Electronic Materials Letters (ELECTRON MATER LETT )


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Publications in this journal

  • Electronic Materials Letters 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This paper reports the synthesis of HCl-doped Au@polyaniline (Pani) nanocomposite fibers by the in situ oxidative polymerization of aniline in the presence of gold nanoparticles. Thus prepared nanocomposite fibers were characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD, Raman spectroscopy, XPS, UV-visible diffused reflectance spectroscopy, TGA, and DSC. The Au@Pani nanocomposite fibers showed superior DC electrical conductivity to HCl doped Pani, which might be due to the increased mobility of the charge carriers after the incorporation of gold nanoparticle in Pani. Au@Pani also exhibited a better ammonia sensing and recovery response than Pani, which might be due to the increase in the surface area of Pani after the incorporation of gold nanoparticles.
    Electronic Materials Letters 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of a trace Al addition (0, 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 wt. %) in the Sn-2Ag-5Bi solder alloy on wettability and intermetallic compound (IMC) formation of the alloy was investigated. The interface between the solder and a Cu(17 μm)/Ni(4 μm)/Au (0.02 μm) under bump metallized (UBM) substrate was studied. The microstructure of the bulk solder and the interface of the soldered joints was observed in a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and the thickness of the interface reaction layers was estimated. Various IMC phases were identified by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and by the electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA). The experimental results indicated that the addition of 0.01 wt.% Al in the Sn-2Ag-5Bi solder alloy significantly improved the wettability of the solder more than the other Al additions did. The IMC layer between the bulk Sn-2Ag5Bi-0.01Al solder and the Cu/Ni/Au UBM substrate was almost uniform and thinner than those between the solders containing 0, 0.05, and 0.1 wt.% Al and their respective Cu/Ni/Au UBM substrates. Furthermore, the growth rate of the IMC layer between the Sn-2Ag-5Bi-0.01Al solder and Cu/Ni/Au UBM after 1 to 10 reflow times was lower than that of the IMC layer between the Sn-2Ag-5Bi solder and Cu/Ni/Au UBM. The IMCs in the solder joint interface (e.g., Ni3Sn4) of the Sn-2Ag-5Bi-0.01Al solder were well distributed near the Bi and fine Ag3Sn. The addition of 0.01 wt. % Al in the Sn-2Ag-5Bi solder yielded the best wetting properties for the solder and the minimum growth rate of the IMCs because it increased the nucleation rate of Ag3Sn and uniformly segregated the Bi phase.
    Electronic Materials Letters 04/2014;
  • Electronic Materials Letters 03/2014; Will be published.
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    ABSTRACT: Over the last decade in materials science, molecular electronics has emerged as one of the most rapidly developing interdisciplinary research areas with the prospects of ultimate miniaturization and integration of functional organic species with traditional silicon based semiconductor technology. To this end, fundamental studies to investigate the electrical and optical properties of organic nanomaterials deserve special attention. In this work, conductive probe atomic force microscopy (CP-AFM) and Raman spectroscopy have been performed on a new class of ionic materials, referred to as Group of Uniform Materials Based on Organic Salts (GUMBOS) and nanoparticles derived from these GUMBOS, termed as nanoGUMBOS. The GUMBOS investigated in this study are 1,1´-Diethyl-2,2´-cyanine bis (trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide ([PIC][NTf2]) and 1,1´-Diethyl-2,2´-cyanine bis (pentafluoromethanesulfonyl) imide ([PIC][BETI]), which have been synthesized by use of a facile, template free anion exchange reaction between their respective parent compounds, followed by an ultrasonication assisted, additive free re-precipitation reaction to obtain the nanoscale particles (nanoGUMBOS). The ([PIC][NTf2] nanoGUMBOS were found to self-assemble into distinct diamond-like, trapezoid structures whereas [PIC][BETI] exhibited rod-like structures. [PIC][NTf2] nanoGUMBOS induced ~25 and ~38 times enhancement in the Raman signal intensity as compared to the parent compound [PIC][I] and [PIC][BETI] nanoGUMBOS respectively. In conjunction with the results of Raman spectra, the current-voltage (I-V) data obtained by CP-AFM are also presented as first-time evidence of electrical performance exhibited by these unique class of materials. The results reported in this study are indicative of their potential incorporation into next generation organic thin film applications in optoelectronics, dye-sensitized solar cells, and chemical sensors.
    Electronic Materials Letters 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The present work reports cadmium-free colloidal ZnS:Al quantum dot (QD) based white quantum dot light-emitting diodes (QD-LEDs). The device was fabricated with a structure of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PVK/QDs/TPBi/LiF/Al using synthesized ZnS:Al QDs which has 393 nm of peak wavelength and sub peaks in visible wavelength. White emission with high color rending index (CRI) was achieved by the combination of blue emission from PVK and ZnS:Al QDs, electroplex emission at the interface between PVK and ZnS:Al QDs, and Al traps/defects emission, which are controlled by electrical aging effect. The characteristic of our device shows the potential for spectrum tunable and Cd-free white QD-LEDs in the near future.
    Electronic Materials Letters 03/2014; 10(2):479-483.
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    ABSTRACT: 2D like photonic crystal was fabricated with the help of GLAD synthesized In2O3-SiOx heterostructure nanocolumnar arrays. Different dielectric media like air and water were used to demonstrate the optical characteristics and band gap of the crystal. Nearly 33 nm red shift of the band gap was observed for wet sample as compared to dry. Broad band UV-Vis absorption has been observed for the dry In2O3-SiOx heterostructure nanocolumnar arrays, which decreases in wet condition. The device shows low current conduction at lower humidity, which enhances at higher humidity condition due to the absorption of water molecules from the environment by the porous surface. The device possesses 5.6 × 10−3 mA/cm2 current at 10%, which increases to 1.4 × 10−1 mA/cm2 at 99% humidity under applied potential of 2 V. The sample shows the color alteration from black (dry) to brown (wet) due to changes in its effective refractive index.
    Electronic Materials Letters 02/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Several techniques have been used to prepare titanium dioxide (TiO2) paste from commercially available powders for applications in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). In this study, submicron-sized TiO2 agglomerates with mesopores (2–50 nm) were prepared using a dicarboxylic acid, adipic acid. This type of acid creates new hydroxyl groups that increase the surface area and level of dye adsorption. The adipic acid-added mesoporous TiO2 exhibited light scattering effect at a comparable wavelength with a lower back-scattering efficiency. The effects of the TiO2 paste components, such as the morphology, characteristics and structure, were examined and comparative studies were performed using acetic acid added-TiO2 nanoparticles.
    Electronic Materials Letters 01/2014; 10(1):229-234.
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    ABSTRACT: Monodisperse and spherical lanthanum bismuth titanate (Bi3.25La0.75Ti3O12, BLT) nanocrystals with an average size of ∼60 nm were synthesized by in situ crystallization of spherical gel particles (∼120 nm in diameter) at elevated temperatures in a carbonate environment. The gel particles were obtained by a sol-gel inverse mini-emulsion manipulation and a gelation process at 60°C. X-ray diffraction technique and Raman spectrum measurement were used to trace the formation of crystalline phases in the gel particles during heat treatment, and single-phase BLT nanocrystals were obtained after firing at 500°C for 4 h. The morphology and size of the gel particles and BLT nanocrystals were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The possible mechanism underlying the formation of spherical BLT nanocrystals through a sol-gel inverse mini-emulsion approach was discussed.
    Electronic Materials Letters 01/2014; 10(1).
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    ABSTRACT: CaO-SiO2-Na2O-MgO glass-ceramics containing Fe2O3 and ZnO were prepared using conventional melting of batch powders, quenching the molten glass in water and crystallization of sintered glass powder. FTIR spectroscopy exhibited main peaks at 930 cm−1 and 950 cm−1 are the characterizations of [SiO4]−2 and [SiO4]−1 bands of glassy network, respectively. XRD patterns introduce Wollastonite and Akermanite as two main crystallized phases of sintered glass-ceramics. Fe2O3 additive resulted in crystallization of Wollastonite more than ZnO additive. Also glass ceramics containing Fe2O3 exhibited sinterability better than ZnO glass ceramics. Consequently, dielectric properties of glass ceramics were measured via a network analyzer at 9 GHz. The bulks of Glass Ceramics showed low dielectric constant and dielectric loss, ɛ r = 5.5 − 7.4 and tgδ = 0.001 − 0.009 respectively. SEM micrograph of glass ceramic samples and glasses depicted morphology of Wollastonite and phase separation respectively.
    Electronic Materials Letters 01/2014; 10(1).
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigates the effects of Al2O3 addition on sintering, microstructures, phase formation and the microwave dielectric properties of BaCo0.194Zn0.116Nb0.69O3 (BCZN) ceramics prepared by the conventional solidstate route. Addition of low alumina content was found to effectively improve the Q×f value of BCZN ceramics. Addition of an appropriate amount of Al2O3 was found beneficial to the growth and uniformity of the ceramic grain, significantly improving the quality factor of BCZN ceramics. However, the performance of the ceramics deteriorated when an excessive secondary phase, inhomogeneous grain of small size and larger porosity were generated from the BCZN ceramic doped with excessive alumina. An optimum Q × f of 61056 GHz (f = 7.44 GHz) was obtained for the BCZN ceramic doped with 1 wt. % Al2O3 addition sintered at 1350°C for 3 h, which is markedly better than that of pure BCZN ceramic sintered at 1300°C for 3 h (13650 GHz, f = 7.02 GHz).
    Electronic Materials Letters 01/2014; 10(1).