Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China (Front Architect Civ Eng China )

Publisher: Springer Verlag


Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China - Selected Publications from Chinese Universities offers a multidisciplinary blend of peer-reviewed papers and case studies intended to introduce and reflect enormous achievements in the field of architecture and civil engineering that are currently taking place in China. Coverage includes articles in building design; urban planning and design; and in the engineering fields of bridge construction; traffic and transportation; hydraulics; hydrologic engineering; port, coast and ocean engineering, and hazard resistant engineering mechanics. The aim is to promote rapid communication between scientists and designers in China and abroad.

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    Front. archit. civ. eng. China
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    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

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Springer Verlag

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Publications in this journal

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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Macroscopic modeling of soils is based on a number of properties that refer to the mesoscopic morphology. The most fundamental parameters of this art are: 1) coupling parameters between partial stresses of components and deformations of components, 2) porosities, 3) saturation, and 4) permeability and diffusivity, tortuosity. The main aim of this paper is to present in juxtaposition continuous one-, two-, and three-component models of geomaterials appearing in construction of embankment dams. In particular, the above mentioned features, especially saturation with water and seepage problems, modeling of fluidization yielding piping, and generalizations of the Darcy law and changes of porosity, are presented. Keywordsthermomechanical modeling–soil morphology–saturation–porosity
    Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China 04/2011; 5(1):11-23.
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    ABSTRACT: The massive 8.0-magnitude Wenchuan Earthquake triggered huge landslides, avalanches, and debris flows that blocked rivers and created 34 important quake lakes, including the Tangjiashan Quake Lake on the Tongkou River. More than half of these lakes were identified to be of moderate or high hazard levels, so activities needed to be undertaken for hazard mitigation of potential flooding. This paper presents the mitigation processes of quake lake hazards, which involve various techniques such as rapid hazard analysis, scenario-based mitigation planning, and real-time forecasting of outburst flooding for implementation actions. The shortage of hydrologic and geological data and the nature of emergency situations raise substantial challenges in the hazard mitigation of quake lakes. This paper suggests a potential approach in dealing with quake lake hazards, which integrates the automatic monitoring network, hydrologic models, and hydrodynamic models with a comprehensive indicator for hazard levels. The necessity of improving the integrated methodology is highlighted. Keywordsquake lake–hazard mitigation–dam failure–emergency–Tangjiashan
    Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China 01/2011; 5(1):1-10.
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    ABSTRACT: Taking account of the fuzzy results of the seepage monitoring analysis of roller compacted concrete (RCC) dam and uncertainties of the individual indicator evaluation, the fuzzy matter-element model of seepage monitoring of RCC dam analysis has been established with the use of the fuzzy matter-element analysis theory and the concept of euclid approach degree. The use of entropy theory can calculate the weighting factor through the disorder utility values of the information reflected by the data itself, which can effectively avoid the problems of weight distribution and uncertainties of subjective judgments of the seepage monitoring analysis of roller compacted concrete dam. And further the example shows that the analysis of entropy-based fuzzy matter-element analysis model of the seepage monitoring of roller compacted concrete dam is in accordance with the actual situation, which verifies the effectiveness of the method. Keywordsinformation entropy–fuzzy matter-element–roller compacted concrete (RCC) dam–seepage analysis
    Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China 01/2011; 5(1):105-111.
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents the design guide based on analytical, numerical and experimental investigation of Steel-concrete-steel (SCS) sandwich structural members comprising a lightweight concrete core with density ranged from 1300 to 1445 kg/m3 subjected to static, impact and blast loads. The performance of lightweight sandwich members is also compared with similar members with normal weight concrete core and ultra high strength concrete core (f c = 180 MPa). Novel J-hook shear connectors were invented to prevent the separation of face plates from the concrete core under extreme loads and their uses are not restricted by the concrete core thickness. Flexural and punching are the primary modes of failure under static point load. Impact test results show that the SCS sandwich panels with the J-hook connectors are capable of resisting impact load with less damage in comparison than equivalent stiffened steel plate panels. Blast tests with 100 kg TNT were performed on SCS sandwich specimens to investigate the key parameters that affect the blast resistance of SCS sandwich structure. Plastic yield line method is proposed to predict the plastic capacity and post peak large deflection of the sandwich plates. Finally, an energy balanced model is developed to analyze the global behavior of SCS sandwich panels subjected to dynamic load. Keywordsblast load–composite structure–impact load–lightweight concrete–sandwich plate–J-hook connector
    Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China 01/2011; 5(3):278-293.
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents an uncoupled state space solution to three-dimensional consolidation of layered poroelastic medium with anisotropic permeability and compressible pore fluid. Starting from the basic equations of poroelastic medium, and introducing intermediate variables, the state space equation usually comprising eight coupled state vectors is uncoupled into two sets of equations of six and two state vectors in the Laplace-Fourier transform domain. Combined with the continuity conditions between adjacent layers and boundary conditions, the uncoupled state space solution of a layered poroelastic medium is obtained by using the transfer matrix method. Numerical results show that the anisotropy of permeability and the compressibility of pore fluid have remarkable influence on the consolidation behavior of poroelastic medium. Keywordsuncoupled state space solution–layered poroelastic medium–three-dimensional consolidation–anisotropic permeability–compressible pore fluid
    Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China 01/2011; 5(2):171-179.
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    ABSTRACT: Nowadays, the construction sector is more and more oriented toward the promotion of sustainability in all its activities. The goal to achieve is the optimization of performances, over the whole life-cycle, with respect to environmental, economic and social requirements. According to the latest advances, the concept of sustainability applied to constructions covers a number of branches such as life-cycle costing, ecology, durability and even structural design. Several procedures and design tools have been implemented in the framework of international research. Indeed the current trend in civil engineering research is moving towards life-time engineering, with the aim to implement integrated methodologies to consider as a whole all the sustainability requirements according to time-dependent multi-performance-based design approaches. Following a general introduction of the concept of sustainability applied to constructions, this paper presents an overview of life-time engineering methodologies according to the current state-of-the-art. In particular the methods currently received by International Standards are discussed. A special focus is devoted to the durability design of metal structures with respect to the degradation phenomena able to impair the structural capacity over time. Finally a proposal towards an integrated approach to life-time engineering design of steel structures and needs for further advances are presented. Keywordssustainability–life-time engineering–performance based design–durability–metal structures
    Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China 01/2011; 5(3):304-314.
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    ABSTRACT: Surcharge load (e.g. embankment fill) will induce settlement and outward lateral displacement, while vacuum pressure will induce settlement and inward lateral displacement of a ground. Ideally, combination of surcharge load and vacuum pressure can reduce or minimize the lateral displacement. Laboratory large scale model (length: 1.50 m, width: ∼0.62 m, height: 0.85 m) tests and finite element analyses (FEA) were conducted to investigate the main influencing factors on lateral displacement of a soft clayey ground under the combination of vacuum pressure and surcharge load. For the conditions investigated, the results indicate that the outward lateral displacement increases with the increase of the ratio of surcharge load to vacuum pressure (RL) and the loading rate of the surcharge load (LR). Also, it is shown that for a given RL and LR condition, lateral displacement reduces with the increase of the initial undrained shear strength (S u) of the ground. To predict the lateral displacement of a ground under the combination of surcharge load and vacuum pressure, the loading conditions in terms of RL and LR, and S u value of the ground have to be considered. Keywordsvacuum consolidation–lateral displacement–PVD–finite element analysis–surcharge load
    Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China 01/2011; 5(2):239-248.
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    ABSTRACT: Corrosion of reinforcing steel due to chloride ions is one of the severe deterioration problems in longterm performance of reinforced concrete structures. The deterioration process is frequently found in marine concrete structures, highway pavements, and bridges exposed to deicing salts. The diffusion of chloride ions is associated and strongly affected by other ions in the pore solution in concrete. In this paper, chloride penetration into concrete structures was mathematically characterized by the Nernst-Planck equation which considered not only diffusion mechanism of the chloride ions but also ionic interaction among other ions coming from externally applied deicers and within the Portland cement paste. Electroneutrality was used to determine the electrostatic potential induced by the ionic interaction. The material models of chloride binding capacity and chloride diffusion coefficient were incorporated in the governing equations. The governing equations were solved by using finite element method. A numerical example was used to illustrate the coupling effect of multi-ionic interactions and the effect of influential parameters. The numerical results obtained from the present model agreed very well with available test data. Keywordsdiffusion–chloride–concrete–Nernst-Planck equation–durability
    Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China 01/2011; 5(3):267-277.
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, the mechanical behavior of sand, was systematically described and modeled with a elasto-plastic model proposed by Zhang et al. [1]. Without losing the generality of the sand, a specific sand called as Toyoura sand, a typical clean sand found in Japan, has been discussed in detail. In the model, the results of conventional triaxial tests of the sand under different loading and drainage conditions were simulated with a fixed set of material parameters. The model only employs eight parameters among which five parameters are the same as those used in Cam-clay model. Once the parameters are determined with the conventional drained triaxial compression tests and undrained triaxial cyclic loading tests, then they are fixed to uniquely describe the overall mechanical behaviors of the Toyoura sand, without changing the values of the eight parameters irrespective of what kind of the loadings or the drainage conditions may be. The capability of the model is discussed in a theoretical way. Keywordsconstitutive model–sand–stress-induced anisotropy–density–structure
    Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China 01/2011; 5(2):121-150.
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    ABSTRACT: To improve the understanding on the failure behavior and its anchoring effect of weak-broken rock slope, the rock of grade IV according to China is taken as reference prototype, and a series of model tests were carried out in laboratory. These tests can be divided into two categories, that is, with bolt reinforcement and without bolt reinforcement. In which, the stability of slope reinforced with different bolt diameter, different anchor length and different space are studied. The test results show that the collapse of slope is the combination of tension failure at the top and the compression-shearing failure at the bottom of the slope, and its failure process presents progressive characteristics. The contributions of bolt reinforcement are mainly reflected by the aspects of shear resistance, crack resistance and anti-extension. The reinforcement of blot not only can improve the vertical bearing capacity before failure, but also can reduce the vertical settlement and allow greater lateral rock wall deformation; what is more, the stress concentration degree in rock mass can be dispersed, which do help to improve the stability of slope rock mass. Keywordsprogressive failure–weak-broken rock–slope–model test–bolt
    Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China 01/2011; 5(2):208-224.
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    ABSTRACT: A coupled solid-fluid FE-model for partially saturated soils, characterized by modeling the soil as a three-phase material consisting of a deformable soil skeleton and the fluid phases water and air, is reviewed briefly. As a constitutive model for the soil skeleton, the well-known Barcelona Basic model (BBM) is employed, which is formulated in terms of net stress and matric suction. For the BBM, a computationally efficient return mapping algorithm is proposed, which only requires the solution of a scalar nonlinear equation at the integration point level. The coupled FE-model is applied to the coupled transient numerical simulation of the water flow and the deformations and stresses in an embankment dam. Keywordsmulti-phase model–unsaturated soil model–Barcelona Basic model (BBM)–return mapping algorithm–embankment dam
    Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China 01/2011; 5(1):53-62.
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    ABSTRACT: An ambient vibration test on a concrete bridge constructed in 1971 and calibration of its finite element model are presented. The bridge is characterized by a system of post-tensioned and simply supported beams. The dynamic characteristics of the bridge, i.e. natural frequencies, mode shapes and damping ratios were computed from the ambient vibration tests by using the Eigensystem Realization Algorithm (ERA). Then, these characteristics were used to update the finite element model of the bridge by formulating an optimization problem and then using Genetic Algorithms (GA) to solve it. From the results of the ambient vibration test of this type of bridge, it is concluded that two-dimensional mode shapes exist: in the longitudinal and transverse; and these experimentally obtained dynamic characteristics were also achieved in the analytical model through updating. The application of GAs as optimization techniques showed great versatility to optimize any number and type of variables in the model. Keywordsmodal analysis–parameter identification–ambient vibration test–Eigensystem Realization Algorithm (ERA) method–finite element method
    Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China 01/2011; 5(3):344-354.
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    ABSTRACT: Intersecting connection plays an important role in the new diagrid structural system for high-rise buildings. To investigate the static behavior of the intersecting connection of concrete-filled steel tubular (CFST) columns, a typical reduced-scale planner connection specimen is tested under monotonic axial compression. The failure modes, force mechanism and bearing capacity of intersecting CFST connections are analyzed further in the follow-up numerical simulation, considering influences of intersecting angle, elliptical plate and ring plate. Test and simulation results prove that, intersecting connection can develop fully plastic deformation and provide sufficient bearing capacity. Parametric analysis indicates that bearing capacity of planar intersecting CFST connection mainly depends on intersecting angle and thickness of elliptical plate, while the ring plate affects that little. Capacity estimation method for planar intersecting CFST connection is proposed basing on the capacity of the critical section which is located near intersecting center for a distance of steel tube radius, and the design suggestions is provided in the end of this paper. Keywordsdiagrid structure–concrete-filled steel tube–planar intersecting connection–experimental research–mechanism analysis
    Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China 01/2011; 5(3):355-365.
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents a unified calculation method and its application in determining the uniaxial mechanical properties of concrete with concrete strengths ranging from 10 to 140 MPa. By analyzing a large collection of test results of the uniaxial mechanical properties of normal-strength, high-strength and super high-strength concrete in China and performing a regression analysis, unified calculation formulas for the mechanical indexes of concrete are proposed that can be applied to various grades of concrete for determining the size coefficient, uniaxial compressive strength, uniaxial tensile strength, elastic modulus, and strain at peak uniaxial compression and tension. Optimized mathematical equations for the nonlinear stress-strain relationship of concrete, including the ascending and descending branches under uniaxial stress, are also established. The elastic modulus is almost constant throughout the elastic stage for the ascending branches of the stress-strain relationship for concrete. The proposed stress-strain relationship of concrete was applied to the nonlinear finite element analysis of both a steel-concrete composite beam and a concrete-filled steel tubular stub column. The analytical results are in good agreement with the experiment results, indicating that the proposed stress-strain relationship of concrete is applicable. The achievements presented in this paper can be used as references for the design and nonlinear finite element analysis of concrete structures. Keywordsconcrete–mechanical properties–stress-strain relationship–uniaxial stress–application
    Frontiers of Architecture and Civil Engineering in China 01/2011; 5(3):381-393.

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