Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Journal Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: Hindawi Publishing Corporation

Journal description

Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (eCAM) is an international, peer-reviewed journal that seeks to understand the sources and to encourage rigorous research in this new, yet ancient world of complementary and alternative medicine. The Journal seeks to apply scientific rigor to the study of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) modalities, particularly traditional Asian healing systems. eCAM emphasizes health outcome, while documenting biological mechanisms of action. The journal is devoted to the advancement of science in the field of basic research, clinical studies, methodology or scientific theory in diverse areas of Biomedical Sciences.

Current impact factor: 1.88

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 1.88
2013 Impact Factor 2.175
2012 Impact Factor 1.722
2011 Impact Factor 4.774
2010 Impact Factor 2.964
2009 Impact Factor 2.064
2008 Impact Factor 1.954
2007 Impact Factor 2.535

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 1.93
Cited half-life 2.50
Immediacy index 0.24
Eigenfactor 0.02
Article influence 0.38
Website Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine website
Other titles Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine (Online), ECAM
ISSN 1741-427X
OCLC 55647292
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Hindawi Publishing Corporation

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Publisher's version/PDF may be used
    • Creative Commons Attribution License
    • Eligible UK authors may deposit in OpenDepot
    • All titles are open access journals
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background. Sciatica is one of the most frequently reported complaints; it affects quality of life and reduces social and economic efficacy. Clinical studies on the efficacy of acupuncture therapy in sciatica are increasing, while systematic reviews assessing the efficacy of acupuncture therapy are still lacking. Objective. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of acupuncture therapy for sciatica. Methods. Comprehensive searches of 8 databases were conducted up until April 2015. Outcomes included effectiveness (proportion of patients who improved totally or partly in clinical symptoms), pain intensity, and pain threshold. Effect sizes were presented as risk ratio (RR) and mean difference (MD). Pooled effect sizes were calculated by fixed effects or random effects model. Results. A total of 12 studies (involving 1842 participants) were included. Results showed that acupuncture was more effective than conventional Western medicine (CWM) in outcomes effectiveness (RR 1.21, 95% CI: 1.16-1.25), pain intensity (MD -1.25, 95% CI: -1.63 to -0.86), and pain threshold (MD: 1.08, 95% CI: 0.98-1.17). Subgroup and sensitivity analysis found that the results did not change in different treatment method and drug categories substantially. The reported adverse effects were acceptable. Conclusions. Acupuncture may be effective in treating the pain associated with sciatica.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 10/2015; 2015:192808. DOI:10.1155/2015/192808
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    ABSTRACT: A single dose (30 mg/kg body weight) of standardized sea buckthorn leaf extract (SBL-1), administered 30 min before whole body (60)Co-gamma-irradiation (lethal dose, 10 Gy), protected >90% of mice population. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of action of SBL-1 on jejunum and bone marrow, quantify key bioactive compounds, and analyze chemical composition of SBL-1. Study with 9-week-old inbred male Swiss albino Strain 'A' mice demonstrated that SBL-1 treatment before (60)Co-gamma-irradiation (10 Gy) significantly (p < 0.05) countered radiation induced decreases in jejunum crypts (1.27-fold), villi number (1.41-fold), villus height (1.25-fold), villus cellularity (2.27-fold), cryptal Paneth cells (1.89-fold), and Bcl2 level (1.54-fold). It countered radiation induced increases in cryptal apoptotic cells (1.64-fold) and Bax levels (1.88-fold). It also countered radiation (2 Gy and 3 Gy) induced bone marrow apoptosis (1.59-fold and 1.85-fold) and micronuclei frequency (1.72-fold and 2.6-fold). SBL-1 rendered radiation protection by promoting cryptal stem cells proliferation, by regulating apoptosis, and by countering radiation induced chromosomal damage. Quercetin, Ellagic acid, Gallic acid, high contents polyphenols, tannins, and thiols detected in SBL-1 may have contributed to radiation protection by neutralization of radiation induced oxidative species, supporting stem cell proliferation and tissue regeneration.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 09/2015; 2015:765705. DOI:10.1155/2015/765705
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives . Hua-Zheng-Hui-Sheng-Dan (HZHSD) was used as an experimental model to explore research methods of large formulae in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) using current molecular biology approaches. Materials and Methods . The trypan blue exclusion assay was used to determine cell viability and cell numbers. Flow cytometry was used to assess cell cycle distribution and apoptosis. The concentration of cyclin D1 was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The median effect principle was used in drug combination studies. An orthogonal experimental design was used to estimate the effects of each herb at different concentrations. The HeLa xenograft mouse model was used to compare the antitumor activity of drugs in vivo. Results . Among the 35 herbs that comprise HZHSD, Radix Rehmanniae Preparata (RRP), Caesalpinia sappan (CS), Evodia rutaecarpa (ER), Folium Artemisiae Argyi (FAA), Leonurus japonicus Houtt (LJH), Tumeric (Tu), Radix Paeoniae Alba (RPA), and Trogopterus Dung (TD) effectively inhibited the proliferation of HeLa and SKOV3 cells. Only RRR had an effect on HeLa and SKOV3 cell viability. According to the median effect principle, Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) (AS), Tabanus (Ta), and Pollen Typhae (PT), which were proven to have a significant synergistic inhibitory effect on the proliferation of HeLa cells, were added to the original eight positive herbs. The combination of RPA and AS had a synergistic effect on inducing cell cycle S phase arrest and decreasing intracellular cyclin D1 in HeLa cells. By orthogonal experimental design, LJH and Tu were considered unnecessary herbs. The small formula (SHZHSD) consisted of RPA, AS, RRR, Ta., TD, PT, ER, CS, and FAA and was able to inhibit cell proliferation and induce cell apoptosis. The antitumor effects of HZHSD and SHZHSD were also compared in vivo. Conclusions . Through molecular biology approaches both in vitro and in vivo, research into single drugs, and analysis using the median effect principle and orthogonal experimental design, the small formula (SHZHSD) was determined from the original formula (HZHSD). SHZHSD exhibited superior antitumor activity compared with the original formula both in vitro and in vivo.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 09/2015; 2015(1):1-11. DOI:10.1155/2015/436807
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to formulate optimal formulations of microemulsions (MEs) and evaluate their feasibility for delivery of resveratrol into human skin ex vivo. Oil-in-water MEs were formulated using surfactant (S) PEG-8 caprylic/capric glycerides and cosurfactant (CoS) polyglyceryl-6-isostearate. Ethyl oleate was used as an oily phase. MEs were formulated using 5 : 1, 6 : 1, and 7 : 1 surfactant and cosurfactant (S : CoS) weight ratios. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were constructed and optimal compositions of MEs were obtained using Design Expert software. Mean droplet size for optimized ME formulations was determined to be 68.54 ± 1.18 nm, 66.08 ± 0.16 nm, and 66.66 ± 0.56 nm for systems with S : CoS weight ratios 5 : 1, 6 : 1, and 7 : 1, respectively. Resveratrol loading resulted in mean droplet size increase. The distribution of droplet size between fractions changed during storage of formulated MEs. Results demonstrated the increase of number of droplets and relative surface area when S : CoS weight ratios were 6 : 1 and 7 : 1 and the decrease when S : CoS weight ratio was 5 : 1. The highest penetration of resveratrol into the skin ex vivo was determined from ME with S : CoS weight ratio 5 : 1. It was demonstrated that all MEs were similar in their ability to deliver resveratrol into the skin ex vivo .
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 09/2015; 2015(2, article e45):1-10. DOI:10.1155/2015/540916
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    ABSTRACT: Podocyte injury is an important mechanism of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Accumulating evidence suggests that nephrin expression is decreased in podocyte in DN. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that tongxinluo (TXL) can ameliorate renal structure disruption and dysfunction in DN. However, the effect of TXL on podocyte injury in DN and its molecular mechanism is unclear. In order to explore the effect of TXL on podocyte injury and its molecular mechanism in DN, our in vivo and in vitro studies were performed. Our results showed that TXL increased nephrin expression in diabetic rats and in high glucose cultured podocyte. Meanwhile, TXL decreased ICN1 (the intracellular domain of notch), HES1, and snail expression in podocyte in vivo and in vitro. More importantly, we found that TXL protected podocyte from injury in DN. The results demonstrated that TXL inhibited the activation of notch1/snail pathway and increased nephrin expression, which may be a mechanism of protecting effect on podocyte injury in DN.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 09/2015; 2015(7):1-11. DOI:10.1155/2015/424193
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    ABSTRACT: Acupoint catgut embedding (ACE) was applied widely to antiweight in China. The aim of this review is to estimate the effectiveness and safety of ACE on obesity. A literature search was conducted in PubMed, Cochrane Library, EBASE, CNKI, and so forth, using combination subject terms of obesity (or overweight, weight loss, etc.) and acupoint catgut embedding (or catgut implantation, catgut embedding). Improvement rate, reduction of body weight and body mass index (BMI), and so forth were analyzed. 43 studies were included for systematic review and meta-analysis. Although with poor methodological quality, ACE was superior to manual acupuncture (MA), sham, and cupping in improvement rate and presented a better tendency (OR > 1) compared with drugs and electroacupuncture (EA). Mean values of weight loss by ACE were 1.14 kg, 1.26 kg, 1.79 kg, and 3.01 kg comparing with MA, drugs, EA, and sham, respectively. Mean of BMI reduced to 0.56 kg/m(2), 0.83 kg/m(2), 0.79 kg/m(2), and 1.63 kg/m(2) comparing with MA, drugs, EA, and sham. Less adverse effects were reported. Pooled outcomes presented a tendency of equal or superior effects to other interventions and fewer side effects. Future high quality trials with rigorous design and positive FDA approved drug as control are urgent to assess the effect of ACE for obesity. PROSPERO registration number is as follows: CRD42015016006.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 09/2015; 2015(45):401914. DOI:10.1155/2015/401914
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    ABSTRACT: Yangjing Capsule (YC), an innovative Chinese medicine based on traditional prescription, promotes testosterone synthesis by upregulating the expression of steroidogenic enzymes. Nur77 as a nuclear receptor is known to regulate the expression of many steroid synthetases. This study aimed to explore the potential mechanisms by which YC regulates testosterone synthesis in Leydig cells. Real-time PCR and Western blot analysis were employed to assess the expressions of steroidogenic enzymes and Nur77 after treating MLTC-1 cells with YC. The luciferase reporter gene assay was performed to detect the activity of Nur77 gene promoter. Also, the expressions of steroid synthases were detected after Nur77 gene was knocked down. YC significantly stimulated Nur77 production and upregulated StAR and HSD3B expression, and this agrees with the activity of Nur77 gene promoter that was significantly enhanced by YC. Interestingly, knockdown of Nur77 blocked the above YC’s effects and consequently inhibited testosterone synthesis in MLTC-1 cells. YC promotes StAR and HSD3B expression and upregulates testosterone synthesis in Leydig cells, which is mediated by Nur77 pathway.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 09/2015; 2015(9):1-8. DOI:10.1155/2015/408686
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    ABSTRACT: CDRI-08 is a standardized bacoside enriched ethanolic extract of Bacopa monnieri , a nootropic plant. We reported that CDRI-08 attenuated oxidative stress and memory impairment in mice, induced by a flame retardant, PBDE-209. In order to explore the mechanism, present study was designed to examine the role of CDRI-08 on the expression of NMDAR1 (NR1) and the binding of REST/NRSF to NR1 promoter against postnatal exposure of PBDE-209. Male mice pups were orally supplemented with CDRI-08 at the doses of 40, 80, or 120 mg/kg along with PBDE-209 (20 mg/kg) during PND 3–10 and frontal cortex and hippocampus were collected at PND 11 and 60 to study the expression and regulation of NR1 by RT-PCR and electrophoretic mobility shift assay, respectively. The findings showed upregulated expression of NR1 and decreased binding of REST/NRSF to NR1 promoter after postnatal exposure of PBDE-209. Interestingly, supplementation with CDRI-08 significantly restored the expression of NR1 and binding of REST/NRSF to NR1 promoter near to the control value at the dose of 120 mg/kg. In conclusion, the results suggest that CDRI-08 possibly acts on glutamatergic system through expression and regulation of NR1 and may restore memory, impaired by PBDE-209 as reported in our previous study.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 09/2015; Article ID 403840(3). DOI:10.1155/2015/403840
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    ABSTRACT: Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is a neuronal translational repressor and has been implicated in learning, memory, and cognition. However, the role of Bacopa monnieri extract (CDRI-08) in enhancing cognitive abilities in hypoxia-induced memory impairment via Fmr-1 gene expression is not known. Here, we have studied effects of CDRI-08 on the expression of Fmr-1 gene in the hippocampus of well validated cobalt chloride (CoCl2)-induced hypoxia mimetic mice and analyzed the data with alterations in spatial memory. Results obtained from Morris water maze test suggest that CoCl2 treatment causes severe loss of spatial memory and CDRI-08 is capable of reversing it towards that in the normal control mice. Our semiquantitative RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence microscopic data reveal that CoCl2-induced hypoxia significantly upregulates the expression of Hif-1α and downregulates the Fmr-1 expression in the hippocampus, respectively. Further, CDRI-08 administration reverses the memory loss and this is correlated with significant downregulation of Hif-1α and upregulation of Fmr-1 expression. Our data are novel and may provide mechanisms of hypoxia-induced impairments in the spatial memory and action of CDRI-08 in the recovery of hypoxia led memory impairment involving Fmr-1 gene encoded protein called FMRP.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 09/2015; 2015:347978. DOI:10.1155/2015/347978
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    ABSTRACT: Matrine is one of the main bioactive alkaloids of Sophora flavescens Aiton, which has been widely used to treat various diseases in China. These diseases include viral hepatitis, liver fibrosis, cardiac arrhythmia, skin diseases, and tumors. However, matrine is also the main toxic compound of this herb, and the available biomarkers are not reliable in detecting or quantifying matrine risk. Metabolomics is a powerful tool used to identify early toxicity biomarkers that are specific indicators of damage to biosystems. This study aimed to find the potential biomarkers of the matrine-induced toxic effects in rats and HepG2 cells. The toxicological effects of rats induced by matrine could be derived from the elevated taurine and trimethylamine N-oxide levels and the depletion in hippurate and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, such as 2-oxoglutarate, citrate, and succinate in the urine. Cell metabolomics revealed that the levels of alanine, choline, glutathione, lactate, phosphocholine, and cholesterol showed dose-dependent decreases, whereas the levels of taurine, fatty acid, and unsaturated fatty acid showed dose-dependent increases. Overall, a significant perturbation of metabolites in response to high dose of matrine was observed both in vivo and in vitro , and the selected metabolites particularly represent an attractive marker for matrine-induced toxicity.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 09/2015; 2015(9):1-11. DOI:10.1155/2015/598412
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    ABSTRACT: Ginkgolide C, isolated from Ginkgo biloba leaves, is a flavone reported to have multiple biological functions, from decreased platelet aggregation to ameliorating Alzheimer disease. The study aim was to evaluate the antiadipogenic effect of ginkgolide C in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Ginkgolide C was used to treat differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. Cell supernatant was collected to assay glycerol release, and cells were lysed to measure protein and gene expression related to adipogenesis and lipolysis by western blot and real-time PCR, respectively. Ginkgolide C significantly suppressed lipid accumulation in differentiated adipocytes. It also decreased adipogenesis-related transcription factor expression, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein. Furthermore, ginkgolide C enhanced adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase production for lipolysis and increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), resulting in decreased activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase for fatty acid synthesis. In coculture with an AMPK inhibitor (compound C), ginkgolide C also improved activation of sirtuin 1 and phosphorylation of AMPK in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. The results suggest that ginkgolide C is an effective flavone for increasing lipolysis and inhibiting adipogenesis in adipocytes through the activated AMPK pathway.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 09/2015; 2015:298635. DOI:10.1155/2015/298635
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    ABSTRACT: Preclinical studies on animal models have discerned the antiamnesic and memory-enhancing potential of Bacopa monniera (Brahmi) crude extract and standardized extracts. These studies primarily focus on behavioral consequences. However, lack of information on molecular underpinnings has limited the clinical trials of the potent herb in human subjects. In recent years, researchers highlight plasticity markers as molecular correlates of amnesia and being crucial to design therapeutic targets. In the present report, we have investigated the effect of a special extract of B. monniera (CDRI-08) on the expression of key neuronal (BDNF and Arc) and glial (GFAP) plasticity markers in the cerebrum of scopolamine induced amnesic mice. Pre- and postadministration of CDRI-08 ameliorated amnesic effect of scopolamine by decreasing acetyl cholinesterase activity and drastically upregulating the mRNA and protein expression of BDNF, Arc, and GFAP in mouse cerebrum. Interestingly, the plant extract per se elevated BDNF and Arc expression as compared to control but GFAP was unaltered. In conclusion, our findings provide the first molecular evidence for antiamnesic potential of CDRI-08 via enhancement of both neuronal and glial plasticity markers. Further investigations on detailed molecular pathways would encourage therapeutic application of the extract in memory disorders.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 09/2015; 2015:837012. DOI:10.1155/2015/837012
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE), characterized by impaired cerebellar functions during chronic liver failure (CLF), involves N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) overactivation in the brain cells. Bacopa monnieri (BM) extract is a known neuroprotectant. The present paper evaluates whether BM extract is able to modulate the two NMDAR subunits (NR2A and NR2B) and its downstream mediators in cerebellum of rats with chronic liver failure (CLF), induced by administration of 50 mg/kg bw thioacetamide (TAA) i.p. for 14 days, and in the TAA group rats orally treated with 200 mg/kg bw BM extract from days 8 to 14. NR2A is known to impart neuroprotection and that of NR2B induces neuronal death during NMDAR activation. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase- (nNOS-) apoptosis pathway is known to mediate NMDAR led excitotoxicity. The level of NR2A was found to be significantly reduced with a concomitant increase of NR2B in cerebellum of the CLF rats. This was consistent with significantly enhanced nNOS expression, nitric oxide level, and reduced Bcl2/Bax ratio. Moreover, treatment with BM extract reversed the NR2A/NR2B ratio and also normalized the levels of nNOS-apoptotic factors in cerebellum of those rats. The findings suggest modulation of NR2A and NR2B expression by BM extract to prevent neurochemical alterations associated with HE.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 09/2015; 2015:535013. DOI:10.1155/2015/535013
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    ABSTRACT: Cigarette smoking (CS) is a major health hazard that exerts diverse physiologic and biochemical effects mediated by the components present and generated during smoking. Recent experimental studies have shown predisposition to several biological consequences from both active and passive cigarette smoke exposure. In particular, passive smoking is linked to a number of adverse health effects which are equally harmful as active smoking. A pragmatic approach should be considered for designing a pharmacological intervention to combat the adverse effects of passive smoking. This review describes the results from a controlled experimental condition, testing the effect of bacoside A (BA) on the causal role of passive/secondhand smoke exposure that caused pathological and neurological changes in rat brain. Chronic exposure to cigarette smoke induced significant changes in rat brain histologically and at the neurotransmitter level, lipid peroxidation states, mitochondrial functions, membrane alterations, and apoptotic damage in rat brain. Bacoside A is a neuroactive agent isolated from Bacopa monnieri. As a neuroactive agent, BA was effective in combating these changes. Future research should examine the effects of BA at molecular level and assess its functional effects on neurobiological and behavioral processes associated with passive smoke.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 09/2015; 2015:286137. DOI:10.1155/2015/286137
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    ABSTRACT: The primo-vascular system (PVS) is a novel network identified in various animal tissues. However, the PVS in subcutaneous tissue has not been well identified. Here, we examined the putative PVS on the surface of abdominal subcutaneous tissue in rats. Hemacolor staining revealed dark blue threadlike structures consisting of nodes and vessels, which were frequently observed bundled with blood vessels. The structure was filled with various immune cells including mast cells and WBCs. In the structure, there were inner spaces (20-60 µm) with low cellularity. Electron microscopy revealed a bundle structure and typical cytology common with the well-established organ surface PVS, which were different from those of the lymphatic vessel. Among several subcutaneous (sc) PVS tissues identified on the rat abdominal space, the most outstanding was the scPVS aligned along the ventral midline. The distribution pattern of nodes and vessels in the scPVS closely resembled that of the conception vessel meridian and its acupoints. In conclusion, our results newly revealed that the PVS is present in the abdominal subcutaneous tissue layer and indicate that the scPVS tissues are closely correlated with acupuncture meridians. Our findings will help to characterize the PVS in the other superficial tissues and its physiological roles.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 09/2015; 2015:751937. DOI:10.1155/2015/751937
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    ABSTRACT: The primo vascular system (PVS), floating in lymph ducts, was too transparent to be observed by using a stereomicroscope. It was only detectable with the aid of staining dyes, for instance, Alcian blue, which was injected into the lymph nodes. Some dyes were absorbed preferentially by the PVS than the lymph wall. It remains a standing problem to know what dyes are absorbed better by the PVS than the lymph walls. Such information would be useful to unravel the biochemical properties of the PVS that are badly in need for obtaining large amount of PVS specimens. In the current work we tried two other familiar dyes which were used in PVS research before. We found that Trypan blue and toluidine blue did not visualize the PVS. Trypan blue was cleared by the natural washing. Toluidine blue did not stain the PVS, but it did leave stained spots in the lymph wall and its surrounding tissues, and it leaked out of the lymph wall to stain surrounding connective tissues. These completely different behaviors of the three dyes were found for the first time in the current work and provide valuable information to elucidate the mechanism through which some special dyes stained the PVS preferentially compared to the lymphatic wall.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 09/2015; 2015:725989. DOI:10.1155/2015/725989
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    ABSTRACT: Chinese medicines are gaining wider acceptance. They have been used for treating rheumatoid arthritis (RA) for thousands of years, and the need to investigate the interaction between Chinese medicines and western medicines is widely recognized. In this study, a large number of RCTs and CCTs were analyzed to systematically assess the effects and adverse events of Zhengqing Fengtongning (ZQFTN) for RA. Eleven studies that contained 956 participants (508 in the treatment group; 448 in the control group) were included. The results showed that although ZQFTN combined with methotrexate MTX could not decrease the swollen joint count and tender joint count of RA patients better than MTX alone, the combination therapy might relieve the duration of morning stiffness (SMD: -16.06; 95% CI: -28.77 to -3.34), reduce laboratory indexes (RF: SMD: -10.84; 95% CI: -19.39 to -2.29; ESR: SMD: -7.26; 95% CI: -11.54 to -2.99; CRP: SMD: -3.66; 95% CI: -5.94 to -1.38), and improve the overall effect (RR: 1.08; CI: 1.01 to 1.16) better than monotherapy. The combination therapy was significantly better in controlling adverse drug reactions (RR: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.46 to 0.79). Through this systematic review, we found that ZQFTN combined with MTX for the treatment of RA might have better clinical efficacy than MTX only and might be superior in terms of controlling adverse drug reactions.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 09/2015; 2015:910376. DOI:10.1155/2015/910376
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    ABSTRACT: Antrodia camphorata (A. camphorata) is a fungus generally used in Chinese folk medicine for treatment of viral hepatitis and cancer. Our previous study found A. camphorata has neuroprotective properties and could reduce stroke injury in cerebral ischemia animal models. In this study, we sought to investigate the molecular mechanisms of neuroprotective effects of A. camphorata in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rats. A selective occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) with whole blood clots was used to induce ischemic stroke in rats and they were orally treated with A. camphorata (0.25 and 0.75 g/kg/day) alone or combined with aspirin (5 mg/kg/day). To provide insight into the functions of A. camphorata mediated neuroprotection, the expression of Bax, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and activated caspase-3 was determined by Western blot assay. Treatment of aspirin alone significantly reduced the expressions of HO-1 (P < 0.001), iNOS (P < 0.001), and Bax (P < 0.01) in ischemic regions. The reduction of these expressions was more potentiated when rats treated by aspirin combined with A. camphorata (0.75 g/kg/day). Combination treatment also reduced apoptosis as measured by a significant reduction in active caspase-3 expression in the ischemic brain compared to MCAO group (P < 0.01). Moreover, treatment of A. camphorata significantly (P < 0.05) reduced fenton reaction-induced hydroxyl radical (OH(•)) formation at a dose of 40 mg/mL. Taken together, A. camphorata has shown neuroprotective effects in embolic rats, and the molecular mechanisms may correlate with the downregulation of Bax, iNOS, HO-1, and activated caspase-3 and the inhibition of OH(•) signals.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 09/2015; 2015:232789. DOI:10.1155/2015/232789