic & associated risk factors. Data was entered and analyzed by using SPSS 160 software and logistic regressions were applied to assess any association between explanatory factors and outcome variables. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of IP in pre-ART and on-ART was 39% and 17.6%, respectively with significant decrease of intestinal parasite in the ART era (p < 0.001). All Cryptosporidium spps infections were found in the pre-ART patients and significantly associated for lower CD4 <200cells/mm3. Absence of toilet (AOR = 7.57; 95%CI = 1.3,44.22), source of water (AOR = 6.03; 95% CI = 1.14,31.98), living condition (AOR = 13.29, 95%CI = 5.14, 34.35); WHO stage (AOR = 6.06; 95%CI = 2.49,14.74) and ART status (AOR = 7.55; 95%CI = 3.24,17.59) have significant association with prevalence of intestinal parasite. CONCLUSION: The overall prevalence of IP was differ by ART status and opportunistic parasite like cryptosporidium spps were found in low CD4 counts in ART naive patients. This study identified some environmental and some clinical finding as determinant factor for IP infections. Therefore, public health measures and adherence to ART should be strengthened to improve the quality of life of these patients.AIDS Research and Therapy 02/2013; 10(1):7.
Article: Reviewer Acknowledgement 2012.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A peer-reviewed journal would not survive without the generous time and insightful comments of the reviewers whose efforts often go unrecognized. AIDS Research and Therapy has been blessed by the support of highly qualified peer reviewers and would like to show its appreciation by thanking the following for their assistance with review of manuscripts for the journal in 2012.AIDS Research and Therapy 02/2013; 10(1):6.
Article: HIV-associated Central nervous system disease in patients admitted at the Douala General HospitalAIDS Research and Therapy 02/2013;
Article: NGX-4010, a capsaicin 8% patch, for the treatment of painful HIV-associated distal sensory polyneuropathy: integrated analysis of two phase III, randomized, controlled trials.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: HIV-associated distal sensory polyneuropathy (HIV-DSP) is the most frequently reported neurologic complication associated with HIV infection. NGX-4010 is a capsaicin 8% dermal patch with demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of HIV-DSP. Data from two phase III, double-blind studies were integrated to further analyze the efficacy and safety of NGX-4010 and explore the effect of demographic and baseline factors on NGX-4010 treatment in HIV-DSP. METHODS: Data from two similarly designed studies in which patients with HIV-DSP received NGX-4010 or a low-concentration control patch (capsaicin 0.04% w/w) for 30 or 60 minutes were integrated. Efficacy assessments included the mean percent change from baseline in Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) scores to Weeks 2--12. Safety and tolerability assessments included adverse events (AEs) and pain during and after treatment. RESULTS: Patients (n = 239) treated with NGX-4010 for 30 minutes demonstrated significantly (p = 0.0026) greater pain relief compared with controls (n = 100); the mean percent change in NPRS scores from baseline to Weeks 2--12 was -27.0% versus -15.7%, respectively. Patients who received a 60-minute application of NGX-4010 (n = 243) showed comparable pain reductions (-27.5%) to patients treated for 30 minutes, but this was not statistically superior to controls (n = 115). NGX-4010 was effective regardless of gender, baseline pain score, duration of HIV-DSP, or use of concomitant neuropathic pain medication, although NGX-4010 efficacy was greater in patients not receiving concomitant neuropathic pain medications. NGX-4010 was well tolerated; the most common AEs were application-site pain and erythema, and most AEs were mild to moderate. The transient increase in pain associated with NGX-4010 treatment decreased the day after treatment and returned to baseline by Day 2. CONCLUSIONS: A single 30-minute application of NGX-4010 provides significant pain relief for at least 12 weeks in patients with HIV-DSP and is well tolerated.Trial registration: C107 = NCT00064623; C119 = NCT00321672.AIDS Research and Therapy 01/2013; 10(1):5.
Article: Virological failure of staggered and simultaneous treatment interruption in HIV patients who began Efavirenz-based regimens after allergic reactions to nevirapine.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The objective of this work was to study the virological outcomes associated with two different types of treatment interruption strategies in patients with allergic reactions to nevirapine (NVP). We compared the virological outcomes of (1) HIV-1-infected patients who discontinued an initial NVP-based regimen because of cutaneous allergic reactions to NVP; different types of interruption strategies were used, and second-line regimen was based on efavirenz (EFV); and (2) HIV-1-infected patients who began an EFV-based regimen as a first-line therapy (controls) METHODS: This retrospective cohort included patients who began an EFV-based regimen, between January 2002 and December 2008, as either an initial regimen or as a subsequent regimen after resolving a cutaneous allergic reaction against an initial NVP-based regimen. The study ended in March 2010. The primary outcome was virological failure, which was defined as either (a) two consecutive plasma HIV-1 RNA levels >400 copies/mL or (b) a plasma HIV-1 RNA level >1,000 copies/mL plus any genotypic resistance mutation. RESULTS: A total of 559 patients were stratified into three groups: (a) Simultaneous Interruption, in which the subjects simultaneously discontinued all the drugs in an NVP-based regimen following an allergic reaction (n=161); (b) Staggered Interruption, in which the subjects discontinued NVP treatment while continuing nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) backbone therapy for a median of 7 days (n=82); and (c) Control, in which the subjects were naive to antiretroviral therapy (n=316). The overall median follow-up time was 43 months. Incidence of virological failure in Simultaneous Interruption was 12.9 cases per 1,000 person-years, which trended toward being higher than the incidences in Staggered Interruption (5.4) and Control (6.6). However, differences were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Among the patients who had an acute allergic reaction to first-line NVP-based therapy and later began an EFV-based regimen, virological outcomes resulting from a staggered interruption of treatment (with a continuation of NRTI backbone therapy for 7 days after discontinuing NVP) did not differ from those of the patients who began an EFV-based regimen as their initial therapy (Control). However, the virological failure of Simultaneous Interruption was possibly higher than those of Control and Staggered Interruption.AIDS Research and Therapy 01/2013; 10(1):4.
Article: Boosted protease inhibitor monotherapy in HIV-infected adults: outputs from a pan-European expert panel meeting.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: While the introduction of combination highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens represents an important advance in the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, tolerability can be an issue and the use of several different agents may produce problems. The switch of combination HAART to ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI) monotherapy may offer the opportunity to maintain antiviral efficacy while reducing treatment complexity and the risks of toxicity. Current European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) guidelines recognise ritonavir-boosted PI monotherapy with twice-daily lopinavir/ritonavir or once-daily darunavir/ritonavir as a possible option in patients who have intolerance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, or for treatment simplification. Clinical trials data for PI boosted monotherapy are encouraging, showing substantial efficacy in the majority of patients; however, further data are required before this approach can be recommended as a routine treatment. Available data indicate that the most suitable candidates for the use of boosted PI monotherapy are long-term virologically suppressed patients who have demonstrated good adherence to antiretroviral therapy, who do not have chronic hepatitis B, have no history of treatment failure on PIs and are able to tolerate low-dose ritonavir.AIDS Research and Therapy 01/2013; 10(1):3.
Article: Correction: Total Lymphocyte Count as surrogate marker for CD4 Cell Count in HIV-Infected Individuals in Gondar University Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Correction After publication of this work , we noted that we inadvertently failed to include the complete list of all coauthors. The full list of authors has now been added and the Authors' contributions and competing interests section modified accordingly.AIDS Research and Therapy 01/2013; 10(1):2.
Article: A new system for parallel drug screening against multiple-resistant HIV mutants based on lentiviral self-inactivating (SIN) vectors and multi-colour analyses.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Despite progress in the development of combined antiretroviral therapies (cART), HIV infection remains a significant challenge for human health. Current problems of cART include multi-drug-resistant virus variants, long-term toxicity and enormous treatment costs. Therefore, the identification of novel effective drugs is urgently needed. METHODS: We developed a straightforward screening approach for simultaneously evaluating the sensitivity of multiple HIV gag-pol mutants to antiviral drugs in one assay. Our technique is based on multi-colour lentiviral self-inactivating (SIN) LeGO vector technology. RESULTS: We demonstrated the successful use of this approach for the screening compounds against up to four HIV gag-pol variants (wild-type and three mutants) simultaneously. Importantly, the technique was adapted to Biosafety Level 1 conditions by utilising ecotropic pseudotypes. This allowed upscaling to a large-scale screening protocol exploited by pharmaceutical companies in a successful proof-of-concept experiment. CONCLUSIONS: The technology developed here facilitates fast screening for anti-HIV activity of individual agents from large compound libraries. Although drugs targeting gag-pol variants were used here, our approach permits screening compounds that target several different, key cellular and viral functions of the HIV life-cycle. The modular principle of the method also allows the easy exchange of various mutations in HIV sequences. In conclusion, the methodology presented here provides a valuable new approach for the identification of novel anti-HIV drugs.AIDS Research and Therapy 01/2013; 10(1):1.
Article: HIV serostatus disclosure is not associated with safer sexual behavior among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) and their partners at risk for infection in Bangkok, Thailand.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The relationship between HIV serostatus disclosure and sexual risk behavior is inconsistent across studies. As men who have sex with men (MSM) are emerging as the key affected population in Bangkok, Thailand with reported HIV prevalence of 30%, we assessed whether HIV disclosure is associated with protected sex in this population. METHODS: A risk behavior questionnaire was administered using Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interviewing (ACASI) to determine whether HIV serostatus disclosure was associated with protected sex in 200 HIV-positive MSM in Bangkok. HIV serostatus disclosure to the most recent sexual partner prior to or at the time of the sexual encounter was assessed. Protected sex was defined as insertive or receptive anal intercourse with a condom at the most recent sexual encounter. RESULTS: The mean age was 30.2 years, CD4 was 353 cells/mm3, and one-third was on antiretroviral therapy. At the most recent sexual encounter, HIV serostatus disclosure rate was low (26%); 60.5% of subjects had not discussed their serostatus at all, while 5.5% had not revealed their true serostatus. Seventeen percent reported unprotected anal intercourse and about half had sex with their primary partners. The serostatus of the most recent sexual partner was HIV-positive in 19.2%, HIV-negative in 26.4%, and unknown in 54.4% of subjects. There was no association between disclosure and protected sex, with 41 of 48 (85.4%) disclosers and 104 of 126 (82.5%) of non-disclosers reported protected sex (p = .65). Subjects with HIV-positive partners were less likely to report protected sex overall (20 of 33, 60.6%) compared to those with HIV negative (82 of 96, 85.4%) or unknown (41 of 45, 91.1%) partners (p = .001). Age (27-32 years vs. <=26 years, p = .008), primary partner status (p < .001), and HIV-positive serostatus of sexual partner (p < .001) were significantly associated with disclosure in the multivariate analyses. CONCLUSION: Rates of HIV disclosure to sexual partners by HIV-positive MSM in Bangkok are low. Despite low rates of HIV serostatus disclosure, most HIV-positive MSM reported protected sex with their partners at risk for infection. Future studies should focus on understanding barriers to disclosure and factors driving risk behavior amongst MSM in Thailand.AIDS Research and Therapy 12/2012; 9(1):38.
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To investigate anti-infective treatments in HIV-infected surgical patients during the perioperative period. METHODS: A retrospective study of sepsis and surgical site infections (SSIs) was conducted in 266 HIV-infected patients. The patients were divided into 3 groups based on CD4+ T cells counts in the preoperative period: group A (0--199 cell/ul), group B (200--349 cell/ul) and group C ([greater than or equal to] 350 cell/ul). When the CD4 count was below 350 cells/uL, anti-retrovirus therapy was started. For patients whose preoperative CD4 counts were [less than or equal to] 200 cells/uL, preoperative antibiotic medication was started. RESULTS: Patients in group A were more likely to get sepsis than patients in the other two groups (p0.01). Among 82 patients with clean wounds, only one patient got SSIs. All patients with dirty wounds had acquired SSIs after surgery. There were only 6 patients dead at 30 days after surgery, a death rate of 2.3%. Sepsis appeared in 110 patients (41%). CONCLUSIONS: Complete evaluation of surgical risk and suitable perioperative anti-infective treatment may lead to better outcome for HIV-infected surgical patients.AIDS Research and Therapy 11/2012; 9(1):36.
Article: Association of APOBEC3G genotypes and CD4 decline in Thai and Cambodian HIV-infected children with moderate immune deficiency.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Human APOBEC3G is a host defense factor that potently inhibits HIV replication. We hypothesize that HIV-infected children with a genetic variant of APOBEC3G will have a more rapid disease progression. METHODS: Antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive children, aged 1--12 years old with CD4 15-24% and without severe HIV-related symptoms were enrolled. The children had CD4% and absolute CD4 counts every 12 weeks and HIV-RNA every 24 weeks until 144 weeks. ART was started when CD4% declined to < 15% or AIDS-related events developed.APOBEC3G genetic variants were performed by PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism techniques from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Random-effect linear regression analysis was performed to correlate APOBEC3G genotypes and disease progression, RESULTS: 147 children, 35% male, with a median (IQR) age of 6.5 (4.3-8.8) years were enrolled. CDC N:A:B were 1:63:36%. Median baseline values were 20% for CD4% 605 cells/mm3 for CD4 count and 4.7 log10copies/mL for HIV-RNA.The frequencies of APOBEC3G genotypes AA (186H/H), AG (186H/R), GG (186R/R) were 86%, 12%, and 2% respectively. The APOBEC3G genotype GG was associated with a significant decline in CD4% -5.1% (-8.9 to -1.2%), p<0.001, and CD4 counts -226 (-415 to -34) cells/mm3, p<0.001 by random-effect liner regression analysis. No significant associations of APOBEC3G genotypes with HIV-RNA changes overtime (p=0.16) or progression to CDC B and C (p=0.49) were observed. CONCLUSIONS: APOBEC3G genotype GG was significantly associated with a more rapid decline in CD4. APOBEC3G's antiviral effects on HIV disease progression in children should be further explored.AIDS Research and Therapy 11/2012; 9(1):34.
Article: Prevalence of and risk factors for MRSA colonization in HIV-positive outpatients in Singapore.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Whilst there have been studies on the risks and outcomes of MRSA colonization and infections in HIV-positive patients, local data is limited on the risk factors for MRSA colonization among these patients. We undertook this study in a tertiary HIV care centre to document the risk factors for colonization and to determine the prevalence of MRSA colonization among HIV-positive outpatients in Singapore. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study in which factors associated with MRSA positivity among patients with HIV infection were evaluated. A set of standardized questionnaire and data collection forms were available to interview all recruited patients. Following the interview, trained nurses collected swabs from the anterior nares/axilla/groin (NAG), throat and peri-anal regions. Information on demographics, clinical history, laboratory results and hospitalization history were retrieved from medical records. RESULTS: MRSA was detected in swab cultures from at least 1 site in 15 patients (5.1%). Inclusion of throat and/or peri-anal swabs increased the sensitivity of NAG screening by 20%. Predictors for MRSA colonization among HIV-positive patients were age, history of pneumonia, lymphoma, presence of a percutaneous device within the past 12 months, history of household members hospitalized more than two times within the past 12 months, and a most recent CD4 count less than 200. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights that a proportion of MRSA carriers would have been undetected without multiple-site screening cultures. This study could shed insight into identifying patients at risk of MRSA colonization upon hospital visit and this may suggest that a risk factor-based approach for MRSA surveillance focusing on high risk populations could be considered.AIDS Research and Therapy 11/2012; 9(1):33.
Article: Association of lopinavir concentrations and plasma lipid or glucose concentrations in HIV-infected South Africans.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Dyslipidaemia and dysglycaemia have been associated with exposure to ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors. Lopinavir/ritonavir, the most commonly used protease inhibitor in resource-limited settings, often causes dyslipidaemia. There are contradictory data regarding the association between lopinavir concentrations and changes in lipids.AimTo investigate associations between plasma lopinavir concentrations and lipid and glucose concentrations in HIV-infected South African adults. METHODS: Participants stable on lopinavir-based antiretroviral therapy were enrolled into a cross-sectional study. After an overnight fast, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and lopinavir concentrations were measured and an oral glucose tolerance test was performed. Regression analyses were used to determine associations between plasma lopinavir concentrations and fasting and 2 hour plasma glucose, fasting cholesterol, and triglycerides concentrations. RESULTS: There were 84 participants (72 women) with a median age of 36 years. The median blood pressure, body mass index and waist: hip ratio were 108/72 mmHg, 26 kg/m2 and 0.89 respectively. The median CD4 count was 478 cells/mm3. Median duration on lopinavir was 18.5 months. The median (interquartile range) lopinavir concentration was 8.0 (5.2 to 12.8) mug/mL. Regression analyses showed no significant association between lopinavir pre-dose concentrations and fasting cholesterol (beta-coefficient -0.04 (95% CI -0.07 to 0.00)), triglycerides (beta-coefficient -0.01 (95% CI -0.04 to 0.02)), fasting glucose (beta-coefficient -0.01 (95% CI -0.04 to 0.02)), or 2-hour glucose concentrations (beta-coefficient -0.02 (95% CI -0.09 to 0.06)). Lopinavir concentrations above the median were not associated with presence of dyslipidaemia or dysglycaemia. CONCLUSIONS: There was no association between lopinavir plasma concentrations and plasma lipid and glucose concentrations.AIDS Research and Therapy 10/2012; 9(1):32.
Article: Prevalence of dyslipidemia among HIV-infected patients using first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy in Southern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional comparative group study.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Data on lipid profile abnormalities among patients receiving highly active antiretroviral treatment in Ethiopia are very limited. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dyslipidemia and characteristics of lipid profiles among patients living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) using first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in Southern Ethiopia METHODS: This cross sectional comparative group study was conducted between March and May 2012, and included 113 HIV infected patients treated for a minimum of one year with first-line HAART regimens that included Efavirenz and Nevirapine (HAART group) and others 113 who had never received HAART (pre-HAART group). Serum lipid profiles were determined after overnight fasting and dyslipidemia was assessed according to the United State National Cholesterol Education program-III guideline. For statistical analysis Chi-square, student's t-test, and logistic regression were used using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 20.ResultNinety-three (82.3%) of HAART and 87 (76.9%) pre-HAART patients had at least one laboratory abnormality, which is compatible with a diagnosis of dyslipidemia. Total cholesterol >= 200 mg/dl occurred in 43.4% of HAART and 15.9% pre-HAART patients (p=<0.0001), whereas HDL-cholesterol below 40 mg/dl occurred in 43.4% and in 63.7% respectively, (p=0.002). The LDL-cholesterol >= 130 mg/dl occurred in 33.6% of HAART and 15% pre-HAART patients (p=0.001), while triglycerides >= 150 mg/dl occurred in 55.8% and 31.0% respectively, (p=0.001). Receiving of HAART was significantly and positively associated with raised total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides. The adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) of HAART-treated vs. pre-HAART was 3.80 (1.34-6.55) for total cholesterol >= 200 mg/dl; 2.64 (1.31-5.32) for LDL- cholesterol >= 130 mg/dl and 2.50 (1.41-4.42) for triglycerides >=150 mg/dl. CONCLUSION: Use of first-line antiretroviral therapy regimens that contain Efavirenz and Nevirapine were associated with raised total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides, an established atherogenic lipid profiles. Lipid profiles should be performed at baseline before commencement of antiretroviral therapy and then periodically through treatment follow-up to monitor any rising trends.AIDS Research and Therapy 10/2012; 9(1):31.
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