Protein & Cell

Description

  • Impact factor
    3.22
  • 5-year impact
    0.00
  • Cited half-life
    0.00
  • Immediacy index
    0.00
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.00
  • ISSN
    1674-8018

Publications in this journal

  • Protein & Cell 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) play essential roles in signal transduction from the environment into the cell. While many structural features have been elucidated in great detail, a common functional mechanism on how the ligand-binding signal is converted into a conformational change on the cytoplasmic face resulting in subsequent activation of downstream effectors remain to be established. Based on available structural and functional data of the activation process in class-A GPCRs, we propose here that a change in protonation status, together with proton transfer via conserved structural elements located in the transmembrane region, are the key elements essential for signal transduction across the membrane.
    Protein & Cell 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli (E. coli) FadR regulator plays dual roles in fatty acid metabolism, which not only represses the fatty acid degradation (fad) system, but also activates the unsaturated fatty acid synthesis pathway. Earlier structural and biochemical studies of FadR protein have provided insights into interplay between FadR protein with its DNA target and/or ligand, while the missing knowledge gap (esp. residues with indirect roles in DNA binding) remains unclear. Here we report this case through deep mapping of old E. coli fadR mutants accumulated. Molecular dissection of E. coli K113 strain, a fadR mutant that can grow on decanoic acid (C10) as sole carbon sources unexpectedly revealed a single point mutation of T178G in fadR locus (W60G in FadRk113). We also observed that a single genetically-recessive mutation of W60G in FadR regulatory protein can lead to loss of its DNA-binding activity, and thereby impair all the regulatory roles in fatty acid metabolisms. Structural analyses of FadR protein indicated that the hydrophobic interaction amongst the three amino acids (W60, F74 and W75) is critical for its DNA-binding ability by maintaining the configuration of its neighboring two β-sheets. Further site-directed mutagenesis analyses demonstrated that the FadR mutants (F74G and/or W75G) do not exhibit the detected DNA-binding activity, validating above structural reasoning.
    Protein & Cell 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Autophagy plays important roles in modulating viral replication and antiviral immune response. Coronavirus infection is associated with the autophagic process, however, little is known about the mechanisms of autophagy induction and its contribution to coronavirus regulation of host innate responses. Here, we show that the membrane-associated papain-like protease PLP2 (PLP2-TM) of coronaviruses acts as a novel autophagy-inducing protein. Intriguingly, PLP2-TM induces incomplete autophagy process by increasing the accumulation of autophagosomes but blocking the fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes. Furthermore, PLP2-TM interacts with the key autophagy regulators, LC3 and Beclin1, and promotes Beclin1 interaction with STING, the key regulator for antiviral IFN signaling. Finally, knockdown of Beclin1 partially reverses PLP2-TM's inhibitory effect on innate immunity which resulting in decreased coronavirus replication. These results suggested that coronavirus papain-like protease induces incomplete autophagy by interacting with Beclin1, which in turn modulates coronavirus replication and antiviral innate immunity.
    Protein & Cell 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6), a predominantly cytoplasmic protein deacetylase, participates in a wide range of cellular processes through its deacetylase activity. However, the diverse functions of HDAC6 cannot be fully elucidated with its known substrates. In an attempt to explore the substrate diversity of HDAC6, we performed quantitative proteomic analyses to monitor changes in the abundance of protein lysine acetylation in response to HDAC6 deficiency. We identified 107 proteins with elevated acetylation in the liver of HDAC6 knockout mice. Three cytoplasmic proteins, including myosin heavy chain 9 (MYH9), heat shock cognate protein 70 (Hsc70), and dnaJ homolog subfamily A member 1 (DNAJA1), were verified to interact with HDAC6. The acetylation levels of these proteins were negatively regulated by HDAC6 both in the mouse liver and in cultured cells. Functional studies reveal that HDAC6-mediated deacetylation modulates the actin-binding ability of MYH9 and the interaction between Hsc70 and DNAJA1. These findings consolidate the notion that HDAC6 serves as a critical regulator of protein acetylation with the capability of coordinating various cellular functions.
    Protein & Cell 10/2014;
  • Protein & Cell 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes severe and persistent infections in immune compromised individuals and cystic fibrosis sufferers. The infection is hard to eradicate as P. aeruginosa has developed strong resistance to most conventional antibiotics. The problem is further compounded by the ability of the pathogen to form biofilm matrix, which provides bacterial cells a protected environment withstanding various stresses including antibiotics. Quorum sensing (QS), a cell density-based intercellular communication system, which plays a key role in regulation of the bacterial virulence and biofilm formation, could be a promising target for developing new strategies against P. aeruginosa infection. The QS network of P. aeruginosa is organized in a multi-layered hierarchy consisting of at least four interconnected signaling mechanisms. Evidence is accumulating that the QS regulatory network not only responds to bacterial population changes but also could react to environmental stress cues. This plasticity should be taken into consideration during exploration and development of anti-QS therapeutics.
    Protein & Cell 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Pax6 and its Drosophila homolog Eyeless (Ey) play essential roles during eye development. Ey/Pax6 contains two distinct DNA binding domains, a Paired domain (PD) and a Homeodomain (HD). While Ey/Pax6 PD is required for the expression of key regulators of retinal development, relatively little is known about the HD-dependent Ey function. In this study, we used the UAS/GAL4 system to determine the functions of different Ey domains on cell growth and on retinal development. We showed that Ey can promote cell growth, which requires the HD but not the PD. In contrast, the ability of Ey to activate Ato expression and induce ectopic eye formation requires the PD but not the HD. Interestingly, deletion of the HD enhanced Ey-dependent ectopic eye induction while overexpression of the HD only Ey forms antagonizes ectopic eye induction. These studies revealed a novel function of Ey HD on cell growth and a novel antagonistic effect of Ey HD on Ey PD-dependent eye induction. We further show the third helix of the Ey HD can directly interact with the RED subdomain in Ey PD and that deletion of the HD increased the binding of Ey PD to its target. These results suggest that the direct interaction between the HD and the PD potentially mediates their antagonistic effects. Since different Ey splicing forms are expressed in overlapping regions during normal development, we speculate that the expression ratios of the different Ey splice forms potentially contribute to the regulation of growth and differentiation of these tissues.
    Protein & Cell 09/2014;
  • Protein & Cell 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Cancer is a highly aggressive and devastating disease, and impediments to a cure arise not just from cancer itself. Targeted therapies are difficult to achieve since the majority of cancers are more intricate than ever imagined. Mainstream methodologies including chemotherapy and radiotherapy as routine clinical regimens frequently fail, eventually leading to pathologies that are refractory and incurable. One major cause is the gradual to rapid repopulation of surviving cancer cells during intervals of multiple-dose administration. Novel stress-responsive molecular pathways are increasingly unmasked and show promise as emerging targets for advanced strategies that aim at both de novo and acquired resistance. We highlight recent data reporting that treatments particularly those genotoxic can induce highly conserved damage responses in non-cancerous constituents of the tumor microenvironment (TMEN). Master regulators, including but not limited to NF-kB and C/EBP-β, are implicated and their signal cascades culminate in a robust, chronic and genome-wide secretory program, forming an activated TMEN that releases a myriad of soluble factors. The damage-elicited but essentially off target and cell non-autonomous secretory phenotype of host stroma causes adverse consequences, among which is acquired resistance of cancer cells. Harnessing signals arising from the TMEN, a pathophysiological niche frequently damaged by medical interventions, has the potential to promote overall efficacy and improve clinical outcomes provided that appropriate actions are ingeniously integrated into contemporary therapies. Thereby, anticancer regimens should be well tuned to establish an innovative clinical avenue, and such advancement will allow future oncological treatments to be more specific, accurate, thorough and personalized.
    Protein & Cell 09/2014;
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    Protein & Cell 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The active DNA demethylation in early embryos is essential for subsequent development. Although the zygotic genome is globally demethylated, the DNA methylation of imprinted regions, part of repeat sequences and some gamete-specific regions are maintained. Recent evidence has shown that multiple proteins and biological pathways participate in the regulation of active DNA demethylation, such as TET proteins, DNA repair pathways and DNA methyltransferases. Here we review the recent understanding regarding proteins associated with active DNA demethylation and the regulatory networks controlling the active DNA demethylation in early embryos.
    Protein & Cell 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) that exert function by posttranscriptional suppression have recently brought insight in our understanding of the role of non-protein-coding RNAs in carcinogenesis and metastasis. In this study, we described the function and molecular mechanism of miR-139-5p in colorectal cancer (CRC) and its potential clinical application in CRC. We found that miR-139-5p was significantly downregulated in 73.8% CRC samples compared with adjacent noncancerous tissues (NCTs), and decreased miR-139-5p was associated with poor prognosis. Functional analyses demonstrated that ectopic expression of miR-139-5p suppressed CRC cell migration and invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo. Mechanistic investigations revealed that miR-139-5p suppress CRC cell invasion and metastasis by targeting AMFR and NOTCH1. Knockdown of the two genes phenocopied the inhibitory effect of miR-139-5p on CRC metastasis. Furthermore, the protein levels of the two genes were upregulated in CRC samples compared with NCTs, and inversely correlated with the miR-139-5p expression. Increased NOTCH1 protein expression was correlated with poor prognosis of CRC patients. Together, our data indicate that miR-139-5p is a potential tumor suppressor and prognostic factor for CRC, and targeting miR-139-5p may repress the metastasis of CRC and improve survival.
    Protein & Cell 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Eukaryotic membrane proteins, many of which are key players in various biological processes, constitute more than half of the drug targets and represent important candidates for structural studies. In contrast to their physiological significance, only very limited number of eukaryotic membrane protein structures have been obtained due to the technical challenges in the generation of recombinant proteins. In this review, we examine the major recombinant expression systems for eukaryotic membrane proteins and compare their relative advantages and disadvantages. We also attempted to summarize the recent technical strategies in the advancement of eukaryotic membrane protein purification and crystallization.
    Protein & Cell 08/2014;
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    Protein & Cell 08/2014;
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    Protein & Cell 08/2014;
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    Protein & Cell 08/2014;
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    Protein & Cell 08/2014;