Histology and histopathology (Histol Histopathol )

Description

Histology and Histopathology is an international journal, the purpose of which is to publish original works in English in histology, histopathology and cell biology; high quality is the overall consideration.

Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: As a continuation of the previous study on palate development (Rot and Kablar, 2013), here we explore the relationship between the secondary cartilage mandibular condyles (parts of the temporomandibular joint) and the contributions (mechanical and secretory) from the adjacent skeletal musculature. Previous analysis of Myf5-/-:MyoD-/- mouse fetuses lacking skeletal muscle demonstrated the importance of muscle contraction and static loading in mouse skeletogenesis. Among abnormal skeletal features, micrognathia (mandibular hypoplasia) was detected: small, bent and posteriorly displaced mandible. As an example of Waddingtonian epigenetics, we suggest that muscle, in addition to acting via mechanochemical signal transduction pathways, networks and promoters, also exerts secretory stimuli on skeleton. Our goal is to identify candidate molecules at that muscle-mandible interface. By employing Systematic Subtractive Microarray Analysis approach, we compared gene expression between mandibles of amyogenic and wild type mouse fetuses and we identified up- and down-regulated genes. This step was followed by a bioinformatics approach and consultation of web-accessible mouse databases. We searched for individual tissue-specific gene expression and distribution, and for the functional effects of mutations in a particular gene. The database search tools allowed us to generate a set of candidate genes with involvement in mandibular development: Cacna1s, Ckm, Des, Mir300, Myog and Tnnc1. We also performed mouse-to-human translational experiments and found analogies. In the light of our findings we discuss various players in mandibular morphogenesis and make an argument for the need to consider mandibular development as a consequence of reciprocal epigenetic interactions of both skeletal and non-skeletal compartments.
    Histology and histopathology 11/2014; 29(11):1377-94.
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    ABSTRACT: The four regulatory subunits (R1A, R1B, R2A, R2B) of protein kinase A (PKA) are differentially expressed in several cancer cell lines and exert distinct roles in both cell growth and cell differentiation control. Mutations of the PRKAR1A gene have been found in patients with Carney complex and in a minority of sporadic anaplastic thyroid carcinomas. The aim of the study was to retrospectively evaluate the expression of different PKA regulatory subunits in benign and non benign human thyroid tumours and to correlate their expression with clinical phenotype. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated a significant increase in PRKAR2B expression in both differentiated and undifferentiated (anaplastic) thyroid tumors in comparison with normal thyroid tissues. Conversely, a significant increase in PRKAR1A expression was only demonstrated in undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas in comparison with normal thyroid tissue and differentiated thyroid tumors. In thyroid cancers without lymph nodal metastases PRKAR1A expression was higher in tumours of more than 2 cm in size (T2 and T3) compared to smaller ones (T1). In conclusion, our data shows that an increased PRKAR1A expression is associated with aggressive and undifferentiated thyroid tumors.
    Histology and histopathology 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: Angiogenesis is considered an important pathophysiological feature of portal hypertension. We investigated the ability of angiogenesis, as CD34-positive microvessel density (MVD), to differentiate portal pressure in a CCl4-induced rat cirrhosis model. Methods: Cirrhosis was induced by intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride in 46 male adult Sprague-Dawley rats. A catheter connected to a highly sensitive pressure transducer was inserted into the portal vein to continuously record portal pressure. Fibrosis area, nodule size and MVD were assessed by image morphometry. Results: Of 42 rats in which portal pressure was measured successfully, 27 (64%) had portal pressure ≥10 mmHg, defined as significant portal hypertension. MVD was 4.5-fold higher and fibrosis area 13.0-fold higher in rats with significant portal hypertension than in rats with portal pressure ⟨10 mmHg. Portal pressure was significantly correlated with MVD (r=0.491, p⟨0.001) and fibrosis area (r=0.545, p⟨0.001) in all animals, but only MVD correlated with portal pressure (r=0.731 p⟨0.001) in rats with significant portal hypertension. The area under receiver operating characteristic curve for MVD in all rats was 0.953 (95% CI: 0.875-1.031) and optimum cutoff for MVD was 18/mm², with 96.3% sensitivity and 93.3% specificity. Conclusions: We found that MVD, measured by CD34 immunostaining, was better able than the fibrosis area to discriminate significant portal hypertension in rats, suggesting that MVD could be a surrogate marker for portal hypertension in patients with liver diseases.
    Histology and histopathology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Most patients with ovarian cancers relapse, and treatment failure has often been attributed to chemoresistance in tumor cells. Emerging evidence indicates that tumor heterogeneity may play an equally important role. Although the idea of tumor heterogeneity is not new, little attention has been focused on applying it to understand and control ovarian cancer progression. Recent advances in understanding its generation model, original basis, consequent problems, and derived therapies provide great potential for tumor heterogeneity to be a new insight in treatment of ovarian cancers.
    Histology and histopathology 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs), encoded by four genes (FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3, and FGFR4) are tightly associated with many biological processes such as organ development, cell proliferation and migration. Studies over the past decades have validated the pivotal roles FGFRs play in tumorigenesis due to the regulation of diverse tumorigenesis-related processes, including cell survival, proliferation, inflammation, metastasis and angiogenesis. Interestingly, FGFR mutations in somatic cells leading to tumorigenesis and those in germ cells leading to developmental disorders are identical, suggesting that FGFR mutations result in different diseases due to their spatio-temporal expression. Thus, discoveries in developmental biology may also be applicable to cancer. FGFRs regulate the expression and/or the activity of a myriad of molecules (e.g. matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and Snail) that are tightly linked to tumorigenesis by four main signaling pathways (RAS-MAPK, PI3K-AKT, PLCγ-PIP2, and STAT), as well as other minor branches. Epigenetic and genetic alteration of FGFR genes, including DNA methylation, histone remodeling, microRNA regulation, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), gene missense mutations, amplification, and fusion of FGFRs with other genes, which result in gain or loss of FGFR function, have been identified in many types of cancer. In this review, we focus in particular on recent advances in the relationship between FGFR disorders and tumorigenesis.
    Histology and histopathology 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The tumor microenvironment plays an integral part in the biology of cancer, participating in tumor initiation, progression, and response to therapy. Factors released by tumor cells themselves contribute in creating an environment mostly favorable but sometimes detrimental to the tumor. Survivin, one of the key members of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family of proteins, has been shown in the cytoplasm, mitochondria, nucleus, and most recently in the extracellular space, transported via small membrane bound vesicles called exosomes. Exosomes are secreted from hematopoietic, non-hematopoietic, tumor, and non-tumor cells, shuttling essential molecules such as proteins, RNAs, and microRNAs, all believed to be important for cell-cell and cell-extracellular communication. In this review, we discuss exosomal Survivin and its role in modifying the tumor microenvironment.
    Histology and histopathology 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Our previous studies demonstrated the expression of procollagen11A1 in fibroblasts of pancreatic cancer desmoplasia and the lack of expression in fibroblasts of pancreatitis by means of the polyclonal antibody (anti-proCOL11A1 pAb) we generated. In a similar way, we decided to compare the expression of procollagen11A1 in fibroblasts of infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast and fibroblasts of benign sclerosing lesions of the breast, in order to validate the anti-proCOL11A1 pAb in this setting and to study how proCOL11A1 expression relates to other prognostic and predictive factors, as well as to survival. Methods: 45 core biopsies of sclerosing adenosis and 50 core biopsies of infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast were stained with anti-proCOL11A1 pAb, a polyclonal antibody highly specific to the less homologous fraction of proCOL11A1 (in comparison with proCOL5A1 and proCOL11A2). In addition, the expression of the proCOL11A1 gene was measured by RT-qPCR. On the other hand, the expression of proCOL11A1 was compared to the expression of estrogenic receptors, progestagen receptors, the state of the epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), the histologic grade and the stage of the disease. We also compared the immunohistochemical expression of proCol11A1 to the disease-free interval, and to overall survival. Results: The immunohistochemical analysis showed that proCOL11A1 was expressed in 100% of infiltrating ductal carcinomas, but only focally expressed in 2,2% (1 case) of sclerosing adenosis, in agreement with RT-qPCR results. ProCOL11A1 expression did not prove to have a prognostic value in relation to the disease-free interval or to overall survival in infiltrating ductal carcinoma. Conclusion: The anti-proCOL11A1 pAb is a stromal marker for breast cancer and the expression of proCOL11A1 does not seem to have a prognostic value in infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast.
    Histology and histopathology 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The stroma surrounding tumors can either restrict or promote tumor growth and progression, and both the cellular and non-cellular components of the stroma play an active role. The cellular components in the surrounding stroma include tumor-associated fibroblasts, host tissue cells and immune cells. The non-cellular components, which form the extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffold, include proteoglycans, collagen, proteinases, growth factors and cytokines. For tumorigenesis to occur it is necessary for tumor cells to modify the surrounding stroma. Tumor cells have mechanisms for achieving this, such as co-opting fibroblasts and modifying the ECM they produce, degrading the surrounding ECM and/or synthesizing a favorable ECM to support invasion. Proteoglycans are an important component of the ECM and play an active role in tumor growth and progression. The expression and glycosylation patterns of proteoglycans are altered in the stroma surrounding tumors and these molecules may support or restrict tumor growth and progression depending on the type and stage of tumor. In the present review we discuss the difference between the tumor promoting and restricting stromal reactions surrounding tumors and the role proteoglycans play.
    Histology and histopathology 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors represent a distinct subset of mesenchymal tumours of the gastrointestinal tract. They are more common in the stomach and small intestine, and are characterized by the proliferation of spindle or epithelioid cells and by the expression of CD117. Extra-gastrointestinal stromal tumors are rare and only 13 cases of pancreatic GISTs have been reported in the literature, only 1 of which presented as a cystic lesion. Mutational analysis of KIT and Platelet derived growth factor receptor-α genes was performed only in two out of the 13 cases. We report 3 cases of cystic GISTs of the pancreas, radiologically mimicking a cystoadenocarcinoma. Routine histopathology and molecular characterization of the tumours have been performed. In two of them, molecular characterization showed unusual genetic alterations (the internal repeat of codon 502 and 503 in exon 9 of the KIT gene and the KIT exon 9 single nucleotide substitution c.1427G⟩T). Pancreatic GIST should be included in the differential diagnosis of both cystic and solid masses of the pancreas. The diagnosis should be accomplished by a combination of radiology, histology, immunohistochemistry and molecular biology. The evaluation of CD117 expression and the sequence analysis of KIT and Platelet derived growth factor receptor-α gene is mandatory for therapy.
    Histology and histopathology 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Metastasis represents the major threat of cancer progression and generally emerges years after the detection of the primary tumor. An important rate-limiting step resides in cellular dormancy, where a disseminated tumor cell remains in a quiescent state at a remote organ. Herein we review the molecular mechanisms leading to tumor dormancy, mainly in regards to cellular quiescence and the tumor microenvironment. Based on the current published literature, we provide evidence that links the cancer stem cell (CSC) theory with dormancy and metastasis. Once a disseminated tumor cell reaches a target tissue, a tight regulation imposed by the foreign microenvironment will dictate the fate of these cells, which implies a balance in the secretion of soluble factors, modulation of the extracellular matrix and the angiogenic switch. We investigate thoroughly whether the CSC theory could also apply to metastasis initiation. In fact, the resistance of CSCs to therapy, leading to the minimal residual disease and cellular quiescence phenotypes, predispose for the development of metastases. Finally, we describe the new technologies available for the identification of circulating tumor cells (CTCs), as well as their clinical relevance in dormancy of metastatic cancer patients.
    Histology and histopathology 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The highly metastatic and variable behavior of melanoma has accentuated the need for early detection and targeted therapy. Putative targets identified include those belonging to the extensive network of chemokines and their receptors. One such target is the chemokine receptor CXCR4, a G protein-coupled receptor with a 34 amino acid extracellular N-terminus, the primary ligand of which is CXCL12 (SDF-1, stromal derived factor-1). The ligand uniquely utilizes the N-terminus of CXCR4 for signal transduction and stimulates the protein kinase B (AKT)/mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Functionally, the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis is believed to play a key role in cell migration and proliferation. Upregulation of CXCR4 and consequently dysregulation of the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis has been implicated in the progression of several lineage-unrelated malignancies including melanoma. The contributions of the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis in melanomagenesis are well documented. More recently, the potential cooperativity between the mutational status of BRAF and the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis has been shown, lending credence to the concept that both CXCR4 and CXCL12 may be putative targets for therapy in melanoma. In this review, we summarize the role of the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis in cancer progression and metastasis, with an emphasis on cutaneous malignancy, melanoma in particular. Furthermore, we discuss the effects of CXCL12 on CXCR4 expressing malignant cells in vitro and the potential prognostic utility of both CXCR4 and CXCL12 expressions. Lastly, we highlight the therapeutic potential of targeting this axis and the unique response of CXCR4 expression to anti-cancer treatments with an emphasis on melanoma.
    Histology and histopathology 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Cerebral edema/brain edema refers to the accumulation of fluid in the brain and is one of the fatal conditions that require immediate medical attention. Cerebral edema develops as a consequence of cerebral trauma, cerebral infarction, hemorrhages, abscess, tumor, hypoxia, and other toxic or metabolic factors. Based on the causative factors cerebral edema is differentiated into cytotoxic cerebral edema, vasogenic cerebral edema, osmotic and interstitial cerebral edema. Treatment of cerebral edema depends on timely diagnosis and medical assistance. Pragmatic treatment strategies such as antihypertensive medications, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, barbiturates, steroids, glutamate and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists and trometamol are used in clinical practice. Although the above mentioned treatment approaches are being used, owing to the complexity of the mechanisms involved in cerebral edema, a single therapeutic strategy which could ameliorate cerebral edema is yet to be identified. However, recent experimental studies have suggested that melatonin, a neurohormone produced by the pineal gland, could be an effective alternative for treating cerebral edema. In animal models of stroke, melatonin was not only shown to reduce cerebral edema but also preserved the blood brain barrier. Melatonin's beneficial effects were attributed to its properties, such as being a potent anti-oxidant, and its ability to cross the blood brain barrier within minutes after its administration. This review summarizes the beneficial effects of melatonin when used for treating cerebral edema.
    Histology and histopathology 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in dogs is the final common pathway resulting from persistent renal injury and is characterized by progressive tubulointerstitial damage (TID). Pathogenesis of CKD is divided into an initial inflammatory phase with a predominantly mononuclear infiltrate followed by a fibrotic phase with increased numbers of fibroblasts and extracellular matrix deposition that causes a progressive reduction of functional parenchyma. Proteinuria is a common manifestation of renal diseases in dogs, and its role in the pathogenesis of CKD is still uncertain. Nevertheless, the degree of proteinuria in dogs correlates with TID progression. Increased protein filtration may have direct effects on tubular epithelial cells (TECs) that induce them to express the major histocompatibility complex type II, and thereby contribute to lymphocyte recruitment. Thus, an active pro-inflammatory role is proposed for TECs in TID progression. Moreover TECs are believed to actively participate in the mechanisms of renal fibrosis. Epithelial-Mesenchymal-Transition (EMT) of TECs in canine TID has been studied in the last decade. Down-regulation of adhesion molecules and loss of epithelial markers in TECs directly correlate with the severity of TID and with de novo expression of mesenchymal markers. Tubular basement membrane (TBM) disruption is an early EMT event. Increased activity of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 and its co-localization with TBM splitting suggests an active role for the enzyme in inducing EMT. Processes occurring in canine CKD share many similarities with its human counterpart, making the dog a good model in which to examine the mechanisms of TID progression.
    Histology and histopathology 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction. Neoangiogenesis is crucial for the progression and vulnerability of atheromasic lesions. Since adult vasa vasorum, which represent the neoangiogenetic burden of healthy arteries, constitutively express Nestin and Wilms Tumor (WT1), the aims of the present study are: i) to describe and quantify Nestin and WT1 in plaque neovessels; ii) to investigate the relationship between neovessel phenotype and plaque instability. Methods. We prospectively evaluated 49 consecutive carotid endarterectomy specimens. Histopathological characteristics were separately collected, particularly the intraplaque histological complications. Immunohistochemistry was carried out for CD34, Nestin and WT1; the density of positivity was evaluated for each marker. RT-PCR was performed to assess Nestin and WT1 mRNA levels on the first 10 plaques and on 10 control arteries. Results. Six (12.2%) plaques showed no neoangiogenesis. In the others, the mean immunohistochemical densities of CD34, Nestin, and WT1-positive structures were 41.88, 28.84 and 17.68/mm2. Among the CD34+ neovessels, 68% and 42% expressed Nestin and WT1 respectively, i.e., nearly 36% of the neovessels resulted to be Nestin+/WT1-. Furthermore, complicated plaques (n=30) showed significantly more CD34 and Nestin-positive vessels than uncomplicated plaques (n=13; P=0.045 and P=0.009), while WT1 was not increased (P=0.139). RT-PCR confirmed that WT1 gene expression was 3-fold lower than Nestin gene in plaques (p=0.001). Conclusions. Plaque neoangiogenesis shows both a Nestin+/WT1- and a Nestin+/WT1+ phenotype. The Nestin+/WT1- neovessels are significantly more abundant in complicated (vulnerable) plaques. The identification of new transcription factors in plaque neoangiogenesis, and their possible regulation, can open new perspectives in the therapy of vulnerable plaques.
    Histology and histopathology 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Since the discovery of the TCF/LEF family of transcription factors, their functions have been under intensive investigation in the area of cancer biology. The work presented in this paper focused on the changes in TCF-1 and LEF-1 expression levels in a set of astrocytic brain tumors. Protein expression was detected using immunohistochemistry and then evaluated by Ellipse software (ViDiTo, Slovakia). Statistical evaluations were performed with the SPSS statistical package, version 14.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Strong TCF-1 and LEF-1 expression was observed in 51.6% and 71% of glioblastoma samples. Statistical analysis confirmed significant differences in protein expression levels associated to 3 important values, weak expression of TCF-1, weak expression of LEF-1 and strong expression of LEF-1. Analysis of variances performed on the total sample also indicated significant differences in the values of TCF-1 weak (F=2.804; p=0.045), LEF-1 weak (F=4.255; p=0.008) and LEF-1 strong (F=5.498; p=0.002) with regard to malignancy grade. Thus, glioblastomas were characterized by -in relative terms- the lowest values for weak expression of TCF-1 and LEF-1, combined with the highest values of LEF-1 strong expression. The F-ratios for two variables (LEF-1 strong and LEF-1 weak) indicated that differences between astrocytomas (II, III) and glioblastomas were statistically significant (p⟨0.02). Discriminant function analysis further showed that strong LEF-1 expression alone could discriminate between astrocytomas (II, III) and glioblastomas. Elevated TCF-1 and LEF-1 expression is characteristic of malignant gliomas. LEF-1, in particular, may serve as a potential marker for malignant transformation.
    Histology and histopathology 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Although retrograde menstruation is observed in up to 90% of women, endometriosis actually develops in only 15% of women. There is considerable evidence in the literature that ectopic endometrial cells are able to evade immune surveillance and that the immune response in the microenvironment of ectopic lesions is limited. Endometriosis develops when a deficiency in the local immune response has been generated, and progression of the disease is related to the intensity of this process. Over the last couple of decades it has been well known that T regulatory lymphocytes (Tregs) play a crucial role in controlling a variety of physiological and pathological immune responses. In this review we have focused on the physiological alteration of Treg cell infiltration into the endometrium during the reproductive processes of women. We discuss how a disturbance in Treg cell expansion is involved in generating such pathological processes as miscarriage and ectopic pregnancy development. We hypothesize about the role Treg cells might play in the survival of endometriosis foci in ectopic localization and in the evasion of such lesions from host immune surveillance.
    Histology and histopathology 05/2014;