Histology and histopathology Journal Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: Universidad de Murcia

Journal description

Histology and Histopathology is an international journal, the purpose of which is to publish original works in English in histology, histopathology and cell biology; high quality is the overall consideration.

Current impact factor: 2.10

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 2.096
2013 Impact Factor 2.236
2012 Impact Factor 2.281
2011 Impact Factor 2.48
2010 Impact Factor 2.502
2009 Impact Factor 2.404
2008 Impact Factor 2.194
2007 Impact Factor 2.007
2006 Impact Factor 2.182
2005 Impact Factor 2.023
2004 Impact Factor 1.931
2003 Impact Factor 1.83
2002 Impact Factor 1.881
2001 Impact Factor 1.859
2000 Impact Factor 1.553
1999 Impact Factor 1.601
1998 Impact Factor 1.407
1997 Impact Factor 1.028
1996 Impact Factor 1.005
1995 Impact Factor 0.856
1994 Impact Factor 0.685
1993 Impact Factor 0.276
1992 Impact Factor 0.486

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 2.15
Cited half-life 7.10
Immediacy index 0.59
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.60
Website Histology & Histopathology website
ISSN 1699-5848

Publisher details

Universidad de Murcia

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License
    • Other titles may have different policies
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • On a non-profit server
  • Classification

Publications in this journal

  • Samantha D Smith · Ruhul H Choudhury · Patricia Matos · James A Horn · Stephen J Lye · Caroline E Dunk · John D Aplin · Rebecca L Jones · Lynda K Harris ·
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    ABSTRACT: Uterine spiral arteriole (SA) remodeling in early pregnancy involves a coordinated series of events including decidual immune cell recruitment, vascular cell disruption and loss, and colonization by placental-derived extravillous trophoblast (EVT). During this process, decidual SA are converted from narrow, muscular vessels into dilated channels lacking vasomotor control. We hypothesized that this extensive alteration in SA architecture must require significant reorganization and/or breakdown of the vascular extracellular matrix (ECM). First trimester decidua basalis (30 specimens) was immunostained to identify spiral arterioles undergoing trophoblast-independent and -dependent phases of remodeling. Serial sections were then immunostained for a panel of ECM markers, to examine changes in vascular ECM during the remodeling process. The initial stages of SA remodeling were characterized by loss of laminin, elastin, fibrillin, collagen types III, IV and VI from the basement membrane, vascular media and/or adventitia, and surrounding decidual stromal cells. Loss of ECM correlated with disruption and disorganization of vascular smooth muscle cells, and the majority of changes occurred prior to extensive colonization of the vessel wall by EVT. The final stages of SA remodeling, characterized by the arrival of EVT, were associated with the increased mural deposition of fibronectin and fibrinoid. This study provides the first detailed analysis of the spatial and temporal loss of ECM from the walls of remodeling decidual SA in early pregnancy.
    Histology and histopathology 11/2015; DOI:10.14670/HH-11-696
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare the expression of fucosyltransferase 8 (FUT8) in breast cancer tissue and to investigate the relationship between this marker with tumor progression and its applicability to differential diagnosis. An immunohistochemical study was performed for FUT8 using the tissue microarray technique. In addition, the mRNA and protein levels of FUT8 in the tissue were also tested by real-time PCR and Western blot. There was a significant difference in cytoplasmic expression of FUT8 between breast cancer tissue and matched normal tissue (p<0.001). The percent of FUT8 staining in breast cancer tissues ranging from negative, weak positive, positive and strong positive were 2.7%, 40.2%, 54% and 3.2%, respectively. High FUT8 protein expression correlated with lymphatic metastasis (p=0.008) and with stage status (p=0.039). We detected that reduced FUT8 expression correlated with disease-free survival (p=0.02) and overall survival (p=0.04) of breast cancer patients. Expression of FUT8 can stratify breast cancer tissue and may be considered a prognostic marker for breast cancer patients.
    Histology and histopathology 11/2015; DOI:10.14670/HH-11-693
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    ABSTRACT: The pathogenesis of many tumors, including brain tumors, has been associated with hypoxia, which induces the transcriptional activity of hypoxia-inducible Factor-1α (HIF-1α). HIF-1α is normally degradated by the von Hippel-Lindau protein (pVHL) but, in hypoxia, pVHL/HIF-1α interaction is inhibited resulting in the nuclear accumulation of HIF-1α. Hsp90 (Heat shock protein 90), as a chaperone protein, plays a critical role for both stabilization of HIF-1α and degradation of pVHL. The aim of this study was to estimate immunohistochemically the expression levels of HIF-1α and pVHL, in relation to Hsp90, in different types of human brain tumors (42 gliomas, 9 medulloblastomas, and 38 meningiomas) using specific antibodies. The tumors were further divided into two groups according to the age of patients (>=19 years old or <19 years old). Nuclear, for HIF-1α, and cytoplasmic, for pVHL and Hsp90, localization was detected in a high percentage of tumor cells in the majority of tumors. In astrocytomas, a significant, grade-dependent relationship for HIF-1α immunoexpression was observed (p<0.05). Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between pVHL and Hsp90 immunoexpression (p<0.01). The group of >=19 years old patients with glioblastomas (WHO grade IV) demonstrated significantly increased immunoexpression for HIF-1α compared to pVHL (p<0.0001) and Hsp90 expression (p<0.01). In medulloblastomas, a significant correlation of HIF-1α with Hsp90 immunoexpression (p<0.05) was found. In meningiomas, no significant correlation for the expression of the three proteins was detected (p>=0.05). These results indicate that HIF-1α/pVHL/Hsp90 interactions may be implicated in biology of different types of brain tumors through different signaling mechanisms.
    Histology and histopathology 11/2015; DOI:10.14670/HH-11-692
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which an exacerbated immune response provokes oligodendrocyte loss and demyelination, the hallmarks of this neurological disease. The destruction of myelin due to the uncontrolled activity of the invading immune cells leads to the formation of MS plaques. Among the different leukocytes that participate in the immune response associated with MS, the role of myeloid cells has been analyzed extensively (i.e. macrophages, dendritic cells -DCs- and neutrophils). Hence, in this review we will summarize what is known about the distribution, expression and markers available to study myeloid cells, and their histopathology, not only in a standard animal model of MS (autoimmune experimental encephalomyelitis -EAE) but also in MS tissue. In this review, we will not only refer to mature myeloid cells but also to the undifferentiated and almost unexplored myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). The active role of MDSCs in the prompt resolution of an immune episode is gaining importance, yet is still the subject of some debate. Finally, the similarities and differences between MS and EAE are discussed, particularly in terms of myeloid cell phenotype, activity and the markers used.
    Histology and histopathology 11/2015; DOI:10.14670/HH-11-699
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    ABSTRACT: Aneurysms of the ascending aorta are an outstanding challenge to clinicians as they may persist asymptomatic until they present with dissection or rupture. Intensive research is performed to reveal the molecular mechanisms causing aneurysm formation. Calpains are ubiquitous non-lysosomal cysteine proteases which are classically activated by calcium signaling. The two major forms of the calpain-family are calpain-I and calpain-II. Calpastatin specifically inhibits the proteolytic activity of calpain-I and -II. Recently it has been demonstrated in aneurysm tissues from ascending aortas obtained from Marfan syndrome patients that calpain-II expression is increased and calpastatin expression is decreased. Thus, we were interested in the probable role of calpains in aneurysms of ascending aorta in non-Marfan patients. Therefore, ascending aortic samples of dilated and non-dilated aortas were analyzed according to their calpain-I, -II and calpastatin content as well as the expression levels of MMPs and elastin as well as the infiltration of inflammatory cells. We have found significant differences in calpain-I and calpastatin protein expression and serum levels in patients with aneurysm of the ascending aorta. Furthermore, MMP-1 and MMP-3 expression levels correlate with calpain-I protein levels. Due to our findings we conclude that calpain-1 seems to be related to fibrotic alteration in aortic aneurysm tissue in our experimental group. The change in calpain-1 modulates the structure of aortic tissue causing alteration in elastin structure, thus enabling macrophage infiltration and elevation of MMP levels. Circulating levels of calpain-1 may be used as a prognostic marker in the future if further correlation analyses are done.
    Histology and histopathology 11/2015; DOI:10.14670/HH-11-691
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    ABSTRACT: Despite years of research into its pathobiology and continuing clinical trials for novel therapies, the prognosis for patients with glioblastoma (GBM) remains dismal. An important obstacle against treatment efficacy may be a high degree of intra- and inter-tumoral heterogeneity within GBMs, which may be caused by the presence of self-renewing GBM stem cells (GSCs). Recent advances in multi-omics technology introduce new possibilities for applying personalized strategies to GBM therapy. As drug discovery is accelerating with the transition from non-selective, cytotoxic therapy to a precision, targeted approach, the appropriate in vivo platform for GBM is critical for validating drug targets and prioritizing candidates for clinical studies, for co-development of companion diagnostics and, ultimately, for drug approval. Here we will describe GBM orthotopic patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) as more useful, clinically relevant resources for individually tailored strategies for GBM.
    Histology and histopathology 11/2015; DOI:10.14670/HH-11-695
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    ABSTRACT: CD146, a cell adhesion molecule, is overexpressed in a variety of carcinomas, including melanoma, prostate cancer, epithelial ovarian cancer, and breast cancer. The level of expression is directly correlated with tumour progression and metastatic potential. The most commonly affected organ for both neoplastic and non-neoplastic tumours is the skin. The objective of this study is to investigate the immunohistochemical expression of CD146 in canine skin tumours of epidermal or follicular origin in 53 squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), 9 squamous papillomas, 7 infundibular keratinizing acanthomas (IKA), 21 trichoepitheliomas, 13 trichoblastomas, and 3 pilomatricomas. Immunohistochemical results showed that SCCs (90.6%), squamous papilloma (33.3%), IKA (85.7%), trichoepithelioma (85.9%), trichoblastoma (30.8%) and pilomatricoma (100%), respectively, were positive for CD146. The significant expression of CD146 in SCCs supports its importance as a useful treatment target. CD146 could also be used in differentiation of trichoepithelioma and trichoblastoma.
    Histology and histopathology 11/2015; DOI:10.14670/HH-11-690
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    ABSTRACT: OParticulate matter air pollution has considerably increased during the last decades; vanadium is a transition element adhered to this particulate matter, and the combustion of fossil fuels is the main source in the atmosphere. It has been reported that air pollution and specifically vanadium exposure increases the probability of suffering arrhythmias; however the biological mechanism of such a relationship remains unknown. It has been established that a diminished presence of N-Cadherin alters the Connexin-43 arrangement, and the consequent altered presence of these proteins predisposes to ventricular heart rate problems. We analyzed myocardial histology and the expression of N-Cadherin and Connexin-43 by immunohistochemistry in mouse that inhaled vanadium. Our results showed a significant and progressive reduction in both N-Cadherin and Connexin-43, as well as the presence of meganucleus; myofibrils disruption, and clumping in the exposed groups were also observed. Our findings add more information about a possible explanation for the arrythmogenic effect observed in dwellers of cities with high particulate matter atmospheric pollution.
    Histology and histopathology 11/2015; DOI:10.14670/HH-11-688
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    ABSTRACT: Ochratoxins (OTA) are secondary metabolites of Aspergillus and Penicillium. The detoxification of OTA has been of major interest due to its widespread threat to human health. We aimed to investigate the possible alleviative effect of myricetin (MYR) against OTA-induced damage in renal cortex of rats. Thirty adult male albino rats were randomized into five equal groups: control (untreated), vehicle control (0.5 ml corn oil /day including dimethylsulfoxide [DMSO]), MYR (100 mg MYR/kg b.w. /day in distilled water), OTA (0.5 mg OTA/kg b.w. /day; dissolved in 10% DMSO and then corn oil) and OTA + MYR group (received OTA and MYR at similar doses). All treatments were given by oral gavage for 2 weeks. At the end of the experiment, renal cortices were processed for light and electron microscope examinations. Immunohistochemical staining for localization of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), p53 and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-b1) was carried out. Biochemical analysis of tissue glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined to evaluate oxidative stress. OTA administration induced deleterious renal injury evidenced by the structural and ultra-structural changes. Immunohistochemical expression of p53, PCNA and TGF-b1 were significantly up regulated compared with control. Alterations in antioxidant parameters supported that oxidative stress was one of the mechanisms involved in OTA toxicity. On the contrary, co-administration of MRY partially ameliorated OTA-induced renal injury. We suggest the potential effectiveness of MYR to counteract OTA-induced toxic oxidative stress on the renal cortex.
    Histology and histopathology 11/2015; DOI:10.14670/HH-11-689
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Study of the effects of olive leaf extract on antioxidant enzyme activities in midbrain and dopaminergic neurons of Substantia Nigra in young and old rats. Methods: Male wistar rats age 4 and 18 months were randomized into control and experimental groups. A single daily dose of 50mg/kg of olive leaf extract was administered orally by gavage to each rat for 6 months. The control group received only distilled water. All rats were sacrificed 2 hours after the last gavage and their midbrains were separated for Malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant enzyme activitiy analysis. TUNEL assay and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining were used for evaluation of the number of neurons in the Substantia Nigra. Results: The level of Catalase, Gluthatione Peroxidase and Superoxide Dismutase enzyme activity was significantly increased in experimental young and old groups compared to their control groups. However the level of Superoxide Dismutase enzyme activity was significantly increased in experimental old group when compared to control group (P< 0.05), the level of Superoxide Dismutase enzyme activity was not significantly changed in young groups. MDA level was decreased significantly in experimental young and old rats compared to their control groups. Histological analysis demonstrated that the number of neurons in Substantia Nigra of experimental old group was more than the control group (P<0.05). The number of apoptotic cells was significantly decreased in experimental old group compared to the corresponding control group (P<0.05). In IHC and TUNEL assay, no change was observed in the number of neurons between experimental and control young groups. Conclusion: Long term treatment with olive leaf extract increases antioxidant enzyme activity and protects the neurons in Substantia Nigra against oxidative stress.
    Histology and histopathology 11/2015; DOI:10.14670/HH-11-687
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    ABSTRACT: Maternal stress is common during pregnancy and the postnatal period. This stress typically activates the sympathetic nervous system which releases catecholamines. This study explored the influence of sympathectomy by using neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) on embryo implantation, and investigated the influence mechanism of sympathectomy on reconstruction of endometrial structure during early pregnancy. In the 6-OHDA-treated mice, uterine glands in the endometrium developed poorly, and the gland epithelia were arranged irregularly during early pregnancy. Furthermore, vacuoles, karyopykosis and plasmarrhexis appeared in some gland epithelia. The percentage of uterine glands and the density of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) positivity were dramatically decreased, and Fas ligand (FasL) expression was decreased in cells from pregnancy days 5-9 (E5-9) in the treated group. Antioxidant enzyme activity levels in uteri were lower but the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were higher in the 6-OHDA mice than those in the control mice at E5-9. Similarly, the number of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) positive cells was significantly increased during early pregnancy following treatment with 6-OHDA. Our results have indicated that peripheral catecholaminergic nerve lesions induced by 6-OHDA cause adverse pregnancy outcomes through disruption of endometrial gland development, which increases oxidative stress and iNOS expression in the endometrium. Thus, catecholaminergic nerves might favourably influence blastocyst implantation, foetal survival and development during early pregnancy by oxidative state regulation and endometrial gland reconstruction.
    Histology and histopathology 11/2015; DOI:10.14670/HH-11-684
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    ABSTRACT: Cytoglobin (Cygb), a stellate cell-specific globin, has recently drawn attention due to its association with liver fibrosis and cancer. In human and rodent livers, Cygb is expressed only in stellate cells and can be utilized as a marker to distinguish stellate cells from hepatic fibroblast-derived myofibroblasts. Loss of Cygb accelerates liver fibrosis and cancer development despite its etiology in mouse models of chronic liver injury. This review discusses the current perception of the distribution, regulation and function of Cygb with regard to liver diseases, with an emphasis on its role in tumorigenesis. Further investigation of Cygb may shed new light on the biology of organ carcinogenesis.
    Histology and histopathology 11/2015; DOI:10.14670/HH-11-694
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor models in mice offer opportunities for understanding tumor formation and development of therapeutic treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, subcutaneous or intra-hepatic Hepa129 tumors were established in C3H mice. Tumor growth was determined by daily measurements of subcutaneous tumors and post-mortem studies of subcutaneous and intrahepatic tumors. Administration of Edu was used to determine cell generation dates of tumor cells. Immunohistochemistry with antibodies directed at CD31 or CD34, and intravenous injection of labeled tomato lectin revealed tumor vasculature. Tissue sections also were processed for immunohistochemistry using a panel of antibodies to proteoglycans. Comparison of Edu labeled cells with immunoreactivity allowed determination of development and differentiation of tumor cells after cell generation. Subcutaneous and intrahepatic tumors displayed similar growth over 3 weeks. Immunohistochemistry showed strong labeling for glypican-3, 9BA12, and chondroitin sulfate of tumors in both loci, while normal liver was negative. Tumor regions containing Edu labeled cells did not show significant immunohistochemical labeling for the tumor markers until 2-3 days after Edu treatment; overlap of Edu labeled cells and immunohistochemically labeled tumor regions appeared to reach a maximum at 5 days after Edu treatment. Ectopic subcutaneous tumors displayed vascular ingrowth as the tumor cells expressed immunocytochemical markers; subcutaneous tumors displayed significantly more vascular elements than did intrahepatic tumors.
    Histology and histopathology 11/2015; DOI:10.14670/HH-11-683
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    ABSTRACT: The GLI1 and MDM2 genes are amplified or exhibit copy number gains in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). Here, we used immunohistochemistry to determine the relationships between GLI1 and MDM2 protein expression and several clinicopathological variables of RMS. GLI1 and MDM2-positivity rates were 61.36% and 13.64%, respectively. GLI1 expression correlated with presence of the PAX3-FOXO1 fusion gene (P=0.040) and lymph node metastasis (P=0.034), and a significant association was found between GLI1 expression and overall survival (OS) (P=0.008). However, there was no association between MDM2 expression and any of the clinicopathological parameters or OS. Thus, GLI1 may be a biomarker of poor prognosis in RMS patients, and could itself be a therapeutic target. This contrasts with the apparent lack of clinical importance of MDM2 in RMS pathology, at least in the cohorts we examined.
    Histology and histopathology 11/2015; DOI:10.14670/HH-11-682
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    ABSTRACT: The accidental ingestion of Karwinskia humboldtiana (Kh) fruit in humans and animals causes chronic or acute intoxication. Acute poisoning induces respiratory failure that progresses rapidly to death. Studies in animals intoxicated with Kh describe lesions in cerebral cortex, cerebellum, spinal cord, hippocampus and caudate nucleus. Kh intoxication in Wistar rats models the sub-lethal clinical phase observed in humans. Considering these reports, the present study analyzed the histopathological alterations within the striatum following experimental Kh intoxication. Twenty Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n =5) and were intoxicated with Kh fruit. A control group (n =5) was included. Animals were euthanized at several time points (48, 58 and 170 days post-intoxication). The brain was collected, divided and processed for conventional histology or electron microscopy. Sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, cresyl violet, Klüver-Barrera, and toluidine blue. Immunolabeling was performed for glial cells in the striatum, and the samples were analyzed with light microscopy. Morphometric and statistical analyses were performed. In control group, neurons, axon bundles and neuropil had a normal appearance. At 48 days, hyperchromic neurons with apparent decreased size were observed interspersed among the normal neurons. At 58 days, we observed an increased number of hyperchromic neurons and disorganization of the myelin sheath and neuropil. At 170 days, these alterations persisted in the paralysis group. In treated groups, we observed signs of gliosis and increased axonal diameters. This study is the first report that describes the histopathological alterations within the striatum caused by chronic intoxication with Kh fruit in the Wistar rat.
    Histology and histopathology 11/2015; DOI:10.14670/HH-11-681
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    ABSTRACT: It is a common misconception that bats are blind, and various studies have suggested that bats have visual abilities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cytoarchitecture of calbindin D28K (CB)-, calretinin (CR)-, and parvalbumin (PV)-immunoreactive (IR) neurons in the bat visual cortex using immunocytochemistry. The highest density of CB- and PV-IR neurons was located in layer IV of the visual cortex. The majority of CB- and PV-IR neurons were characterized by a stellate or round/oval shape. CR-IR neurons were predominantly located in layers II/III, and the cells were principally round/oval in shape. Two-color immunofluorescence revealed that 65.96%, 24.24%, and 77.00% of the CB-, CR-, and PV-IR neurons, respectively, contained gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). We observed calcium-binding protein (CBP)-IR neurons in specific layers of the bat visual cortex and in specific cell types. Many of the CBP-IR neurons were GABAergic interneurons. These data provide useful clues to aid in understanding the functional aspects of the bat visual system.
    Histology and histopathology 11/2015; DOI:10.14670/HH-11-680
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    ABSTRACT: Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have been used in tissue repair and regeneration. Recently, it was reported that ASC transplantation promotes hair growth in animal experiments, and a conditioned medium of ASCs (ASC-CM) induced the proliferation of hair-compositing cells in vitro. However, ASCs and their conditioned medium have shown limited effectiveness in clinical settings. ASC preconditioning is one strategy that can be used to enhance the efficacy of ASCs and ASC-CM. Therefore, we highlighted the functional role of ASCs in hair cycle progression and also the advantages and disadvantages of their application in hair regeneration. In addition, we introduced novel ASC preconditioning methods to enhance hair regeneration using ASC stimulators, such as vitamin C, platelet-derived growth factor, hypoxia, and ultraviolet B.
    Histology and histopathology 11/2015; DOI:10.14670/HH-11-686
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    ABSTRACT: Notch is an evolutionarily conserved signaling pathway that plays a critical role in specifying cell fate and regulating tissue homeostasis and carcinogenesis. Studies using organ cultures and genetically engineered mouse models have demonstrated that Notch signaling regulates prostate development and homeostasis. However, the role of the Notch signaling pathway in prostate cancer remains inconclusive. Many published studies have documented consistent deregulation of major Notch signaling components in human prostate cancer cell lines, mouse models for prostate cancers, and human prostate cancer specimens at both the mRNA and the protein levels. However, functional studies in human cancer cells by modulation of Notch pathway elements suggest both tumor suppressive and oncogenic roles of Notch. These controversies may originate from our inadequate understanding of the regulation of Notch signaling under versatile genetic contexts, and reflect the multifaceted and pleiotropic roles of Notch in regulating different aspects of prostate cancer cell biology, such as proliferation, metastasis, and chemo-resistance. Future comprehensive studies using various mouse models for prostate cancer may help clarify the role of Notch signaling in prostate cancer and provide a solid basis for determining whether and how Notch should be employed as a therapeutic target for prostate cancer.
    Histology and histopathology 11/2015; DOI:10.14670/HH-11-685
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    ABSTRACT: Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule (EpCAM) has been discovered as one of the first tumor-specific antigens overexpressed in epithelial cancer. The present review focuses on the role of EpCAM in physiology and homeostasis of epithelia. Recent research pointed to a close interaction of EpCAM with other cell-cell contact molecules like E-cadherin and claudins and an intimate crosstalk with Wnt and TGF-beta signaling in the regulation of cell growth. Moreover, EpCAM has been shown to modulate trans-epithelial migration processes of white blood cells. Mutations of the EpCAM gene lead to disturbances of epithelial homeostasis and cellular differentiation from the stem cell compartment. In the intestinal tract EpCAM mutations contribute to congenital tufting enteropathy. Regarding tumorigenesis EpCAM can act as an oncogene still depending on additional driver mutations and epithelial phenotype of tumor cells. Tumor cells display increased EpCAM expression that often correlates with the loss of strict basolateral localization. Many tumors show enhanced regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) of EpCAM and loose EpCAM expression under conditions of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. The resulting extracellular EpEX and intracellular EpICD fragments mediate proliferative signals to the cell. Resulting fragments can be validated either by sensitive enzyme-linked immune-sandwich assays (EpEX) or by immunohistochemistry (EpICD). The present review gives an overview on the detection of EpCAM fragments as predictive markers for disease progression and survival of cancer patients.
    Histology and histopathology 10/2015; DOI:10.14670/HH-11-678