Histology and histopathology Journal Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: Universidad de Murcia

Journal description

Histology and Histopathology is an international journal, the purpose of which is to publish original works in English in histology, histopathology and cell biology; high quality is the overall consideration.

Current impact factor: 2.24

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 2.236
2012 Impact Factor 2.281
2011 Impact Factor 2.48
2010 Impact Factor 2.502
2009 Impact Factor 2.404
2008 Impact Factor 2.194
2007 Impact Factor 2.007
2006 Impact Factor 2.182
2005 Impact Factor 2.023
2004 Impact Factor 1.931
2003 Impact Factor 1.83
2002 Impact Factor 1.881
2001 Impact Factor 1.859
2000 Impact Factor 1.553
1999 Impact Factor 1.601
1998 Impact Factor 1.407
1997 Impact Factor 1.028
1996 Impact Factor 1.005
1995 Impact Factor 0.856
1994 Impact Factor 0.685
1993 Impact Factor 0.276
1992 Impact Factor 0.486

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 2.23
Cited half-life 6.00
Immediacy index 0.55
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.64
Website Histology & Histopathology website
ISSN 1699-5848

Publisher details

Universidad de Murcia

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No-Derivatives License
    • Other titles may have different policies
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • On a non-profit server
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tissue engineering with the use of biodegradable and biocompatible scaffolds is an interesting option for ear repair. Chitosan-Polyvinyl alcohol-Epichlorohydrine hydrogel (CS-PVA-ECH) is biocompatible and displays appropriate mechanical properties to be used as a scaffold. The present work, studies the potential of CS-PVA-ECH scaffolds seeded with chondrocytes to develop elastic cartilage engineered-neotissues. Chondrocytes isolated from rabbit and swine elastic cartilage were independently cultured onto CS-PVA-ECH scaffolds for 20 days to form the appropriate constructs. Then, in vitro cell viability and morphology were evaluated by calcein AM and EthD-1 assays and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) respectively, and the constructs were implanted in nu/nu mice for four months, in order to evaluate the neotissue formation. Histological analysis of the formed neotissues was performed by Safranin O, Toluidine blue (GAG's), Verhoeff-Van Gieson (elastic fibers), Masson's trichrome (collagen) and Von Kossa (Calcium salts) stains and SEM. Results indicate appropriate cell viability, seeded with rabbit or swine chondrocyte constructs; nevertheless, upon implantation the constructs developed neotissues with different characteristics depending on the animal species from which the seeded chondrocytes came from. Neotissues developed from swine chondrocytes were similar to auricular cartilage, while neotissues from rabbit chondrocytes were similar to hyaline cartilage and eventually they differentiate to bone. This result suggests that neotissue characteristics may be influenced by the animal species source of the chondrocytes isolated.
    Histology and histopathology 06/2015; DOI:10.14670/HH-11-642
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chrysin (CHR) is a natural flavonoid and is present in high concentration in honey, propolis and many plant extracts. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of CHR to reduce cardiomyocyte apoptosis and loss of intermediate filaments in a mouse model of mitoxantrone cardiotoxicity. Morphology of the cardiomyocytes was determined by optic and transmission electron microscopy and biochemistry methods. The expression of Bcl-2, Bax and Caspase-3 were assessed by immunofluorecence. Tunel assay was used to assess apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. In addition, the distribution of desmin protein was evaluated using immunohistochemistry. Our results show that MTX treatment significantly increased serum levels of creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB), indicator of cardiac injury and withdrawn under CHR protection. Expression levels of Bcl-2 decreased, while those of Bax and caspase-3 increased following MTX treatment. 50 mg/kg of daily CHR intake reduced Bax and caspase-3 immunopositivity and restored Bcl-2 levels to a value comparable to the control. TUNEL (+) cardiomyocyte nuclei of MTX group showed typical signs of apoptosis which almost completely disappeared in response to 50 mg/kg CHR treatment. In parallel, an irregular distribution and a weak expression of desmin is associated with MTX induced cardiotoxic effects which was also restored by CHR treatment. In conclusion chrysin inhibits MTX-triggered cardiomyocyte apoptosis via multiple pathways, including decrease of the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and caspase-3 expression along with preservation of the desmin disarray.
    Histology and histopathology 06/2015; DOI:10.14670/HH-11-641
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Comparative histological examination of both liver and the supra-aortic arteries have not previously examined the consequences of atherosclerosis and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and their response to diet and atorvastatin therapy. This study evaluates the effects of diet alone or in combination with atorvastatin therapy on the progression/regression of atherosclerosis and its correlation with NAFLD. This research was performed on a cohort of chickens on standard (SD) or hyperlipidemic diets (HD), either with or without atorvastatin therapy. The development of atherosclerotic lesions was assessed by histology, immunohistochemistry and quantitative image analysis and correlated with liver histology. The lowest levels of atherosclerotic lesions were found in animals on the HD for 3 months, followed by 3 months of SD in combination with oral atorvastatin. There was a strong association between the histologic findings of atherosclerosis and those of NAFLD. These studies show that standard diet and atorvastatin therapy can positively affect both arterial and hepatic lesions, influencing the regression of the changes. These results support the hypothesis that NAFLD and atherosclerosis may be actually two aspects of a shared disease and suggest the possibility of regression of both disorders with dietary and pharmacologic manipulations.
    Histology and histopathology 06/2015; DOI:10.14670/HH-11-639
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) have potential applications in cell and gene therapies for cardiac disease. The cardiac-specific transcription factors GATA-binding protein 4 (GATA4) and T-Box protein 5 (TBX5) are considered to be pivotal in cardiogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of GATA4 and TBX5 on cardiomyogenic differentiation of BMSCs. The BMSCs were initially isolated and identified. Vectors harboring cardiac transcription factor genes GATA4 and TBX5 or empty vectors were transferred into BMSCs. Cardiomyogenic cells differentiated from BMSCs were identified by expression of cardiac-specific markers including cardiac troponin T, connexin 43, β-myosin heavy chain, and myosin light chain-2 using immunocytochemical staining, western blotting, and quantitative real-time PCR. The ultrastructures of the differentiated cells were examined by transmission electron microscopy, which were similar to those of fetal cardiomyocytes. The differentiated cells exhibited L-type calcium current activities reflective of the electrophysiological characteristics of cardiomyocytes. These findings indicate that exogenous expression of cardiac-specific transcription factors GATA4 and TBX5 enhance cardiomyogenic differentiation of BMSCs.
    Histology and histopathology 06/2015; DOI:10.14670/HH-11-644
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Twist1 is an evolutionally conserved transcription factor. Originally identified in Drosophila as a key regulator for mesoderm development, it was later implicated in many human diseases, including Saethre-Chotzen syndrome and cancer. Twist1's involvement in cancer has been well recognized. Driven by hypoxia-induced factor-1 (HIF-1), Twist1 has been considered as a proto-oncogene and its overexpression has been observed in a wide variety of human cancers. High expression level of Twist1 is closely related to tumor aggressiveness and metastatic potential. In cancer cells, Twist1 has been shown to function as a key regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a critical process for metastasis initiation. Twist1 has also been implicated in maintaining cancer stemness for self-renewal and chemoresistance. This review first summarizes the roles of Twist1 in embryo development and Saethre-Chotzen syndrome followed by a discussion of Twist1's critical functions in cancer. In particular, the review focuses on the recent discovery of Twist1's capability to promote endothelial transdifferentiation of cancer cells beyond EMT.
    Histology and histopathology 06/2015; DOI:10.14670/HH-11-638
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We aimed to analyse and summarise the potential value of the clinical use of p53-related alterations as cancer biomarkers. A systematic search and collection of the published meta-analyses on p53-related alterations and cancers in the past 5 years was conducted through appropriate queries in the PubMed database. We then composed "grey-scale" tables to show the significant levels for each variant, and the potential heterogeneity was subsequently discussed. The data show that p53-related alterations are extremely complex biomarkers in terms of their clinical translation. Together with the experimental studies on p53-related alterations, a gold-standard approach is still in need of development, with more evidence from clinical studies with large, prospectively planned cohorts, to fully understand its potential as a cancer biomarker.
    Histology and histopathology 06/2015;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to characterize the morphometry of the femoral nerve in aging rats with metabolic syndrome compared to controls. Systolic blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose were measured, and myelinated and unmyelinated fibers in the femoral nerves were quantitatively assessed under electron microscopy. Aging rats exposed to a regimen of metabolic syndrome developed elevation of plasma glucose concentration, mild hypertension and polyneuropathy characterized by a decrease in myelin fiber area, axon diameter, myelin sheath thickness and myelin fiber loss in the femoral nerve. The histogram of size distribution for myelinated fibers and axons from the aging rats of the control group was bimodal. For aging MS animals, the histogram turned out to be unimodal. The ultrastructure of unmyelinated fibers and of Schwann cells in 18-month-old rats was well preserved. Granules of lipofuscin were seen in unmyelinated fiber axons of 18-month-old rats with MS. The damage percentage of the large myelinated fibers has increased significantly in 18-month-old and 18-month-old (MS) rats in relation to the controls. No significant difference was observed among the groups for the g-ratio. Comparing the three groups, the number of neurotubules and neurofilaments in myelinated fibers of 18-month-old rats with MS was significantly smaller than for the groups of 18-month-old and 14-month-old rats. The overall changes seen in the femoral nerve from aging rats seem minor compared to the changes in the aging rats with MS, suggesting that long-term MS accelerates the progressive modifications in peripheral nerves that develop in old age.
    Histology and histopathology 06/2015; DOI:10.14670/HH-11-635
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The discovery of dental stem cells received extensive attention because of its significance for the development of novel cellular therapies in dentistry. However, dental stem cells are also excellent for studies about cellular processes during dental tissue development or regeneration. Multipotent undifferentiated cells in the dental follicle (DFCs) are one example of dental stem cells. These cells have been used on studies about cellular processes during the differentiation into alveolar osteoblasts and cementoblasts. This review article summarizes current knowledge about the influence of signaling pathways, transcription factors and extracellular matrix proteins on the osteogenic differentiation of DFCs.
    Histology and histopathology 05/2015; DOI:10.14670/HH-11-634
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To delineate the histopathological characteristics of nasal mucosa in refractory chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) in order to demonstrate subtypes of nasal polyps and their potential relation with lower airway comorbidity. Clinical- and pathological-based cross-sectional study Methods: Nasal polyp specimens were prospectively collected from patients with refractory CRSwNP referred to our institution for endoscopic sinus surgery. Oral and topical steroids were stopped 1 month before surgery. The pathological analysis was conducted by 2 independent reviewers with light microscopy on Hematoxylin-Eosin-Saffron stained slides. Each observer fulfilled a standardized protocol with cell count and stromal characterization on the most representative field. Mean grading scores were established. Morphological aspects were compared with the cell distribution and the clinical conditions. Among 36 patients, three subtypes of nasal polyps were depicted: eosinophilic edematous (64%), fibrous (9%) and intermediate with mixed edematous and collagen stromal structure (27%). Basement membrane thickening and seromucous gland hyperplasia were observed in the fibrosis sub-type (p<0.03). Eosinophilic mucosal infiltrate was significantly increased (p=0.026) in patients with concomitant pulmonary disease (n=21). Nasal polyp distribution was not influenced by asthma, allergy, previous surgery and smoking. Our 3-subtype classification of refractory CRSwNP in Caucasian population shows a predominant edematous structure whatever the clinical conditions may have been. Eosinophilia as a major factor of adaptive immune response in nasal inflammation is a feature of concomitant pulmonary disease. Further studies concerning mucosal remodelling and outcome assessment after sinus surgery are required to evaluate the impact of our classification on a daily basis.
    Histology and histopathology 05/2015; DOI:10.14670/HH-11-632
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Myostatin (Mstn) is a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family that inhibits muscle differentiation. In this study, we aimed to identify the relationships between Mstn, thyroid hormone receptor alpha (TRα), and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform expression during early postnatal development. We investigated the expression of Mstn, TRα, and MyHCs (embryonic, slow, IIa, IIb, and IIx) using quantitative real-time RT-PCR and ELISA (Mstn) in postnatal mouse muscles between day 0 and day 10. We also examined the correlations between Mstn, TR and MyHCs during the early development of mouse masseter muscle (MM) and rectus femoris muscle (RFM). Distinct Mstn mRNA expression patterns were observed in the two muscles despite nearly non-significant changes in the Mstn protein abundance in MM. The expression pattern of the TRα mRNA in the MM differed from that observed in the RFM. The expression of MyHC IIa, IIb and IIx mRNAs increased in the MM and decreased in the RFM from day 0 to day 10, whereas embryonic fiber MyHC mRNA expression was similar in both muscle types. Principal component analysis showed the existence of a correlation between: (1) TRα and MyHC, (2) Mstn and MyHC, and (3) TRα and Mstn in MM. The correlations were different in RFM and MM. Cluster analyses identified the distinct clusters: cluster 1, days 0-4 for the MM and day 0 for the RFM; cluster 2, day 6 for the MM and day 2 for the RFM; and cluster 3, days 8-10 for the MM and days 4-10 for the RFM. These data suggest that TRα influences MyHC expression in both muscle types. In addition, Mstn has a limited effect in the MM related to the expression of individual MyHCs, as opposed to its role in the RFM, at early postnatal developmental stages. TR? could be involved in regulating both the temporal expression of MyHCs and Mstn at the early postnatal stages in the MM and RFM.
    Histology and histopathology 05/2015; DOI:10.14670/HH-11-631
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Development of an efficient vascular substitute by tissue engineering is strongly dependent on endothelial cell viability. The aim of this study was to evaluate cell viability of transdifferentiated endothelial-like cells (Tr-ELC) by using for the first time electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPXMA), not only to accurately analyze cell viability by quantifying the intracellular ionic concentrations, but also to establish their possible use in vascular tissue engineering protocols. Human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly stem cells (HWJSC) and endothelial cells from the human umbilical vein (HUVEC) were isolated and cultured. Transdifferentiation from HWJSC to the endothelial phenotype was induced. EPXMA was carried out to analyze HUVEC, HWJSC and Tr-ELC cells by using a scanning electron microscope equipped with an EDAX DX-4 microanalytical system and a solid-state backscattered electron detector. To determine total ion content, the peak-to-local-background (P/B) ratio method was used with reference to standards composed of dextran containing known amounts of inorganic salts. Our results revealed a high K/Na ratio in Tr-ELC (9.41), in association with the maintenance of the intracellular levels of chlorine, phosphorous and magnesium and an increase of calcium (p=0.031) and sulfur (p=0.022) as compared toHWJSC. Calcium levels were similar for HUVEC and Tr-ELC. These results ensure that transdifferentiated cells are highly viable and resemble the phenotypic and microanalytical profile of endothelial cells. Tr-ELC induced from HWJSC may fulfill the requirements for use in tissue engineering protocols applied to the vascular system at the viability and microanalytical levels.
    Histology and histopathology 05/2015; DOI:10.14670/HH-11-629
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Novel oral mucosa substitutes have been developed in the laboratory using human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly stem cells -HWJSC- as an alternative cell source. In the present work, we have generated human oral mucosa substitutes with oral mucosa keratinocytes and HWJSC to determine the influence of these cell sources on stromal differentiation. First, acellular and cellular stroma substitutes and bilayered oral mucosa substitutes with an epithelial layer consisting of oral mucosa keratinocytes -OM samples- or HWJSC -hOM- were generated. Then, tissues were analyzed by light and electron microscopy, histochemistry and immunohistochemistry to quantify all major extracellular matrix components after 1, 2 and 3 weeks of ex vivo development, and OM and hOM were also analyzed after in vivo grafting. The results showed that bioengineered oral mucosa stromas displayed an adequate fibrillar mesh. Synthesis of abundant collagen fibers was detected in OM and hOM after 3 weeks, and in vivo grafting resulted in an increased collagen synthesis. No elastic or reticular fibers were found. Glycoprotein synthesis was found at the epithelial-stromal layer when samples were grafted in vivo. Finally, proteoglycans, decorin, versican and aggrecan were strongly dependent on the in vivo environment and the presence of a well-structured epithelium on top. The use of HWJSC was associated to an increased synthesis of versican. These results confirm the usefulness of fibrin-agarose biomaterials for the generation of an efficient human oral mucosa stroma substitute and the importance of the in vivo environment and the epithelial-mesenchymal interaction for the adequate differentiation of the bioengineered stroma.
    Histology and histopathology 05/2015;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Our study aimed to investigate the association of Pyruvate Kinase isozyme type M2 (PKM2) with radiation resistance in locally advanced cervical squamous cell carcinoma (LACSCC). We retrospectively reviewed 132 female patients who received primary radiation therapy to treat LACSCC at Federation Internationale of Gynecologie and Obstetrigue?FIGO?stages IB-IVA. Forty-seven patients with progression free survival (PFS) of less than 36 months were regarded to have radiation resistance. Eighty-five patients with PFS no less than 36 months were regarded as radiation sensitive. Using immunohistochemistry, we found that the overexpression rate of PKM2 in radiation resistant and radiation sensitive patients was 87.2% and 57.6%, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (p?0.001). The 5-year progress free survival rates in patients with low and high expression of PKM2 was 80.4% and 60.5%, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (p=0.008). Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified that high expression of PKM2 is an independent negative prognostic factor in cervical cancer patients [Hazard ratio (95% CI), 2.888 (1.347, 6.194) p=0.006]. These results demonstrate that overexpression of PKM2 contributes to radiation resistance and acts a poor prognosis indicator in patients with LACSCC.
    Histology and histopathology 05/2015; DOI:10.14670/HH-11-627
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The rat posterodorsal medial amygdala (MePD) has a remarkable neuronal plasticity and responds to olfactory/pheromonal stimuli to modulate emotional and reproductive behaviors. Glutamate is locally released by incoming sensorial pathways to establish and enforce synaptic inputs. Here, we combined DiI dye and immunolabeling procedure under confocal microscopy to describe the presence and distribution of glutamate receptors on neurons of the MePD of adult male rats. Western blot analysis interrogated binding specificity. Both AMPA (GluA1-4 subunits) and NMDA (GluN1 subunit) receptors were immunolabeled on cell bodies and along proximal and distal dendritic shafts. AMPA receptors were mainly observed on mushroom and stubby/wide spines, whereas NMDA receptors were found on thin spines. Colocalization of AMPA and NMDA receptors occurred in some spines. Filopodium did not show immunolabeled puncta on it. Our results are different from the distribution of glutamate receptors in the amygdaloid lateral nucleus, an upstream area involved with emotional processing, and suggest a region-specific excitatory transmission at proximal and distal dendritic branches. Altogether, these data provide new information for synaptic processing in the MePD likely related to the modulation of social behavior in rats.
    Histology and histopathology 04/2015; DOI:10.14670/HH-11-626
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) is widely distributed in mammals and largely responsible for metabolizing 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Little is known about its expression in skeletal muscles after trauma. A preliminary study on time-dependent expression and distribution of MAGL was performed by immunohistochemical staining, Western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) during skeletal muscle wound healing in rats. An animal model of skeletal muscle contusion was established in 40 Sprague-Dawley male rats. Samples were taken at 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 13, 17 and 21 days after contusion, respectively (5 rats in each posttraumatic interval). 5 rats were employed as control. Weak immunoreactivity of MAGL was observed in the sarcoplasm of myofibers in control rats. Intensive immunoreactivties of MAGL were observed in polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs), round-shaped mononuclear cells (MNCs), spindle-shaped fibroblastic cells (FBCs) and regenerated multinucleated myotubes in the injured tissue. Subsequently, neutrophils, macrophages and myofibroblasts were identified as MAGL-positive cells by double immunofluorescent procedure. MAGL expression was remarkably up-regulated after contusion by qPCR and Western blot analysis. The results demonstrate that the expression of MAGL is distributed in certain cell types and time-dependently expressed in skeletal muscles after trauma, suggesting that MAGL may be involved in inflammatory response, fibrogenesis and muscle regeneration during skeletal muscle wound healing.
    Histology and histopathology 04/2015; DOI:10.14670/HH-11-625
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Keloid disease is a benign, yet locally aggressive and recurrent cutaneous fibroproliferative condition characterised by excessive scarring. Unique to humans, keloids represent the end-point of a spectrum of abnormal wound healing, are aesthetically disfiguring and can cause major functional impairment. Its heterogeneous phenotype can confound clinical diagnosis leading to mismanagement. This review examines the histological morphology of keloid disease relative to the underlying pathobiology, places it in the context of other cutaneous fibroses and highlights gaps within the literature that hinder differential diagnosis. The pathological similarity to hypertrophic scarring, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, dermatofibroma and scleroderma emphasise the importance of detailing the architectural and cellular components of this unique entity. In the papillary dermis keloid tumours show a tongue-like advancing edge that resembles invasive tumour growth. A thickened but flattened epidermis, hyalinised haphazardly arranged collagen bundles that dominate the dermis with subsequent obliteration of the papillary-reticular boundary along with displacement and eventually destruction of skin appendages, exemplify additional hallmark findings associated with keloid disease. Compared to healthy skin, keloid scars show an increased type I/III collagen ratio, decreased fibrillin-1 and decorin expression, increased dermal cellularity and increased expression of fibronectin, versican, elastin and tenascin in the reticular dermis and hyaluronan and osteopontin in the epidermis. We illustrate these "pathognomonic" features of keloid disease by representative micrographs and discuss them in the context of inflammation, hypoxia and tension - as key elements of keloid disease. Finally, we highlight deficits within the keloid research literature as well as discuss important areas for future research in keloid histology.
    Histology and histopathology 04/2015; DOI:10.14670/HH-11-624
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Liver fibrogenesis is a dynamic and highly integrated molecular, tissue and cellular process that during the course of a chronic liver disease (CLD) leads progressively to an excess deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) components in an attempt to limit the consequences of chronic parenchymal injury. Irrespective of etiology, liver fibrogenesis is sustained and modulated by an intense cross talk occurring between different hepatic cell populations that involves the synthesis and release of several mediators, including growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, reactive oxygen species, adipokines, vasoactive agents and plasma proteins. In this scenario a major pro-fibrogenic role is played by a heterogeneous population of ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) positive cells defined as hepatic myofibroblasts (MFs). Hepatic MFs are highly proliferative and contractile cells, primarily responsible for excess deposition of ECM components and involved in ECM altered remodeling observed in CLDs. MFs also represent a unique and critical cellular crossroad able to integrate incoming paracrine or autocrine signals, released from all hepatic cell populations involved or available in the microenvironment, as well as to synthetize and release mediators which sustain and perpetuate fibrogenesis, chronic inflammatory response and neo-angiogenesis. This review has been designed to offer critical knowledge on hepatic MFs, including terminology, essential definitions and characterization of MFs, with a focus on the origin of these cells (mainly from hepatic stellate cells and portal fibroblasts or, to a lesser extent, bone marrow-derived cells), the process of activation and the functional responses that these cells can operate in the fibrogenic progression of CLDs.
    Histology and histopathology 04/2015; DOI:10.14670/HH-11-623