Histology and histopathology (Histol Histopathol )

Description

Histology and Histopathology is an international journal, the purpose of which is to publish original works in English in histology, histopathology and cell biology; high quality is the overall consideration.

Impact factor 2.24

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    Impact factor
  • 5-year impact
    2.23
  • Cited half-life
    6.00
  • Immediacy index
    0.55
  • Eigenfactor
    0.01
  • Article influence
    0.64
  • Website
    Histology & Histopathology website
  • ISSN
    1699-5848

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Macular corneal dystrophy is a rare autosomal recessive eye disease affecting primarily the corneal stroma. Abnormal accumulation of proteoglycan aggregates has been observed intra- and extracellularly in the stromal layer. In addition to the stromal keratocytes and corneal lamellae, deposits are also present in the basal epithelial cells, endothelial cells and Descemet's membrane. Misfolding of proteins has a tendency to gather into aggregating deposits. We studied interaction of molecular chaperones and proteasomal clearance in macular dystrophy human samples and in human corneal HCE-2 epithelial cells. Seven cases of macular corneal dystrophy and four normal corneal buttons collected during corneal transplantation were examined for their expression patterns of heat shock protein 70, ubiquitin protein conjugates and SQSTM1/p62. In response to proteasome inhibition the same proteins were analyzed by western blotting. Slit-lamp examination, in vivo confocal cornea microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used for morphological analyses. Heat shock protein 70, ubiquitin protein conjugates and SQSTM1/p62 were upregulated in both the basal corneal epithelial cells and the stromal keratocytes in macular corneal dystrophy samples that coincided with an increased expression of the same molecules under proteasome inhibition in the HCE-2 cells in vitro. We propose a novel regulatory mechanism that connects the molecular chaperone and proteasomal clearance system in the pathogenesis of macular corneal dystrophy.
    Histology and histopathology 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: The anion exchanger pendrin is exclusively expressed by non-type A intercalated cells (ICs), type B ICs and non A-non B ICs. Pendrin-positive ICs are mainly localized in the cortical collecting duct (CCD) and connecting tubule (CNT) rather than the outer medullary collecting duct (OMCD). Our previous study reported that Notch signaling is required for the specification of ureteric bud cells to the principal cells (PCs) and ICs in the medullary collecting duct. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the deletion of Mind bomb-1 (Mib1), an E3 ubiquitin ligase required for the initiation of Notch signaling, would affect the differentiation of pendrin-positive type B and non A-non B ICs in Hoxb7-Cre;Mib1f/f mice. In Hoxb7-Cre;Mib1f/f mice, there was a significant increase in the fraction of pendrin-negative/AE1-positive type A ICs not only in the OMCD (67.02±2.04% vs. 33.78±0.71%; Hoxb7-Cre;Mib1f/f vs. Mib1f/f) but also in the CCD (23.70±2.68% vs. 19.71±0.43%; Hoxb7-Cre;Mib1f/f vs. Mib1f/f) and CNT (23.70±2.68% vs. 19.71±0.43%; Hoxb7-Cre;Mib1f/f vs. Mib1f/f) as compared with Mib1f/f. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the fraction of pendrin-positive type B ICs (7.11±3.84% vs. 7.61±4.45%; Hoxb7-Cre;Mib1f/f vs. Mib1f/f) between the two groups in the cortex including CCD and CNT. Furthermore, there was a significant decrease in the fraction of non A-non B ICs (8.95±2.28% vs. 13.06±4.81%; Hoxb7-Cre;Mib1f/f vs. Mib1f/f) in these tubules in the Hoxb7-Cre;Mib1f/f mice. These results suggest that the degree of differentiation of subtypes of ICs may vary depending on the Notch signaling pathway.
    Histology and histopathology 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2R) on the repair process of injured skeletal muscle, which could potentially lay solid foundations as a novel target for curing muscular fibrosis in future. A standardized rat model of skeletal muscle contusion was established, where rats were treated with the CB2R agonist JWH-133 or antagonist AM-630. The in vivo results revealed that CB2R activation with JWH-133 significantly diminished the fibrotic areas, down-regulated the mRNA levels of collagen type I/ІІІ and augmented the number of multinucleated regenerating myofibers in the injured zones. The reasons leading to the aforementioned results were directly attributable to decreased mRNA levels of TGF-β1, FN-EIIIA and α-SMA, reduced accumulation of myofibroblasts, and concomitantly increased mRNA levels of matrix metalloproteinase-1/2. However, we observed contrasting changes in rats treated with the CB2R antagonist AM-630. These results revealed multiple effects of CB2R in systematically inhibiting fibrotic formation and improving muscle regeneration, alongside its potential for clinical application in patients with skeletal muscle injuries and diseases.
    Histology and histopathology 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To study the attachment and growth of human corneal cells on keratin-chitosan membranes. The end goal is to develop a bioengineered cornea based on this material. Methods: Keratin-chitosan membranes were prepared as previously described by Tanabe et al., 2002. Briefly, 7.15mg/cm2 of keratin dialysate was mixed with 10wt% chitosan solution and 20wt% glycerol. The solution was cast into a silicone mold and dried at 50ºC for 36 hours. Eyes were attained from a local eye bank after penetrant-keratoplastic surgery. Human epithelial, stromal and endothelial cells were obtained of the limbal, stromal and endothelial regions. Cells were cultured on keratin-chitosan membranes, as well as on plastic dishes as controls. When cultured cells reached confluence, they were fixed, incubated with primary antibodies (E-cadherin, cytokeratin high molecular weight (CK), vimentin and Na+/K+ ATPase) and visualized by indirect immunocytochemistry. Results: Epithelial, stromal and endothelial cells were able to attach and grow on keratin-chitosan membranes. All the cells maintained their morphology and cellular markers, both in the membrane and on the culture plate. Epithelial cells stained positively for CK and E-cadherin. A positive vimentin stain was observed in all stromal cells, while endothelial cells were positive for vimentin and Na+/K+ ATPase, but negative for E-cadherin. Conclusions: Keratin-chitosan membranes have been shown to be a good scaffold for culturing epithelial, stromal and endothelial corneal cells; therefore, future applications of keratin-chitosan membranes may be developed for reconstruction of the cornea.
    Histology and histopathology 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the efficacy and success of targeted therapies, a significant number of patients with melanoma exhibit either intrinsic or acquired resistance to these drugs. Numerous mechanisms for the development of resistance have been postulated, but the precise reason for this is not known. In this review, we examine the incidence of mutations in select genes (BRAF, NRAS, C-KIT, and GNAQ) known to occur in melanoma, specifically in primary tumors and their paired metastases, to understand the significance of intratumoral heterogeneity by assessing how changes in mutation status alters the process of metastatic spread. Our data revealed a small yet consistent degree of discordance of mutations in the MAPK pathway commonly occurring in melanoma indicating that failed targeted therapy may be a consequence of this.
    Histology and histopathology 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Carcinosarcomas are rare, biphasic tumors that are comprised of carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements. While the exact mechanism by which these two phenotypes arise within a single tumor remains unclear, molecular evidence indicates that the epitheliod and spindle-cell components share a clonal origin. We propose that the biphasic nature of these neoplasms may represent an extreme case of epithelial plasticity, in which an epithelial-like cell undergoes a transition to a more mesenchymal phenotype. The present review will discuss both the histological and molecular biological evidence of the involvement of epithelial plasticity in driving the mixed phenotypes observed in carcinosarcomas.
    Histology and histopathology 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC), added in freezing/thawing solutions, on reactive oxygen species (RRS) levels and on ovarian tissue preservation after cryopreservation. Ovarian samples from 10 subjects suffering from cancer diseases were cryopreserved using the slow freezing/rapid thawing standard protocol without or with NAC supplementation. RRS levels produced during cryopreservation were monitored by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The preservation of fresh ovarian tissue (t0), thawed tissue (t1 and t1 NAC) and thawed tissue maintained at 4°C for 2 hrs (t2 and t2 NAC) was analysed by light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Ki67 immunohistochemical and TUNEL analysis. It was possible to design a maximum peak for RRS production at t1, which slightly decreased at t2. NAC reduced the extent of RRS levels in cryopreserved ovarian tissues if compared with non-supplemented ones, although not restoring RRS production to baseline values. Comparative analysis between the two cryopreservation protocols showed that a better preservation of morphological characteristics, proliferation index and DNA integrity of ovarian tissue was obtained using NAC and no differences between t1NAC and t2NAC were observed. The employment of NAC during cryopreservation procedure could be an useful strategy for preserving the function of endogenous cellular systems. Nevertheless, further studies on the viability of thawed ovarian tissue are needed to support the feasibility of this approach in clinical settings.
    Histology and histopathology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have raised doubts about the protective role of KiSS1/KiSS1R in breast malignancy progression. However, the role of the KiSS1/KiSS1R system in primary breast cancer remains largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to characterize the biology and invasiveness potential of primary breast cancer through evaluation of KiSS1/KiSS1R protein expression and cellular localization with regard to lymph node metastasis status, receptor status (ERs, PR and HER-2/neu), and expression of aromatase, MMP-9, Ki-67 and Cyclin D1 in primary invasive breast cancer tissues. We showed increased protein expression of both KiSS1/KiSS1R and MMP-9 in the cancerous tissues compared with noncancerous tissue adjacent to the breast tumour. In the studied group of breast cancer samples, we observed a positive correlation between KiSS1 and MMP-9. We also showed a positive correlation between KiSS1R and aromatase expression in all studied breast cancers. We did not notice any associations between system and cell cycle regulators. KiSS1/KiSS1R did not correlate either with Cyclin D1 and Ki-67 or with receptor status. However, we showed higher levels of KiSS1R expression in ERα-negative cases than in ERα-positive cases in patients with lymph node metastasis. Present data do not confirm the protective role of KiSS1/KiSS1R breast cancer progression, but our results do support the hypothesis that the KiSS1/KiSS1R system is activated even in primary breast cancer and sustained during invasion to local lymph nodes.
    Histology and histopathology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: HtrA1, a member of the High Temperature Requirement Factor A family of oxidative stress-response proteases seems to play a role as a tumor suppressor, being down-regulated in a series of human cancers during their progression. Particularly, low HtrA1 mRNA levels have been observed in breast cancer patients with more aggressive clinical features. These have been shown to relate to a longer disease free and overall survival, with more pronounced effects in axillary nodes positive patients. Subjects and Methods: We have analyzed for immunohistochemical HtrA1 expression a series of 66 sentinel node positive breast cancers through Tissue Micro Array technology. Results: HtrA1 was absent to low in 29 cases, medium in 19 cases and high in 18 cases. Our data revealed a positive significant relation between HtrA1 expression level and estrogen (p=0,002) and progestinic receptor expression (p=0.003) and a negative correlation with histological grading (p=0.028), proliferation index (p=0.05), common BC histotypes (p=0.040), luminal A and B subtypes (p=0.001), metastasis development (p<0.0001) and local relapse (p<0.0001). Finally, no correlation was recorded between HtrA1 expression level and breast cancer histology type and metastasis to non sentinel nodes. Interestingly HtrA1 loss in SLN metastasis was able to predict positive non sentinel nodes (p=.001). Conclusions: Low HtrA1 expression is significantly related to breast cancer poor prognosis parameters, and HtrA1 loss in sentinel nodes is related to metastasis of non sentinel nodes, offering a further marker useful for BC prognostic stratification.
    Histology and histopathology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In eukaryotes the delivery of newly synthesized proteins to their final destination is dependent on a series of functionally distinct compartments, including the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus, which plays a role in post-translational modification, sorting and distribution of proteins. Most cargo is sorted within, and exits from, the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Proteins delivered to lysosomes include hydrolytic enzymes and nonenzymic activator proteins. They are directed away from the cell surface by their binding to mannose-6-phosphate receptors (MPR). However, in I-cell disease, in which the MPR pathway is disrupted, the nonenzymic sphingolipid activator protein, prosaposin, continue to traffic to lysosomes. This observation led to discovery of a new lysosomal sorting receptor, sortilin. The targeting prosaposin to the lysosomes results from the interaction of its C-terminus with sortilin. Deletion of the C-terminus did not interfere with its secretion, but abolished its transport to the lysosomes. Mutational analysis revealed that the first half of the prosaposin C-terminus contains a motif required for its binding to sortilin and its transport to the lysosomes. Prosaposin can be also secreted to the extracellular space as oligomers. Extracellular prosaposin showed to exert a variety of responses in nervous tissues including the activation of G protein-coupled receptors and ERK phosphorylation. Lastly, prosaposin has been found to be expressed in other fluids of the body such as pancreatic juice, bile, cerebrospinal fluid, milk and seminal fluid, indicating that prosaposin is not only a house keeping lysosomal protein but an essential factor in the development and maintenance of the nervous systems and other systems of the body.
    Histology and histopathology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic molecule with several biological activities, is a well recognized anti-oxidant, anti-aging and cancer chemopreventive agent. Moreover, resveratrol anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic properties have been demonstrated both in vitro and in different animal models of inflammatory pathologies, including bowel and liver diseases. We review the evidence of resveratrol protective role in respiratory diseases such as acute lung injury, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung fibrosis. We conclude that resveratrol and its derivatives may act as a therapeutic agents in respiratory diseases and pertinent clinical trials should be performed.
    Histology and histopathology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: p63 and p73, the two other members of the p53 family, were identified almost 15 years ago. Here, we review their potential use for diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of response to therapy in various cancers. The two genes show distinct expression patterns in both normal and cancer tissues and each gene gives rise to multiple protein isoforms with different activities, including those with tumour-suppressor or oncogenic effects. Despite such complexity, some common themes emerge; p63 is commonly over-expressed as the ΔNp63 isoform and sometimes associated with TP63 amplification, whereas p73 is often reduced (by methylation or gene loss), or there is an increase in the ratio of ΔNp73 to TAp73. These generalisations do not apply universally; TAp63 is overexpressed in haematological malignancies, TP63 mis-sense mutations have been reported in squamous cancers and TP63 translocations occur in lymphomas and some lung adenocarcinomas. There are associations with disease prognosis and response to specific therapies in individual cancer types for both p63 and p73, making their analysis of clinical relevance. We also discuss their utility for aiding in differential diagnosis, which has been demonstrated for p63, but not yet for p73. Throughout, we highlight the discrepant nature of many studies due to the variable methodologies employed, the lack of systematic evaluation of isoforms and the problems of poor antibody characterization and cross-reactions within the p63/p73 family. Finally, we emphasize the value of recently developed isoform-specific reagents that have clear advantages for the study of p63 and p73 experimentally and clinically. (247 words).
    Histology and histopathology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Recent advances have brought to light the hypothesis that angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis are tightly connected to some chronic inflammatory diseases. The present study focuses on immunohistochemical assessment of the quantitative changes in the blood and lymphatic microcirculatory bed in common chronic dermatosis - cutaneous lichen planus. Double immunohistochemistry with CD34 and podoplanin antibodies was used to detect blood and lymphatic endothelium, while anti-human VEGF was used for the observation of a key angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis inducer. Morphometric analysis was performed with QuickPhoto Micro image analysis software. Results confirmed statistically significant enlargement of both the blood and lymphatic microcirculatory beds. Compared to healthy skin, cutaneous lichen planus lesions revealed 1.6 times enlarged blood microcirculatory bed and 1.8 times enlarged lymphatic microcirculatory bed. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in lesional skin was significantly higher in the epidermis (19.1 times increase) than in the dermis (10.3 times increase). These findings indicate a tight association of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis with the pathogenesis of cutaneous lichen planus.
    Histology and histopathology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The thymus represents an epithelial microenvironment specialized in the generation of T-cells. The mechanisms or signals that determine the initial differentiation of the two well distinguished histological compartments of the thymus, cortex and medulla, remain unknown. Here, we report a three-dimensional analysis of the distribution of some established thymic epithelial markers in relation to thymic anatomical development during the first steps of thymus organogenesis. In the thymic primordium, initial lumen is lined by claudin (Cld)3/4+K5+ cells, after thymus growth and lobulation they form a continuous branched structure that increases its length and branching degree. Within it, the presence of luminal structures can be distinguished, even at E13.5. The medullary marker mouse thymic stroma 10 (MTS10) is upregulated in these Cld3/4+ lumen forming cells in a proximal-distal sequence. This structural organisation is histologically similar to that described in other epithelial organs undergoing a branching morphogenesis process. These results indicate that the thymic medulla can be evidenced as a continuous branched structure from early stages and suggest a thymic developmental program based on or containing elements of a branching morphogenesis program modified by the presence of lymphoid cells, in which medullary epithelial cell commitment is initially determined by lumen formation.
    Histology and histopathology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The presence of CD117 positive cells in esophageal leiomyoma may lead to a misdiagnosis of GIST. We reviewed 46 esophageal tumors which were smooth muscle tumors or GIST. Based on morphology, immunohistochemistry and mutation analysis, there were 44 (95.6%) leiomyomas, 1 (2.2%) leiomyosarcoma, and 1 (2.2%) GIST. Variable numbers of CD117 positive cells were seen in all leiomyomas. Tryptase immunostaining identified mast cells in 93.2% (41/44) of leiomyomas, and the number of mast cells per tumor decreased significantly from tumors of the upper esophagus to the esophageal-gastric junction (p<0.01). Immunofluorescence study further confirmed the presence of two types of CD117 positive spindle cells which included spindle-shaped mast cells and DOG-1-positive interstitial cells of Cajal. This is the first study to systemically review mast cells in esophageal leiomyomas and tumors which may be included in the differential diagnosis. We demonstrate that both spindled mast cells and hyperplastic interstitial cells of Cajal are present within esophageal leiomyomas. The immunoreactivity of these cells with CD117 may suggest a diagnosis of GIST, but the presence of mast cells itself supports a diagnosis of esophageal leiomyoma.
    Histology and histopathology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Cannabinoids are a class of chemical compounds with a wide spectrum of pharmacological effects, mediated by two specific plasma membrane receptors (CB1 and CB2). Recently, CB1 and CB2 expression levels have been detected in human tumors, including those of brain. Cannabinoids-endocannabinoids exert anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, anti-invasive, anti-metastatic and pro-apoptotic effects in different cancer types, both in vitro and in vivo in animal models, after local or systemic administration. We present the available experimental and clinical data, to date, regarding the antitumor action of cannabinoids on the tumorigenesis of gliomas.
    Histology and histopathology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common gynecologic malignancy. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) were recently associated with carcinogenesis and progression of EC. In this review, we discuss recent advances and the emerging role of miRNAs in EC and their clinical implications, with special emphasis on the differences between deregulated miRNAs in type I and type II EC, as well as the impact of this dysregulation on EC initiation and progression.
    Histology and histopathology 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Hemidesmosomes are anchoring junctions which connect basal epidermal cells to the extracellular matrix. In complex epithelia like skin, hemidesmosomes are composed of transmembrane proteins like α6β4 integrin, BP180, CD151 and cytoplasmic proteins like BPAG1e and plectin. BPAG1e and plectin are plakin family cytolinker proteins which anchor intermediate filament proteins i.e. keratins to the hemidesmosomal transmembrane proteins. Mutations in BPAG1e and plectin lead to severe skin blistering disorders. Recent reports indicate that these hemidesmosomal linker proteins play a role in various cellular processes like cell motility and cytoskeleton dynamics apart from their known anchoring function. In this review, we will discuss their role in structural and signaling functions.
    Histology and histopathology 11/2014;