Anales de la Real Academia Nacional de Farmacia

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ISSN 1697-428X

Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: At the end of last Century the concept of allostasis was proposed as the group of responses from live beings, regulated by the brain, leading to maintain the organism balance and, therefore, to survival. But this concept has clear Darwinian significance. Questions established in the XX Century. The HPA (hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal gland) axis is the most important among all regulatory systems triggered by allostasis, and it is programmed during the gestational period in mammals. Under a stressful situation the mother HPA axis operates secreting high amounts of glucocorticoids (GC) that get into the foetus affecting to the normal HPA programming; this abnormal development is irreversible in adulthood and will also reduce birth weight. Besides, it is a risk factor for possible adult pathologies such as diabetes mellitus type 2, cardiovascular disease or chronic hypertension. The reason is the decrease of glucocorticoid receptors (GR) in hippocampus, since they are crucial for the negative feedback of HPA axis. However, the mechanism by which GC reduce GR expression in hippocampus was unknown in the XX Century. Questions established in the XXI Century. A number of research articles published in the XXI Century reporting information about the epigenetic mechanism involved in the hippocampal reduction of GR are selected and presented. The main epigenetic mechanisms known up to date are also mentioned. Finally, the great therapeutic possibilities of the epigenetic mechanisms in the near future are enunciated as well as the possible explanation of evolutional processes.
    Anales de la Real Academia Nacional de Farmacia 01/2015; 80(3):466-499.
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    ABSTRACT: This review study considers the problems associated with the presence of human and veterinary pharmaceuticals in the environment since the 1980s and emphasizes the most important publications and legislation.The activities generating these products (the pharmaceutical industry, human and veterinary use and disposal and depuration processes) are outlined and the main routes of entry to the environment are identified.Data on the maximum concentrations of pharmaceuticals in waters, sediments and soils are presented, along with some examples of Spanish studies. The effects on man and on ecosystems are analysed and the methods most commonly used to evaluate health risks are described. Finally, measures of minimizing the risks and the extent to which pharmaceutical monitoring can address this problem are considered.
    Anales de la Real Academia Nacional de Farmacia 01/2015; 81(2):86-102.
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    ABSTRACT: The end results of the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine Phase 3 trials have moved us to comment the expectations that it has raised in the context of a brief updated report that aims at showing how recent knowledge on mechanisms used by the parasite to evade the host immune system and to develop resistance may promote the development of new vaccines and the design of antimalarial drugs addressing new targets.
    Anales de la Real Academia Nacional de Farmacia 01/2015; 81(2):145-157.
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    ABSTRACT: The Superoxide Dismutase activity is present in every cell with aerobic metabolism, and is just absent in obligate anaerobes, due to the important role that it plays in antioxidant protection of many cellular components from oxygen reactive species (ROS). Its deficit is related with different pathologies, such as inflammation, diabetes, cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, among others. In the present review, some pathologies produced by the enzymatic deficit will be tackled, and also the main methods of protein engineering, applied to optimization and modification of the enzyme as a therapeutic product.
    Anales de la Real Academia Nacional de Farmacia 01/2015; 81(1):25-36.
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    ABSTRACT: The control of the intestinal flora is one of the targets of the functional foods and nutraceuticals. A symbiotic equilibrium can be achieved by the intake of live microorganisms (probiotics) or by the so-called prebiotics (non-digested oligosaccharides). Prebiotics are selectively fermented by the human microbiota allowing specific changes and conferring benefits upon host well-being and health. Among prebiotics fructooligosaccharides (FOS) constitute one of the most established groups. Levansucrases (EC are a family of enzymes that catalyse the transfer of the fructosyl moiety from sucrose to different acceptors such as: (1) sucrose -yielding FOS that can be further fructosylated forming levan a polymer with food and biomedical applications -; (2) water resulting in sucrose hydrolysis. In this work a levansucrase from Zymomonas mobilis was characterized and the reaction products using sucrose as substrate were analysed by High-Performance Anion-Exchange Chromatography (HPAEC-PAD). The number of FOS synthesized by the soluble enzyme was significantly higher compared with previous reports. In order to optimize the biocatalytic process the enzyme was further immobilized by entrapment in calcium alginate gel and the resulting beads were dehydrated to obtain DALGEEs (Dry ALGinate Entrapped Enzymes). Different immobilization strategies were studied to minimize enzyme loss (lixiviation) throughout the pores. The effect of enzyme immobilization on levansucrase behaviour was also analysed.
    Anales de la Real Academia Nacional de Farmacia 01/2015; 81(1):48-62.
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    ABSTRACT: Human intervention in the hot springs has brought its microbiological and chemical contamination. The indiscriminate use of antimicrobials, have resulted in the contamination of various aquatic environments with these substances and bacteria The objectives were meet antimicrobial resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from hot springs in the region of Chimborazo, Ecuador. 12 samples of thermal water baths from Chimborazo Province were analyzed. Samples consisted of a volume of 0.5 liters of water. Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolation was performed by the membrane filtration technique using cellulose acetate filter 0.45 um pore, a sample volume of 100 ml and Cetrimide agar. The isolates were identified following schemes MacFadden (2004) and Barrow and Feltham (1993), supplemented with biochemical tests of API (bioMerieux) galleries. The profile of antibiotic resistance was determined by the method of dissemination of Kirby and Bauer (1966) and the results were interpreted according the CLSI (2014). 15 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were identified. All strains were resistant to ampicillin and ampicillin - Sulbactam antibiotics and five were multidrug resistant to six antibiotics (Ampicillin, ampicillin-Sulbactam, amikacin, ceftazidime, cefepime and ciprofloxacin). The results show us the need for studies of resistoma ecosystems hot springs, to determine the presence of resistance genes in indigenous bacteria.
    Anales de la Real Academia Nacional de Farmacia 01/2015; 81(2):158-163.
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    ABSTRACT: From birth to death, neurons are actively and dynamically accompanied by neuroglial cells in a very close morphological and functional relationship. The results of their study in the last years revolutionized the concepts about the functionality of the CNS. Classically, three families of these cells in the CNS have been classically considered: astroglia, oligodendroglia and microglia. Many types and subtypes have been described by morphological and immunocytochemical methods, including NGR2+ cells, with a wide variety of pathophysiological effects on the neurons and neuronal circuits. Now, all these elements are considered of paramount importance in all proposed theories for explaining any physiological or pathological process in the CNS because they are involved in both, neuroprotection/neurorepair and neurodegeneration. Glio-glial, glio-neuronal and neuro-glial cell signaling pathways and glio-transmission are essential phenomena that support the brain functions, from a simple reflex to the most sophisticated higher mental function. Glioplasticity is a parallel phenomenon to neuroplasticity for optimizing the function of the neuronal circuits. Moreover, they possess the ability to change to a reactive status (gliosis), in which new functions are developed in their relationships with the neurons.
    Anales de la Real Academia Nacional de Farmacia 01/2015; 81(1):11-18.
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    ABSTRACT: Despite being traditionally associated with oral liquid dosage forms, taste masking as critical attribute in the formulation of drug products has recently experienced a renaissance, mostly due to the development of oral solid dosage forms aimed at achieving disintegration either under ex vivo conditions or even more relevantly into the oral cavity. Not only does taste masking involve the neutralization of the potential unpleasant flavour inherent to the drug substance, but also seeks to achieve tasty flavour in the final drug product, since it has influence both to a sanitary extent (the higher the patient acceptance, the better the patient compliance) and to an economical extent (since the flavour of a marketed product can make the difference between commercial success or commercial failure). The purpose of this review is to outline the strategies likely to be applied in taste masking of oral solid dosage forms, to sort out and describe the major flavour-modifying agents in the pharmaceutical field, as well as to compile comprehensively testing techniques of the efficacy of the various taste masking strategies. Consequently, this review adds to the scope of taste masking a further dimension, serving thus as a proof-of-concept that much remains still to be said in this area.
    Anales de la Real Academia Nacional de Farmacia 01/2015; 81(2):116-128.
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    ABSTRACT: Antibiotic resistance is spreading faster than the introduction of new compounds into clinical practice, causing a public health crisis. In a recent publication has been described a new antibiotic of depsipeptide nature named teixobactin that was discovered in a screen of uncultured soil bacteria (1). This compound inhibits cell wall synthesis by binding to a highly conserved motif of lipid II (precursor of peptidoglycan) and lipid III (precursor of cell wall teichoic acid). The method developed in its discovery and the apparent ability of teixobactin to avoid resistances, may open a path towards the development of other clinicaly useful antibiotics.
    Anales de la Real Academia Nacional de Farmacia 01/2015; 81(1):4-10.
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    ABSTRACT: Two-dimensional correlation vibrational spectroscopy is emerging as an alternative technique to detect relatively small alterations in composition and molecular structure of complex biological systems such as blood plasma resulting from pathological, physical and chemical processes occuring in body. In this paper the main concepts considered in the use of infrared and Raman spectroscopies in their two-dimensional form and their application in the search for markers for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease are described. Some examples of representation of spectral markers in ROC curves showing accuracies in classifications of samples greater than 80% are also discussed.
    Anales de la Real Academia Nacional de Farmacia 01/2015; 81(1):19-24.
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    ABSTRACT: A complete review of the regulations applicable to blood derived medicines is made, including European legislation and its transposition into national legislation. This complex and comprehensive regulation is updated and commented to facilitate appropriate guidance to healthcare professionals for its consultation and use. Blood derived products, as chronic medication and susceptible of transmitting diseases, are very important in the pharmaceutical industry, they have a large social and mediatic impact and their manufacturing is based on the use of human plasma as raw material. The discussion on donating plasma altruistically or in remunerated manner and its effect on self-sufficiency for the availability of blood products is also addressed.
    Anales de la Real Academia Nacional de Farmacia 01/2015; 81(2):103-115.
  • A. Aguado-Barrios · S. Navas-Carretero · M.Á. Zulet · J.A. Martínez ·
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present work was to study the effects of a curd with modified lipid profile on postprandial cardiovascular disease markers in healthy subjects. The study was a randomised postprandial, crossover, double-blind nutritional intervention, with 20 healthy adults. In each visit participants consumed the assigned curd and blood samples were obtained at baseline and during 6h, to analyse cardiovascular risk-related variables. ApoB postprandial levels were significantly lower (p = 0.008) while total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol values were only slightly reduced(ns) and a tendency (p<0.10) to improve insulin sensitivity was also observed after consuming the experimental vs the reference curd. A possible beneficial effect on health can be attributed to the consumption of this dessert with modified lipid profile.
    Anales de la Real Academia Nacional de Farmacia 01/2014; 80(3):624-636.
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    ABSTRACT: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a major public health issue that comprises a disease spectrum which ranges from benign hepatic steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), leading to irreversible liver damages. Deposition of excess triglycerides within liver cells is the hallmark of NAFLD, which is associated with a loss of insulin sensitivity. A growing body of evidence implicates the lipogenic transcription factors SREBP-1c (sterol regulatory element-binding protein), ChREBP (carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein) and LXR (liver X receptor) in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. These factors have emerged as central regulators of the de novo fatty acid synthesis, the glucose homeostasis and the inflammation in response to insulin, glucose and oxysterols, under both physiological and physiopathological conditions. In this review we describe recent findings in the biology, the function and the cross-regulation between SREBP-1c, ChREBP and LXR on the control of lipid and glucose metabolism and their link to NAFLD. Specific pharmacologic ligands are available, making them attractive therapeutic targets for NAFLD and NASH.
    Anales de la Real Academia Nacional de Farmacia 01/2014; 80(1):14-48.

  • Anales de la Real Academia Nacional de Farmacia 01/2012; 78(2).