Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China (Front Architect Civ Eng China )

Publisher: Springer Verlag

Journal description

Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China - Selected Publications from Chinese Universities offers a multidisciplinary blend of peer-reviewed papers and case studies intended to introduce and reflect enormous achievements in the field of architecture and civil engineering that are currently taking place in China. Coverage includes articles in building design; urban planning and design; and in the engineering fields of bridge construction; traffic and transportation; hydraulics; hydrologic engineering; port, coast and ocean engineering, and hazard resistant engineering mechanics. The aim is to promote rapid communication between scientists and designers in China and abroad.

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Website Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China website
Other titles Front. archit. civ. eng. China
ISSN 1673-7407
OCLC 156862673
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details

Springer Verlag

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  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The concept of sustainability is described in this paper using a single sustainable principle, two goals of sustainable development, three dimensions of sustainable engineering, four sustainable requirements and five phases of sustainable construction. Four sustainable requirements and their practice in China are discussed in particular. The safe reliability of bridges is first compared with the events of bridge failure in China and in the rest of the world and followed by structural durability, including the cracking of concrete cable-stayed bridges, deflection of concrete girder bridges and fatigue cracks of orthotropic steel decks. With respect to functional adaptability, lateral wind action on vehicles and its improvement are introduced regarding a sea-crossing bridge located in a typhoon-prone area. The Chinese practice of using two double main span suspension bridges and a twin parallel deck cable-stayed bridge is presented in discussing the final sustainable requirement: capacity extensibility.
    Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China 12/2011; 5(4).
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents a numerical simulation study on electromechanical impedance technique for structural damage identification. The basic principle of impedance based damage detection is structural impedance will vary with the occurrence and development of structural damage, which can be measured from electromechanical admittance curves acquired from PZT patches. Therefore, structure damage can be identified from the electromechanical admittance measurements. In this study, a model based method that can identify both location and severity of structural damage through the minimization of the deviations between structural impedance curves and numerically computed response is developed. The numerical model is set up using the spectral element method, which is promised to be of high numerical efficiency and computational accuracy in the high frequency range. An optimization procedure is then formulated to estimate the property change of structural elements from the electric admittance measurement of PZT patches. A case study on a pin-pin bar is conducted to investigate the feasibility of the proposed method. The results show that the presented method can accurately identify bar damage location and severity even when the measurements are polluted by 5% noise.
    Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China 12/2011; 5(4).
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    ABSTRACT: The area-averaged most unfavorable wind pressure coefficients (MUWPCs) on various regions of building surfaces and the influence of the side ratio and the terrain category were studied based on wind tunnel test data of scale models of typical high-rise buildings with rectangular cross-sections. The negative area-averaged MUWPCs in the middle-height edge areas generally increased with an increasing D/B side ratio. The areaaveraged MUWPCs can be well fitted with a function of the average area reduced by the square of the building depth, D 2. In addition, no unique pattern was found for the effect of the terrain category on the MUWPCs.
    Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China 12/2011; 5(4).
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    ABSTRACT: By examining the two neighboring Haihe Bridges with semi- and full-closed bridge decks, the aerodynamic interference between the two decks on the vortex-induced vibration (VIV) and the corresponding aerodynamic mitigation measures are investigated via a series of wind tunnel tests with a spring-suspended sectional model aided with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method. The results show that the VIV responses of both bridges can be significantly affected by the aerodynamic interference and that the extent of the influence varies with the shapes of the windward and leeward decks. The VIV amplitudes of the windward bridge are often fairly close to those of the single bridge. However, those of the leeward bridge are magnified substantially by aerodynamic interference if the same structural and aerodynamic configurations are adopted for the two bridges. Otherwise, the VIV responses are not significantly increased and may even be reduced by the aerodynamic interference if different configurations are employed for the two bridges. Furthermore, an effective combined measure of adding wind barriers and sharpening the wind fairing noses of the two box decks is presented for mitigating both the vertical and torsional VIV responses of the windward and leeward bridges.
    Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China 12/2011; 5(4).
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    ABSTRACT: This paper experimentally investigated wire breakage detection in a steel cable by acoustic emission (AE) waveform. In the experiments, the attenuation laws of waveform amplitudes were discussed based on stress wave propagation in the wire, which was generated by kNocking and wire breakage. Then the wave velocity was calculated based on the reach time of the stress wave from each sensor. Finally, based on the waveform attenuation laws and the linear position method, the amplitude and energy of the source were confirmed through the measured waveform to identify the source category. The experimental results illustrated that the stress wave from different sources has a different frequency spectrum, and the amplitude attenuation factor varied with the stress wave frequency; high frequency waves had a greater attenuation factor. Compared with the other source, the wire breakage source contained a much higher energy, and thus, the wire breakage signal can be distinguished from the other source by comparing the non-attenuation energy at the source position.
    Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China 12/2011; 5(4).
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents the first of a series of studies on the seismic design of high-rise towers for cable-stayed bridges under strong earthquakes. One practical cable-stayed bridge with a 730 m long main span and two high-rise towers over 200 m in height was selected for this study. The preliminary results show that compared with piers, the tower is more vulnerable to pulse-like earthquakes, and it may develop plasticity at certain locations. In addition, viscous dampers may not have the same effect during pulse-like earthquakes as they do under site-specific earthquakes. Hence, reoptimization of damper parameters or reconsideration of other energy dissipation devices will be needed if strong earthquakes are likely to occur.
    Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China 12/2011; 5(4).
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    ABSTRACT: A comprehensive analysis was conducted to investigate the seismic performance of a typical tall bridge pier through incremental dynamical analysis (IDA). The effect of higher-order modes was studied specifically. The results showed that higher-order modes significantly contributed to the structural seismic response and should not be neglected. Including these modes resulted in an additional hinge midway up the pier. No plastic hinge would occur at this location for conventional bridge piers. Higher-order modes also led to an out-of-phase response between the hinge rotation at the pier bottom and the displacement at the top. This means that the displacement-based seismic design method cannot correctly predict the mechanical state of the critical hinge and therefore is not suitable for use in the seismic design of tall piers. Mistakenly using the displacement-based seismic design method for tall piers may result in a seriously unsafe condition.
    Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China 12/2011; 5(4).
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    ABSTRACT: This paper aims at developing a structural health monitoring (SHM)-based bridge rating method for bridge inspection of long-span cable-supported bridges. The fuzzy based analytic hierarchy approach is employed, and the hierarchical structure for synthetic rating of each structural component of the bridge is proposed. The criticality and vulnerability analyses are performed largely based on the field measurement data from the SHM system installed in the bridge to offer relatively accurate condition evaluation of the bridge and to reduce uncertainties involved in the existing rating method. The procedures for determining relative weighs and fuzzy synthetic ratings for both criticality and vulnerability are then suggested. The fuzzy synthetic decisions for inspection are made in consideration of the synthetic ratings of all structural components. The SHM-based bridge rating method is finally applied to the Tsing Ma suspension bridge in Hong Kong as a case study. The results show that the proposed method is feasible and it can be used in practice for longspan cable-supported bridges with SHM system.
    Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China 12/2011; 5(4).
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, a practical test and finite element analysis has been undertaken to further investigate the effects of contact buckling. A test rig was designed and constructed to record vertical and transverse deflections of compressively loaded steel skin plates. The boundary conditions were modeled as fully fixed. A finite element analysis was also undertaken using the software package Strand7. Results from both analyses have been examined and compared to data established from previous studies on contact buckling. Both the finite element analysis and practical results correlate well with this data. The result of the investigation has confirmed contact buckling theories and has foreshadowed the onset of the newly observed phenomenon of secondary contact buckling. Keywordscompressive–buckling–thin steel skins–unilateral contact–rigid constraints
    Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China 09/2011; 5(3):335-343.
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    ABSTRACT: An ambient vibration test on a concrete bridge constructed in 1971 and calibration of its finite element model are presented. The bridge is characterized by a system of post-tensioned and simply supported beams. The dynamic characteristics of the bridge, i.e. natural frequencies, mode shapes and damping ratios were computed from the ambient vibration tests by using the Eigensystem Realization Algorithm (ERA). Then, these characteristics were used to update the finite element model of the bridge by formulating an optimization problem and then using Genetic Algorithms (GA) to solve it. From the results of the ambient vibration test of this type of bridge, it is concluded that two-dimensional mode shapes exist: in the longitudinal and transverse; and these experimentally obtained dynamic characteristics were also achieved in the analytical model through updating. The application of GAs as optimization techniques showed great versatility to optimize any number and type of variables in the model. Keywordsmodal analysis–parameter identification–ambient vibration test–Eigensystem Realization Algorithm (ERA) method–finite element method
    Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China 09/2011; 5(3):344-354.
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    ABSTRACT: Post-tensioned (PT) self-centering moment frames have been developed as an alternative to typical moment-resisting frames (MRFs) for earthquake resistance. When a PT frame deforms laterally, gaps between the beams and columns open. However, the gaps are constrained by the columns and the slab in a real PT self-centering building frame. This paper presents a methodology for evaluating the column restraint and beam compression force based on the column deformation and gap openings at all stories. The method is verified by cyclic tests of a full-scale, two-bay by one-story PT frame. Moreover, a sliding slab is proposed to minimize restraints on the expansion of the PT frame. Shaking table tests were conducted on a reduced-scale, two-by-two bay one-story specimen, which comprises one PT frame and two gravitational frames. The PT frame and gravitational frames are self-centering throughout the tests, responding in phase with only minor differences in peak drifts caused by expansion of the PT frame. When the specimen is excited by a simulation of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake with a peak ground acceleration of 1.87 g, the maximum interstory drift and the residual drift are 7.2% and 0.01%, respectively. Keywordspost-tensioned frame–frame expansion–column restraint–sliding slab–frame test–shake table test
    Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China 09/2011; 5(3):323-334.
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigates the ductile fracture resistance of 3-D external circumferential cracks in the wall of a steel pipe under remote tension, using a damagemechanism model originally proposed by Gurson and Tvergaard. The ductile crack extension utilizes an element extinction technique implemented in the computational cell framework. The key parameter for the computational cell method, i.e., the initial porosity ratio f 0, is calibrated using both the fracture resistance and the load-deformation responses obtained from fracture tests of multiple single-edge bend [SE(B)] specimens made of high-strength steel, HY80, which has a yield strength of 630 MPa. The fracture resistance along the 3-D semi-elliptical crack front is computed from the calibrated cell model. Based on the similarity concept in the near-tip stress-strain fields, this study demonstrates that an equivalent 2-D axi-symmetric model provides conservative estimations of the fracture resistance for 3-D circumferential cracks in pipes. Keywordsductile fracture–computational cell method–G-T model– J-R curve
    Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China 09/2011; 5(3):294-303.
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    ABSTRACT: Intersecting connection plays an important role in the new diagrid structural system for high-rise buildings. To investigate the static behavior of the intersecting connection of concrete-filled steel tubular (CFST) columns, a typical reduced-scale planner connection specimen is tested under monotonic axial compression. The failure modes, force mechanism and bearing capacity of intersecting CFST connections are analyzed further in the follow-up numerical simulation, considering influences of intersecting angle, elliptical plate and ring plate. Test and simulation results prove that, intersecting connection can develop fully plastic deformation and provide sufficient bearing capacity. Parametric analysis indicates that bearing capacity of planar intersecting CFST connection mainly depends on intersecting angle and thickness of elliptical plate, while the ring plate affects that little. Capacity estimation method for planar intersecting CFST connection is proposed basing on the capacity of the critical section which is located near intersecting center for a distance of steel tube radius, and the design suggestions is provided in the end of this paper. Keywordsdiagrid structure–concrete-filled steel tube–planar intersecting connection–experimental research–mechanism analysis
    Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China 09/2011; 5(3):355-365.
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    ABSTRACT: Load and resistance factors are generally obtained using the first order reliability method (FORM) in which the design point should be determined and derivative-based iterations used. In this article, the third-moment reliability index, based on the three-parameter lognormal (3P-lognormal) distribution, is investigated. A simple method based on the third-moment method for estimating load and resistance factors is then proposed, and a simple formula for the target mean resistance is also presented to avoid iterative computations. Unlike the currently used method, the proposed method can be used to determine load and resistance factors, even when the probability density functions (PDFs) of the basic random variables are not available. Moreover, the proposed method does not require the iterative computation of derivatives or any design points. Thus, the method provides a more convenient and effective way to estimate load and resistance factors in practical engineering applications. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed third moment method for determining load and resistance factors.
    Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China 09/2011; 5(3).
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    ABSTRACT: This paper addresses the problem of condition assessment of bridge expansion joints using long-term measurement data under changing environmental conditions. The effects of temperature, traffic loading and wind on the expansion joint displacements are analyzed and interpreted, which reveal that measured displacements are observed to increase with an increase in temperature and to decrease with increased traffic loading, while the correlation between displacement and wind speed is very weak. Two regression models are developed to simulate the varying displacements under the changes in temperature and traffic loadings. Based on these models, the effects of the environmental conditions are removed to obtain the normalized displacement. Statistical process control using mean value control charts is further used to detect damage to the bridge expansion joints. The results reveal that the proposed method had a good capability for detecting the damage-induced 1.0% variances of the annual changes in the expansion joint displacements. Keywordsstructural health monitoring–displacement–expansion joint–temperature effect–wind effect–traffic loading–statistical process control–suspension bridge
    Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China 09/2011; 5(3):374-380.
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    ABSTRACT: Horizontal strengthened storeys are widely used in super high-rise steel structures to improve the lateral structural rigidity. This use has great effects on the seismic properties of the entire structure. The seismic properties of the Wuhan International Securities Building (a 68-storey super high-rise steel structure with three horizontal strengthened storeys) were evaluated in this study. Two approaches, i.e., mode-superposition response spectrum analysis and time-history analysis, were employed to calculate the seismic response of the structure. The response spectrum analysis indicated that transition parts near the three strengthened storeys were weak zones of the structure because of the abrupt change in rigidity. In the response spectrum analysis approach, the Square Root of Sum of Square (SRSS) method was recommended when the vertical seismic effects could be ignored. However, the complete quadratic combination (CQC) method was superior to SRSS method when the vertical seismic effects should be considered. With the aid of time-history analysis, the seismic responses of the structure were obtained. The whiplash effect that spectrum analysis cannot reveal was observed through time-history analysis. This study provides references for the seismic design of super high-rise steel structures with horizontal strengthened storeys. Keywordsseismic analysis–steel structure–super high-rise–horizontal strengthened storey–response spectrum analysis–time-history analysis
    Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China 09/2011; 5(3):394-404.