Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (EVID-BASED COMPL ALT )

Publisher: Oxford University Press


Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (eCAM) is an international, peer-reviewed journal that seeks to understand the sources and to encourage rigorous research in this new, yet ancient world of complementary and alternative medicine. The Journal seeks to apply scientific rigor to the study of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) modalities, particularly traditional Asian healing systems. eCAM emphasizes health outcome, while documenting biological mechanisms of action. The journal is devoted to the advancement of science in the field of basic research, clinical studies, methodology or scientific theory in diverse areas of Biomedical Sciences.

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  • Website
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine website
  • Other titles
    Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine (Online), ECAM
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  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

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Oxford University Press

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    • 12 month embargo on science, technology, medicine articles
    • 24 month embargo on arts and humanities articles
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sanhua Decoction (SHD) is a famous classic Chinese herbal prescription for ischemic stroke, and aquaporin 4 (AQP4) is reported to play a key role in ischemic brain edema. This study aimed to investigate neuroprotection of SHD against focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats and explore the hypothesis that AQP4 probably be the target of SHD neuroprotection against I/R rats. Lentiviral-mediated AQP4-siRNA was inducted into adult male Sprague-Dawley rats via intracerebroventricular injection. The focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion model was established by occluding middle cerebral artery. Neurological examinations were performed according to Longa Scale. Brain water content was determined by wet and dry weight measurement. Western blot was adopted to test the AQP4 expression in ipsilateral hippocampus. After the treatment, SHD alleviated neurological deficits, reduced brain water content and downregulated the expression of AQP4 at different time points following I/R injury. Furthermore, neurobehavioral function and brain edema after I/R were significantly attenuated via down-regulation of AQP4 expression when combined with AQP4-siRNA technology. In conclusion, SHD exerted neuroprotection against focal cerebral I/R injury in rats mainly through a mechanism targeting AQP4.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of V. vinifera seeds on carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes and other enzymes of the liver in diabetes is currently unknown. We therefore investigated changes in the activity levels of these enzymes following V. vinifera seed extract administration to diabetic rats. Methods: V. vinifera seed ethanolic extract (250 and 500mg/kg/day) or glibenclamide (600µg/kg/day) were administered to streptozotocin-induced male diabetic rats for 28 consecutive days. At the end of treatment, liver was harvested and activity levels of various liver enzymes were determined. Levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were measured in liver homogenates and liver histopathological changes were observed. Results: V. vinifera seed ethanolic extract was able to prevent the decrease in ICDH, SDH, MDH, G-6-PDH and the increase in LDH activity levels in liver homogenates. The seed extract also caused serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP, ACP, GGT and total bilirubin to decrease while total proteins to increase. Additionally, the levels of ALT, AST and TBARS in liver homogenates were decreased. Histopathological changes in the liver were reduced. Conclusion: Near normal activity levels of various enzymes and histology of the liver following V. vinifera seed ethanolic extract administration may be due to decreased in liver oxidative stress in diabetes.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 08/2014; 2014.
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus has been reported to affect functions of the hippocampus. We hypothesized that Centella asiatica, a herb traditionally being used to improve memory, prevents diabetes-related hippocampal dysfunction. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the protective role of C. asiatica on the hippocampus in diabetes. Methods. Streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced adult male diabetic rats received 100 and 200 mg/kg/day body weight (b.w) C. asiatica leaf aqueous extract for four consecutive weeks. Following sacrifice, hippocampus was removed and hippocampal tissue homogenates were analyzed for Na(+)/K(+)-, Ca(2+)- and Mg(2+)-ATPases activity levels. Levels of the markers of inflammation (tumor necrosis factor, TNF-α; interleukin, IL-6; and interleukin, IL-1β) and oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation product: LPO, superoxide dismutase: SOD, catalase: CAT, and glutathione peroxidase: GPx) were determined. The hippocampal sections were visualized for histopathological changes. Results. Administration of C. asiatica leaf aqueous extract to diabetic rats maintained near normal ATPases activity levels and prevents the increase in the levels of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in the hippocampus. Lesser signs of histopathological changes were observed in the hippocampus of C. asiatica leaf aqueous extract treated diabetic rats. Conclusions. C. asiatica leaf protects the hippocampus against diabetes-induced dysfunction which could help to preserve memory in this condition.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 08/2014; 2014(2014):592062.
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    ABSTRACT: Dermatophytosis and superficial mycosis are a major global public health problem that affects 20–25% of the world’s population. The increase in fungal resistance to the commercially available antifungal agents, in conjunction with the limited spectrum of action of such drugs, emphasises the need to develop new antifungal agents. Natural products are attractive prototypes for antifungal agents due to their broad spectrum of biological activities. This study aimed to verify the antifungal activity of protocatechuic acid, 3,4-diacetoxybenzoic, and fourteen alkyl protocatechuates (3,4-dihydroxybenzoates) against Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes and to further assess their activities when combined with fluconazole. Susceptibility and synergism assays were conducted as described in M38-A2 (CLSI), with modifications. Three strains of Trichophyton rubrum and three strains of Trichophyton mentagrophytes were used in this work. The pentyl, hexyl, heptyl, octyl, nonyl, and decyl protocatechuates showed great fungicidal effects, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 0.97 to 7.8 mg/L. Heptyl showed a synergistic activity (FIC index ), reducing the MIC of fluconazole by fourfold. All substances tested were safe, especially the hexyl, heptyl, octyl, and nonyl compounds, all of which showed a high selectivity index, particularly in combination with fluconazole. These ester associations with fluconazole may represent a promising source of prototypes in the search for anti-Trichophyton therapeutic agents.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 06/2014; 2014.
  • Tayebeh Azam Saedi, Fauziah Othman, Patimah Ismail, Sabariah Md Noor
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    ABSTRACT: In developing countries, herbal therapy is the first and basis form of treatment for most types of diseases. About 75–80% of the world’s population prefers herbal therapy as a major treatment due to its better adequacy and satisfactoriness, which enhance human body’s symmetry with minimal side effects. Fruits and plants have been presented from the past as promising tools in becoming a natural anticancer agents. Many of these plant extracts are currently used in cancer therapy and prevention. This review paper will particularly explore and emphasize on herbs and fruits used in the treatment of the leukaemia.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Herbal prescription, Danggui-Sayuk-Ga-Osuyu-Saenggang-tang (DSGOST), has long been used to treat Raynaud’s phenomenon (RP) in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, a biological mechanism by which DSGOST ameliorates RP is yet deciphered. In this study, we demonstrate that DSGOST inhibits cold-induced activation of RhoA, in both vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and endothelial cells (EC), and blocks endothelin-1-mediated paracrine path for cold response on vessels. While cold induced RhoA activity in both cell types, DSGOST pretreatment prevented cold-induced RhoA activation. DSGOST inhibition of cold-induced RhoA activation further blocked α2c-adrenoreceptor translocation to the plasma membrane in VSMC. In addition, DSGOST inhibited endothelin-1-mediated RhoA activation and α2c-adrenoreceptor translocation in VSMC. Meanwhile, DSGOST inhibited cold-induced or RhoA-dependent phosphorylation of FAK, SRC, and ERK. Consistently, DSGOST inhibited cold-induced endothelin-1 expression in EC. Therefore, DSGOST prevents cold-induced RhoA in EC and blocks endothelin-1-mediated paracrine path between EC and VSMC. In conclusion, our data suggest that DSGOST is beneficial for treating RP-like syndrome.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 04/2014; 2014(2014).
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    ABSTRACT: Amebiasis is a parasitic disease that extends worldwide and is a public health problem in developing countries. Metronidazole is the drug recommended in the treatment of amebiasis, but its contralateral effects and lack of continuity of treatment induce low efficiency, coupled with the appearance of resistant amoebic strains. Therefore, the search of new compounds with amoebicidal activity is urgent and important. In this study, we evaluatedthe invitroand invivo antiamoebic activityof the essentialoil Dysphania ambrosioides (L.)Mosyakin & Clemants. It exhibited an IC50 = 0.7mg/mL against trophozoites.The oral administration of essential oil (8mg/kg and 80mg/kg) to hamster infected with Entamoeba histolytica reverted the infection. Ascaridole was identified as the main component of essential oil of D. ambrosioides. The identification of amoebicidal activity of Ascaridole gives support to the traditional use. Further studies with Ascaridole will be carried out to understand the mechanism involved.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 03/2014; 2014(Article ID 930208):7 pages.
  • Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 02/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. To investigate the effect of Yangjing Capsule (YC) extract on proliferation of GC-1 spermatogonia (spg) cells and the mechanism. Methods. GC-1 spg cells were treated with 0.01, 0.1, and 1 mg/mL YC extract. MTT assay was performed to detect the cell viability. Flow cytometry was used to measure the cell cycle and apoptosis of GC-1 spg cells. Real-time PCR and western blot were applied to determine the mRNA and protein expression of Oct-4 and Plzf. Gfr α 1 knockdown and LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor) were applied to explore the underlying mechanism. Results. After 48 h treatment of YC, the viability of GC-1 spg cells increased significantly and the ratio of apoptotic cells reduced significantly. The increased mRNA and protein expression of Oct-4 and Plzf suggested YC promoted self-renewal of GC-1 spg cells. Both Gfr α 1 siRNAs and LY294002 treatments held back YC extract's stimulation effects on mRNA and protein expression of Oct-4 and Plzf and consequently inhibited the proliferation of GC-1 spg cells induced by YC extract. Conclusion. YC extract could stimulate the proliferation of GC-1 spg cells. Partly via Gfr α 1, YC extract is able to trigger the activation of PI3K pathway and finally lead to self-renewal of GC-1 spg cells.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2014; 2014:640857.
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    ABSTRACT: Aims. We previously reported that kamikihito (KKT), a traditional Japanese medicine, improved memory impairment and reversed the degeneration of axons in the 5XFAD mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanism underlying the effects of KKT remained unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanism by which KKT reverses the progression of axonal degeneration. Methods. Primary cultured cortical neurons were treated with amyloid beta (A β ) fragment comprising amino acid residues (25-35) (10 μ M) in an in vitro AD model. KKT (10 μ g/mL) was administered to the cells before or after A β treatment. The effects of KKT on A β -induced tau phosphorylation, axonal atrophy, and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity were investigated. We also performed an in vivo assay in which KKT (500 mg/kg/day) was administered to 5XFAD mice once a day for 15 days. Cerebral cortex homogenates were used to measure PP2A activity. Results. KKT improved A β -induced tau phosphorylation and axonal atrophy after they had already progressed. In addition, KKT increased PP2A activity in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions. KKT reversed the progression of A β -induced axonal degeneration. KKT reversed axonal degeneration at least in part through its role as an exogenous PP2A stimulator.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2014; 2014:706487.
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Acupuncture is frequently advocated as an adjunct treatment for essential hypertension. The aim of this review was to assess its adjunct effectiveness in treating hypertension. Methods. We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and the Chinese databases Sino-Med, CNKI, WanFang, and VIP through November, 2012, for eligible randomized controlled trials that compared acupuncture with sham acupuncture. Outcome measures were changes in diastolic (DBP) and systolic blood pressure (SBP). Results. A total of 4 randomized controlled trials were included. We found no evidence of an improvement with the fact that acupuncture relative to sham acupuncture in SBP change (n = 386; mean difference = -3.80 mmHg, 95% CI = -10.03-2.44 mmHg; I (2) = 99%), and an insignificant improvement in DBP change (n = 386; mean difference = -2.82 mmHg, 95% CI = -5.22-(-0.43) mmHg; I (2) = 97%). In subgroup analyses, acupuncture significantly improved both SBP and DBP in patients taking antihypertensive medications. Only minor acupuncture-related adverse events were reported. Conclusions. Our results are consistent with acupuncture significantly lowers blood pressure in patients taking antihypertensive medications. We did not find that acupuncture without antihypertensive medications significantly improves blood pressure in those hypertensive patients.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2014; 2014:279478.
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    ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress and inflammation are proved to be critical for the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. Berberine (BBR) is a natural compound isolated from plants such as Coptis chinensis and Hydrastis canadensis and with multiple pharmacological activities. Recent studies showed that BBR had antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, which contributed in part to its efficacy against diabetes mellitus. In this review, we summarized the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of BBR as well as their molecular basis. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of BBR were noted with changes in oxidative stress markers, antioxidant enzymes, and proinflammatory cytokines after BBR administration in diabetic animals. BBR inhibited oxidative stress and inflammation in a variety of tissues including liver, adipose tissue, kidney and pancreas. Mechanisms of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of BBR were complex, which involved multiple cellular kinases and signaling pathways, such as AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) pathway, and nuclear factor- κ B (NF- κ B) pathway. Detailed mechanisms and pathways for the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of BBR still need further investigation. Clarification of these issues could help to understand the pharmacology of BBR in the treatment of diabetes mellitus and promote the development of antidiabetic natural products.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2014; 2014:289264.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. Effect of isopropanolic Cimicifuga racemosa extract (iCR) on uterine fibroid size compared with tibolone. Method. The randomized, double-blind, controlled study in China enrolled 244 patients aged 40-60 years with menopausal symptoms (Kupperman Menopause Index ≥ 15). The participants were treated with either iCR of 40 mg crude drug/day (N = 122) or tibolone 2.5 mg/day (N = 122) orally for 3 months in 2004. Now, we investigated the subset of all women (N = 62) with at least one uterine fibroid at onset of treatment for the effect of iCR (N = 34) on fibroid size compared with tibolone (N = 28) by transvaginal ultrasonography. Results. The median myoma volume decreased upon iCR by as much as -30% (P = 0.016) but increased upon tibolone by +4.7%. The percentage of volume change, mean diameter change and geometric mean diameter change of the iCR group compared to tibolone were statistically significant (P = 0.016, 0.021, 0.016 respectively). Conclusion. Our results suggest that iCR (Remifemin) is a valid herbal medicinal product in patients with uterine myomas as it provides adequate relief from menopausal symptoms and inhibits growth of the myomas in contrast to tibolone.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2014; 2014:717686.

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