Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China (Front Architect Civ Eng China )

Publisher: Springer Verlag


Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China - Selected Publications from Chinese Universities offers a multidisciplinary blend of peer-reviewed papers and case studies intended to introduce and reflect enormous achievements in the field of architecture and civil engineering that are currently taking place in China. Coverage includes articles in building design; urban planning and design; and in the engineering fields of bridge construction; traffic and transportation; hydraulics; hydrologic engineering; port, coast and ocean engineering, and hazard resistant engineering mechanics. The aim is to promote rapid communication between scientists and designers in China and abroad.

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    Front. archit. civ. eng. China
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper presents a numerical simulation study on electromechanical impedance technique for structural damage identification. The basic principle of impedance based damage detection is structural impedance will vary with the occurrence and development of structural damage, which can be measured from electromechanical admittance curves acquired from PZT patches. Therefore, structure damage can be identified from the electromechanical admittance measurements. In this study, a model based method that can identify both location and severity of structural damage through the minimization of the deviations between structural impedance curves and numerically computed response is developed. The numerical model is set up using the spectral element method, which is promised to be of high numerical efficiency and computational accuracy in the high frequency range. An optimization procedure is then formulated to estimate the property change of structural elements from the electric admittance measurement of PZT patches. A case study on a pin-pin bar is conducted to investigate the feasibility of the proposed method. The results show that the presented method can accurately identify bar damage location and severity even when the measurements are polluted by 5% noise.
    Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China 12/2011; 5(4).
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    ABSTRACT: A comprehensive analysis was conducted to investigate the seismic performance of a typical tall bridge pier through incremental dynamical analysis (IDA). The effect of higher-order modes was studied specifically. The results showed that higher-order modes significantly contributed to the structural seismic response and should not be neglected. Including these modes resulted in an additional hinge midway up the pier. No plastic hinge would occur at this location for conventional bridge piers. Higher-order modes also led to an out-of-phase response between the hinge rotation at the pier bottom and the displacement at the top. This means that the displacement-based seismic design method cannot correctly predict the mechanical state of the critical hinge and therefore is not suitable for use in the seismic design of tall piers. Mistakenly using the displacement-based seismic design method for tall piers may result in a seriously unsafe condition.
    Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China 12/2011; 5(4).
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    ABSTRACT: This paper aims at developing a structural health monitoring (SHM)-based bridge rating method for bridge inspection of long-span cable-supported bridges. The fuzzy based analytic hierarchy approach is employed, and the hierarchical structure for synthetic rating of each structural component of the bridge is proposed. The criticality and vulnerability analyses are performed largely based on the field measurement data from the SHM system installed in the bridge to offer relatively accurate condition evaluation of the bridge and to reduce uncertainties involved in the existing rating method. The procedures for determining relative weighs and fuzzy synthetic ratings for both criticality and vulnerability are then suggested. The fuzzy synthetic decisions for inspection are made in consideration of the synthetic ratings of all structural components. The SHM-based bridge rating method is finally applied to the Tsing Ma suspension bridge in Hong Kong as a case study. The results show that the proposed method is feasible and it can be used in practice for longspan cable-supported bridges with SHM system.
    Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China 12/2011; 5(4).
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, a practical test and finite element analysis has been undertaken to further investigate the effects of contact buckling. A test rig was designed and constructed to record vertical and transverse deflections of compressively loaded steel skin plates. The boundary conditions were modeled as fully fixed. A finite element analysis was also undertaken using the software package Strand7. Results from both analyses have been examined and compared to data established from previous studies on contact buckling. Both the finite element analysis and practical results correlate well with this data. The result of the investigation has confirmed contact buckling theories and has foreshadowed the onset of the newly observed phenomenon of secondary contact buckling. Keywordscompressive–buckling–thin steel skins–unilateral contact–rigid constraints
    Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China 09/2011; 5(3):335-343.
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    ABSTRACT: This paper addresses the problem of condition assessment of bridge expansion joints using long-term measurement data under changing environmental conditions. The effects of temperature, traffic loading and wind on the expansion joint displacements are analyzed and interpreted, which reveal that measured displacements are observed to increase with an increase in temperature and to decrease with increased traffic loading, while the correlation between displacement and wind speed is very weak. Two regression models are developed to simulate the varying displacements under the changes in temperature and traffic loadings. Based on these models, the effects of the environmental conditions are removed to obtain the normalized displacement. Statistical process control using mean value control charts is further used to detect damage to the bridge expansion joints. The results reveal that the proposed method had a good capability for detecting the damage-induced 1.0% variances of the annual changes in the expansion joint displacements. Keywordsstructural health monitoring–displacement–expansion joint–temperature effect–wind effect–traffic loading–statistical process control–suspension bridge
    Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China 09/2011; 5(3):374-380.
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents an uncoupled state space solution to three-dimensional consolidation of layered poroelastic medium with anisotropic permeability and compressible pore fluid. Starting from the basic equations of poroelastic medium, and introducing intermediate variables, the state space equation usually comprising eight coupled state vectors is uncoupled into two sets of equations of six and two state vectors in the Laplace-Fourier transform domain. Combined with the continuity conditions between adjacent layers and boundary conditions, the uncoupled state space solution of a layered poroelastic medium is obtained by using the transfer matrix method. Numerical results show that the anisotropy of permeability and the compressibility of pore fluid have remarkable influence on the consolidation behavior of poroelastic medium. Keywordsuncoupled state space solution–layered poroelastic medium–three-dimensional consolidation–anisotropic permeability–compressible pore fluid
    Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China 06/2011; 5(2):171-179.
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    ABSTRACT: Macroscopic modeling of soils is based on a number of properties that refer to the mesoscopic morphology. The most fundamental parameters of this art are: 1) coupling parameters between partial stresses of components and deformations of components, 2) porosities, 3) saturation, and 4) permeability and diffusivity, tortuosity. The main aim of this paper is to present in juxtaposition continuous one-, two-, and three-component models of geomaterials appearing in construction of embankment dams. In particular, the above mentioned features, especially saturation with water and seepage problems, modeling of fluidization yielding piping, and generalizations of the Darcy law and changes of porosity, are presented. Keywordsthermomechanical modeling–soil morphology–saturation–porosity
    Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China 04/2011; 5(1):11-23.
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    ABSTRACT: Taking account of the fuzzy results of the seepage monitoring analysis of roller compacted concrete (RCC) dam and uncertainties of the individual indicator evaluation, the fuzzy matter-element model of seepage monitoring of RCC dam analysis has been established with the use of the fuzzy matter-element analysis theory and the concept of euclid approach degree. The use of entropy theory can calculate the weighting factor through the disorder utility values of the information reflected by the data itself, which can effectively avoid the problems of weight distribution and uncertainties of subjective judgments of the seepage monitoring analysis of roller compacted concrete dam. And further the example shows that the analysis of entropy-based fuzzy matter-element analysis model of the seepage monitoring of roller compacted concrete dam is in accordance with the actual situation, which verifies the effectiveness of the method. Keywordsinformation entropy–fuzzy matter-element–roller compacted concrete (RCC) dam–seepage analysis
    Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China 01/2011; 5(1):105-111.
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    ABSTRACT: The massive 8.0-magnitude Wenchuan Earthquake triggered huge landslides, avalanches, and debris flows that blocked rivers and created 34 important quake lakes, including the Tangjiashan Quake Lake on the Tongkou River. More than half of these lakes were identified to be of moderate or high hazard levels, so activities needed to be undertaken for hazard mitigation of potential flooding. This paper presents the mitigation processes of quake lake hazards, which involve various techniques such as rapid hazard analysis, scenario-based mitigation planning, and real-time forecasting of outburst flooding for implementation actions. The shortage of hydrologic and geological data and the nature of emergency situations raise substantial challenges in the hazard mitigation of quake lakes. This paper suggests a potential approach in dealing with quake lake hazards, which integrates the automatic monitoring network, hydrologic models, and hydrodynamic models with a comprehensive indicator for hazard levels. The necessity of improving the integrated methodology is highlighted. Keywordsquake lake–hazard mitigation–dam failure–emergency–Tangjiashan
    Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China 01/2011; 5(1):1-10.
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    ABSTRACT: An ambient vibration test on a concrete bridge constructed in 1971 and calibration of its finite element model are presented. The bridge is characterized by a system of post-tensioned and simply supported beams. The dynamic characteristics of the bridge, i.e. natural frequencies, mode shapes and damping ratios were computed from the ambient vibration tests by using the Eigensystem Realization Algorithm (ERA). Then, these characteristics were used to update the finite element model of the bridge by formulating an optimization problem and then using Genetic Algorithms (GA) to solve it. From the results of the ambient vibration test of this type of bridge, it is concluded that two-dimensional mode shapes exist: in the longitudinal and transverse; and these experimentally obtained dynamic characteristics were also achieved in the analytical model through updating. The application of GAs as optimization techniques showed great versatility to optimize any number and type of variables in the model. Keywordsmodal analysis–parameter identification–ambient vibration test–Eigensystem Realization Algorithm (ERA) method–finite element method
    Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China 01/2011; 5(3):344-354.
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    ABSTRACT: Dam constructions worldwide are designed and constructed in view of the strictest safety aspects for all static and dynamic load cases. As experience shows, however, formation of cracks in the “homogeneos concrete” as well as unsatisfactory compound behavior of lift joints are not to be excluded. These zones of weakness especially on the upstream side of the dam—exposed to high water pressure (static and dynamic)—represent an increased risk of safety. The main investigation, apart from the computation of the dynamic effects on the dam as a global structure, focuses on the stability analysis of a pressure-water filled crack configuration subjected to “dynamic loading” in the form of seismic action on the dam-reservoir-system and alternatively by “impact spot-loading” within sectors of the reservoir. A fracture mechanics based analysis shows an excessive potential of damage for the afflicted structure. Keywordsdam-reservoir–earthquake–impact–cracking–fracture mechanics
    Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China 01/2011; 5(1):90-97.
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    ABSTRACT: Post-tensioned (PT) self-centering moment frames have been developed as an alternative to typical moment-resisting frames (MRFs) for earthquake resistance. When a PT frame deforms laterally, gaps between the beams and columns open. However, the gaps are constrained by the columns and the slab in a real PT self-centering building frame. This paper presents a methodology for evaluating the column restraint and beam compression force based on the column deformation and gap openings at all stories. The method is verified by cyclic tests of a full-scale, two-bay by one-story PT frame. Moreover, a sliding slab is proposed to minimize restraints on the expansion of the PT frame. Shaking table tests were conducted on a reduced-scale, two-by-two bay one-story specimen, which comprises one PT frame and two gravitational frames. The PT frame and gravitational frames are self-centering throughout the tests, responding in phase with only minor differences in peak drifts caused by expansion of the PT frame. When the specimen is excited by a simulation of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake with a peak ground acceleration of 1.87 g, the maximum interstory drift and the residual drift are 7.2% and 0.01%, respectively. Keywordspost-tensioned frame–frame expansion–column restraint–sliding slab–frame test–shake table test
    Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China 01/2011; 5(3):323-334.
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, an experimental investigation is conducted to study the mechanical behavior of saturated natural loess, saturated natural filling in ground fissure and their corresponding saturated remoulded soils under three consolidated undrained triaxial stress tests, namely, conventional triaxial compression test (CTC), triaxial compression test (TC) and reduced triaxial compression test (RTC). The test results show that stress-strain relation, i.e. strain-softening or strain-hardening, is remarkably influenced by the structure, void ratio, stress path and confining pressure. Natural structure, high void ratio, TC stress path, RTC stress path and low confining pressures are favorable factors leading to strain-softening. Excess pore pressure during shearing is significantly affected by stress path. The tested soils are different from loose sand on character of strain-softening and are different from common clay on excess pore water pressure behavior. The critical states in p′-q space in CTC, TC and RTC tests almost lie on one line, which indicates that the critical state is independent of the above stress paths. As for remoulded loess or remoulded filling, the critical state line (CSL) and isotropic consolidation line (ICL) in e-log p′ space are almost straight, while for natural loess or natural filling, in e-log p′ space there is a turning point on the CSL, which is similar to the ICL. Keywordsstress paths–static liquefaction–natural soil–remoulded soil–loess–structure–total strength indices–excess pore pressure
    Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China 01/2011; 5(2):225-238.
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    ABSTRACT: Intersecting connection plays an important role in the new diagrid structural system for high-rise buildings. To investigate the static behavior of the intersecting connection of concrete-filled steel tubular (CFST) columns, a typical reduced-scale planner connection specimen is tested under monotonic axial compression. The failure modes, force mechanism and bearing capacity of intersecting CFST connections are analyzed further in the follow-up numerical simulation, considering influences of intersecting angle, elliptical plate and ring plate. Test and simulation results prove that, intersecting connection can develop fully plastic deformation and provide sufficient bearing capacity. Parametric analysis indicates that bearing capacity of planar intersecting CFST connection mainly depends on intersecting angle and thickness of elliptical plate, while the ring plate affects that little. Capacity estimation method for planar intersecting CFST connection is proposed basing on the capacity of the critical section which is located near intersecting center for a distance of steel tube radius, and the design suggestions is provided in the end of this paper. Keywordsdiagrid structure–concrete-filled steel tube–planar intersecting connection–experimental research–mechanism analysis
    Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China 01/2011; 5(3):355-365.