Frontiers of Forestry in China (Front Forest China )

Publisher: Gao deng jiao yu chu ban she, Springer Verlag


Frontiers of Forestry in China presents notable research by professors and students of Chinese Universities, facilitating exchanges between scientists in China and abroad. Its broad coverage reflects the diverse character of the field. China's unique forestry characteristics have inspired a number of notable publications, drawing interest from researchers around the world. Until now, few publications are available for the academic exchanges between Chinese and overseas scholars. The journal covers a broad span of advanced theoretical and applied research, including forest ecology, silviculture, forest management, forest plant biology, tree physiology, landscape and ornamental horticulture, pest and disease control, information management, soil and water conservation, economics and management, wood sciences and technology, and forest products processing. Special attention is paid to interaction among different fields of forestry, and the cross-fertilization of ideas between disciplines.

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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: By using the methods of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and bulked segregate analysis (BSA), we identified markers that are linked to the sex determination in the dioecious Populus tomentosa. Male and female bulks were created through rough mixing equal amounts of its five individual DNA. A total of 88 primers were screened. Twelve primers produced clear patterns with at least one band that appeared to be polymorphic between the two bulks. Subsequently, five male and female individuals were analyzed with those 12 primers, and only S60 (ACCCGGTCAC) could generate a common 1800 bp DNA fragment in all five male individuals and male pool but not in any female individuals. It can be concluded that the gender of P. tomentosa is most likely connected to the S60-1800 bp DNA fragment and RAPD markers. S60, therefore, can be used for selecting the gender of P. tomentosa.
    Frontiers of Forestry in China 05/2009; 4(2):223-226.
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    ABSTRACT: To explore the effects of plant hormones levels excreted by ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi on the growth of poplars, Populus × euramericana cv. NL-895 seedlings were inoculated with nine species of ECM fungi. We investigated the status of ectomycorrhizal formation and the effects of these fungi on poplar growth, and using the HPLC method, we measured the contents of four kinds of plant hormones, indole acetic acid (IAA), zeatin (Z), gibberellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) in both the culture filtrate and the mycelium of these fungi. The results showed that the effects of nine ECM fungi on the growth of poplar NL-895 varied. The inoculated seedlings, whether or not obvious mycorrhizas were developed, grew better than those non-inoculated ones. All nine ectomycorrhizal fungi excreted the four plant hormones, but at different levels. The hormone contents in culture filtrate were higher than that in mycelium, which showed a definite relationship with poplar growth. Significantly, correlation analysis suggested the height and stem diameter of the poplar were positively correlated with zeatin contents in the mycelium, and were negatively correlated with the levels of ABA or IAA in the mycelium.
    Frontiers of Forestry in China 05/2009; 4(2):236-241.
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    ABSTRACT: In order to investigate the protein features of an NBS gene (PtDRG01, EF157840) isolated from Populus tomentosa Carr., the full-length open reading frame was fused into a prokaryotic expression vector pGEX-KG. PCR analysis and double endonuclease digestion showed that the recombinant vector was successfully constructed and transferred into an expression host E. coli strain XA90. It was indicated by SDS-PAGE analysis that IPTG treatment successfully induced the expression of a fusion protein of about 79 kD, which was consistent with the predicted value. In addition, the prokaryotic expression system was also optimized. The result suggests that 1 mmol/L IPTG treatment for 4 h at 37°C was most effective, and the product was predominately soluble and not extra-cellular secreting. Moreover, the fusion protein was purified with an affinity chromatography column using Glutathione Sepharose 4B. This work will lay a foundation for further studies on biological functions of the PtDRG01 gene.
    Frontiers of Forestry in China 05/2009; 4(2):216-222.
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    ABSTRACT: Development of landslides in the Three Gorges Reservoir area is related to many factors. Lithology is one of the indispensable internal factors, besides relative height differences, slope gradients and slope profiles. We used an information value model with geographical information system (GIS) technology to study how lithology contributes to the development of landslides from the Yunyang to Wushan segment in the Three Gorges Reservoir area and we quantify the relationship between lithology and development of landslides. Via an investigation of 205 examples of past landslides, we found that the lithology of J3s, J3p and T2b contributes most. Our research results can provide a valid basis for future construction in the Three Gorges Reservoir area.
    Frontiers of Forestry in China 05/2009; 4(2):165-170.
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of site conditions and cultivation on the growth of sawtooth oak (Quercus acutissima Carr.) plantations were evaluated at the Hongyashan forest farm, in Chuzhou City, Anhui Province, China. The results indicate that the position on the slope, the amount of gravel and the thickness of the soil were important factors in the growth of the sawtooth oak. Lower slope positions with small amounts of gravel and a thick soil were better for the growth of this species than middle slope positions with more gravel and a thin soil. Given the site conditions of the hilly and mountainous areas in Chuzhou City, the mixed Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata Hook.) and sawtooth oak forests did not improve forest productivity compared with pure sawtooth oak forests. Both urea and compound fertilizers promoted the growth of sawtooth oak, as did site preparation and intercropping. Two years after planting, the height growth of ordinary seedlings with a starting height of 0.6 m was higher than that of supper seedlings with a starting height of 1.0 m. Compared with planting, the early growth of the coppices was faster, but the later growth of the coppices was slower.
    Frontiers of Forestry in China 05/2009; 4(2):185-190.
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    ABSTRACT: Biomass, carbon content, carbon storage and spatial distribution in the 32-year-old Phoebe bournei artificial forest were measured. The mean biomass of the forest stand was 174.33 t/hm2, among which the arbor layer was 166.73 t/hm2, which accounted for 95.6%. Carbon contents of stems, barks, branches, leaves, root, shrub layer, herb layer, lichen layer and litter layer were 0.5769 g C/g, 0.4654 g C/g, 0.5232 g C/g, 0.4958 g C/g, 0.4931 g C/g, 0.4989 g C/g, 0.4733 g C/g, 0.4143 g C/g, 0.3882 g C/g, respectively. The mean carbon content of soil was 0.0139 g C/g, which reduced gradually along with soil depth. Total carbon storage of the P. bournei stand ecosystem was 227.59 t/hm2, among which the arbor layer accounted for 40.13% (91.33 t/hm2), the shrub layer accounted for 0.17% (0.38 t/hm2), the herb layer accounted for 0.76% (1.71 t/hm2), the lichen layer accounted for 0.28% (0.63 t/hm2), and the litter layer accounted for 0.29% (0.66 t/hm2). Carbon content (0–80 cm) of the forest soil was 58.40% (132.88 t/hm2). Spatial distribution ranking of carbon storage was: soil layer (0–80 cm) > arbor layer > herb layer > litter layer > lichen layer > shrub layer. Net production of the forest stand was 8.5706 t/(hm2·a), in which the arbor layer was 6.6691 t/(hm2·a), and it accounted for 77.82%. Net annual carbon sequestration of the P. bournei stand was 4.2536 t/(hm2·a), and the arbor layer was 3.5736 t/(hm2·a), which accounted for 84.01%.
    Frontiers of Forestry in China 05/2009; 4(2):140-145.
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    ABSTRACT: Sampling is a key technique in comprehensive forest resources monitoring. The history of the sampling survey was briefly reviewed and sampling theories were classified and compared in detail. On the basis of that, the application of different sampling methods in comprehensive forest resources monitoring was illustrated in accordance with the sampling classification of Michael Köhl et al. Improvement of the sampling system in China was discussed to meet the new requirements of forest monitoring.
    Frontiers of Forestry in China 05/2009; 4(2):123-131.
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the suitability of Schima superba Gardn. et Champ as a fuelbreak, we compared and analyzed the flammability characteristics of tree litter from three trees commonly grown in south China, i.e., Pinus massoniana Lamb., Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook., and S. superba, using a cone calorimeter at five different water content levels. Water content levels of 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% for the litter were manually produced with a new technique of adding water to dry litter. The cone calorimeter utilized a radiant heat intensity for leaf litter of 20 kW/m2 (510°C) and for twig litter of 30 kW/m2 (608°C). Results show that fixing the water content level by adding water with a pipette was an acceptable technique. For S. superba, compared to P. massoniana and C. lanceolata, 1) the heat release rate (HRR) was slower and lower; 2) the total heat released (THR) from the material was lower and started later in the burning process; and 3) except for the 10% water content, pkHRR/TTI was less. These results show that overall, S. superba was the best of the three species to be used as a fuelbreak in south China.
    Frontiers of Forestry in China 05/2009; 4(2):178-184.
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    ABSTRACT: The improvement of wood surface wettability can clearly improve bonding properties, as well as enhance physical and mechanical properties of wood composites. In our investigation, the microwave plasma (MWP) technique was adopted to treat the surface of common teak. The treatment effect was evaluated by measuring the contact angles of liquids and calculating the free surface energy. The results show that the modification effect improved when the sample was located 120 mm from the resonance cavity, rather than at 80 mm. A MWP treatment over a short span of time is useful to lower the contact angles and improve the surface wettability considerably. The range of decreasing contact angles, tested by water, could reach 74% at a distance of 120 mm.
    Frontiers of Forestry in China 05/2009; 4(2):249-254.
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    ABSTRACT: Wolong Nature Reserve is the largest reserve for protecting the endangered wild giant panda. Due to historical factors, even in many sections of the core protection area, the forests have been seriously destroyed and natural forests are poorly restored. However, the relative importance of the determinants for recruitment of communities under disturbance is rarely explored. In our study the endogenous and exterior factors in a forest gap that affect the conifer-broad-leaved mixed forest regeneration were investigated near Wuyipeng, one of the observation stations at Wolong, to explore which determinant had the greatest effect on gap regeneration and to discover the recruitment of seedling establishment in forest gaps. With a linear sampling method, environmental factors, gap characteristics and recruitment of new individuals were measured and examined in every forest gap along three sampling lines. Data of environmental factors in the gaps were collected for a Pearson correlation analysis in order to explore the disturbance and preprocessed characteristics of the gaps, using principal component analysis in SPSS. Correlation analysis was applied to further explore the relationship between changes in the gaps and the response of the regenerating seedlings. The results show that a range of natural and human disturbances affected the pattern and characteristics of the forest gaps in this area. The richness in the composition of the seedlings was higher than that of gap makers, but the order of dominance of the composition was different between seedlings and gap makers. The success of dominant species in establishing themselves was affected by different environmental factors. For instance, the establishment of Betula spp. was correlated significantly with topographic factors, while that of Abies faxoniana was affected by soil characteristics and that of Rhododendron spp. correlated significantly with topographic factors and characteristics of gap makers. Moreover, all the biodiversity indices of regenerating seedlings were significantly correlated with environmental principle components mostly reflecting soil properties. From this we can infer that soil characteristics are the most important factors affecting the regeneration of dominant species and seedling diversity under gap disturbances.
    Frontiers of Forestry in China 05/2009; 4(2):153-158.
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    ABSTRACT: We studied the frost hardiness (FH) in stems and needles of different Pinus bungeana provenances during frost hardening by means of electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and conventional electrolytic leakage (EL) and compared the regression equations of the two methods in order to optimize the EIS method for studying FH on plants. During frost hardening, EIS and EL were applied to one-year old stems and needles of P. bungeana in an 8-year provenance field trial at the Thirteen Tombs Nursery in Beijing within the provenances of Mangshan of Beijing, Liangdang of Gansu and Xiaoyi of Shanxi provinces, China. A double-DCE model and Model-A were used, respectively, for the EIS analysis of stems and needles that were not exposed to a controlled freezing treatment. After controlled freezing tests, the FH of stems and needles were assessed by EIS and EL. Without controlled freezing tests, the relaxation time (τ 1) of stems and the specific intracellular resistance (r i) of stems and needles displayed a statistically significant correlation with FH (R 2 = 0.79–0.86); after controlled freezing tests, specific extracellular resistance (r e) of the stems and needles, the cell membrane time constant (τ m) of needles displayed an even higher correlation with FH (R 2 = 0.92–0.94). There were significant relationship between EIS and EL in assessing the FH of stems and needles of P. bungeana, but EIS underestimated FH more than EL did. EIS is one of the more promising methods for assessing FH, especially without employing a controlled freezing test.
    Frontiers of Forestry in China 05/2009; 4(2):242-248.
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    ABSTRACT: Tetraploid Robinia pseudoacacia was used as a main test material and diploid R. pseudoacacia was used as the control. The indices of shape, physiology and biochemistry, photosynthesis and anatomic structure of the young plants were investigated under salt stress (NaCl and Na2SO4). The treatment time was 30 d with an interval time of 7 d. Before and after treatment, the indices were measured. Results show that: 1) the growth of diploid R. pseudoacacia inhibited an evident symptom of salt damage and the leaf moisture content was lower under salt stress than that of control. But the tetraploid R. pseudoacacia was contrary. 2) The relative electric conductivity and proline (Pro) of tetraploid R. pseudoacacia increased slightly and had no significant difference compared with its control, which was contrary to diploid R. pseudoacacia. At the same time, three protective enzymes including perocidase (POD), superoxide (SOD) and catalase (CAT) kept higher activities at a post stage of salt stress to tetraploid R. pseudoacacia, which enhanced its anti-salt characteristics. Diploid R. pseudoacacia was sensitive to salt and had contrary information. 3) Salt stress had little influence to photosynthesis of tetraploid R. pseudoacacia. The net photosynthetic rate (P n) and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) had no significant changes, but those of diploid R. pseudoacacia decreased singificantly. 4) After salt stress, the anatomic structure of tetraploid R. pseudoacacia had a positive reaction, including the palisade parenchyma of diachyma, was prolonged and arranged more tightly. The spongy parenchyma was shrunk and was arranged tightly, which was contrary with diploid R. pseudoacacia. These data demonstrate that tetraploid R. pseudoacacia had superior anti-salt performance.
    Frontiers of Forestry in China 05/2009; 4(2):227-235.
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    ABSTRACT: To reveal the relationship between species diversity and biomass in a eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urophylla × E. grandis) plantation located in the Dongmen State Forestry Farm of Guangxi, south China, 18 sample plots were established and the total biomass, arbor layer biomass and undergrowth biomass of communities were subsequently harvested. The results were as follows: 1) Species richness in eucalypt plantation had remarkable positive correlation with biomass of arbor layer, undergrowth and community (α = 0.001), its correlation coefficients were 0.6935, 0.7028 and 0.7106 respectively. 2) Leaf area index (LAI) had remarkable positive correlation with species richness and undergrowth biomass (α = 0.001). Its correlation coefficients were 0.7310 and 0.6856, respectively. 3) Arbor layer biomass had remarkable correlation with soil organic matter and hydrolysable N, its correlation coefficients was 0.6416 and 0.6203 respectively. Species richness had remarkable correlation with soil organic matter and correlation coefficient was 0.6359. Among them, the correlation was significant at the 0.1 level. Undergrowth biomass had little correlation with nine soil nutrients and correlation coefficients were under 0.4. To sum up, species diversity was advantageous to the promotion of the biomass of the eucalyptus plantation, and the variation of LAI and soil nutrient in small-scales could result in the difference of species diversity and biomass in different sample plots.
    Frontiers of Forestry in China 05/2009; 4(2):146-152.
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    ABSTRACT: We studied the effects of ethylene, (Z)-hexen-3-al, combinations of ethylene and (Z)-hexen-3-al, methyl jasmonate on the release of terpenoids and green leaf volatiles (GLVs) of Populus simonii × P. pyramidalis ‘Opera 8277’ by fumigation. The results show that exposure to ethylene alone did not induce volatiles. However, it was induced by exposure to combinations of (Z)-hexen-3-al and ethylene, a large amount of hexenal and hexen-3-ol as compared to sole (Z)-hexen-3-al exposure, which indicated that the release of wounding signals of P. simonii × P. pyramidalis ‘Opera 8277’ could be synergized by ethylene and (Z)-hexen-3-al.
    Frontiers of Forestry in China 02/2009; 4(1):107-110.
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    ABSTRACT: Pine wood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus), originating from North America, causes destructive pine wilt disease. Different pine forest ecosystems have different resistances to B. xylophilus, and after its invasion, the resilience and restoration direction of different ecosystems also varies. In this study, an interpretative structural model was applied for analyzing the response of pine forest ecosystem to PWN disturbance. The result showed that a five-degree multi-stage hierarchical system affected the response of the pine forest ecosystem to PWN disturbance, in which direct affecting factors are resistance and resilience. Furthermore, the analysis to the 2nd, 3rd and 4th degree factors showed that not only does distribution pattern of plant species and pine’s ecological features affect the resistance of pine forests’ ecosystem, but removal of attacked trees and other measures also influence the resistance through indirectly affecting the damage degree of Monochamus alternatus and distribution pattern of plant species. As for resilience, it is influenced directly by soil factors, hydrology, surrounding species provenance and biological characteristics of the second and jointly dominant species, and the climate factors can also have a direct or indirect effect on it by affecting the above factors. Among the fifth elements, the elevation, gradient and slope direction, topographical factors, diversity of geographical location and improvement of prevention technology all influence the response of pine forest ecosystem to PWN disturbance.
    Frontiers of Forestry in China 02/2009; 4(1):117-122.
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    ABSTRACT: Euryodendron excelsum H. T. Chang is an endangered species of the family Theaceae endemic to China. It is listed as a second-class endangered plant for state protection in the Red Data Book of Plants in the People’s Republic of China. The species is restricted to one remnant population with less than 200 individuals in the Bajia region of Yangchun County, Guangdong Province. This study was conducted to determine the status of the population, analyze the past population structure and forecast the future population dynamics of E. excelsum. The size structure and height structure of the population of E. excelsum were tabulated and analyzed. Based on these data, we estimated the values of the parameters such as survival curve, mortality curve and life expectancy. Population dynamics was predicted by a time-sequence model. The size distribution of the whole population generally fit a reverse “J” type curve, suggesting a stable population. The number of young individuals was larger than that of middle-aged and old individuals. The analysis of life table and survival curves show that under environmental screening and human disturbance, the population had one peak of mortality in size class II and only 11.43% individuals could survive from size class II to size class III. The life expectancy of E. excelsum was the highest in size class IV. The survival curve of the population belongs to the Deevey-III type. Time-sequence models for E. excelsum population predict that the number of different size classes will increase after two and five years. As a result, the crucial factors for the natural regeneration and restoration of E. excelsum are the protection of living individuals and their habitat.
    Frontiers of Forestry in China 02/2009; 4(1):14-20.
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    ABSTRACT: The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to evaluate the genetic diversity and population structure of 91 genets from four wild populations of Betula luminifera at different elevations in the National Nature Reserve of theWuyi Mountain, Fujian Province, China. Eighteen random primers (from 139 primers) produced a total of 199 scorable amplified fragments, of which 174 (87.44%) were polymorphic across all individuals. The genetic diversities of B. luminifera at the population level and species level were PPL = 60.05%, h = 0.2242, I = 0.3181 and PPL = 87.44%, h = 0.3442, I = 0.4899, respectively. The value of differentiation (G st= 0.3486) and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that there was a relatively high genetic differentiation among populations, and about one-third of the genetic variation occurred among populations. Pearson correlation analysis further revealed that the genetic diversity within populations had significant or very significant correlation with the elevation, climatic factors (annual average temperature and annual precipitation) and soil nutrient factors (total nitrogen, C/N ratio and organic matter). Mantel tests show that there was a significant correlation between the genetic distances among populations and the distance of elevation, and the divergence of soil nutrient factors. The results of the present study suggested that the relatively high genetic differentiation among populations of B. luminifera at different elevations might be caused by ecological factors and gene flow.
    Frontiers of Forestry in China 02/2009; 4(1):90-95.
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    ABSTRACT: We excavated soil to study root distribution in Haloxylon ammodendron seedlings grown with different amounts of irrigation (35, 24.5 and 14 kg water for each plant each time) in the hinterland of the Taklimakan Desert. The results indicated that: 1) With decreasing irrigation amounts, the root biomass tended to be distributed in deeper soil layers. Underground biomass had a significantly negative logarithmic relationship with soil depth under different irrigation amounts. 2) Maximum horizontal spread of roots was twice that of vertical root spread, and horizontal distribution of root biomass was similar under all irrigation amounts. 3) Vertical distribution of fine roots was nearly consistent with vertical changes in soil moisture, and all had a unimodal curve; but peak values of fine root biomass in different soil layers varied with different irrigation amounts. The smaller the amount of irrigation, the deeper were the fine roots concentrated in soil layers. 4) Root length, root surface area and root volume all exhibited a unimodal curve under different irrigation amounts; the less the irrigation amount, the deeper the peak values appeared in soil layers. 5) Rootshoot ratio and ratio of vertical root depth to plant height both increased as irrigation amounts decreased.
    Frontiers of Forestry in China 02/2009; 4(1):60-67.
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    ABSTRACT: We tested the dynamics of nine enzymes during leaf litter decomposition in Xishuangbanna tropical rain-forest both in the field and laboratory to explore the response of enzyme dynamics to decomposition under different food-web structures. We used coarse and fine (1 mm and 100 μm mesh size, respectively) litterbags in the field to create different food-web structures during litter decomposition. Most soil macrofauna such as nematodes could access only the coarse mesh litterbags, leaving only microbiota, such as mites, in the fine mesh litterbags. In the laboratory, sterilization and inoculation were adopted to investigate different enzyme dynamics with nematodes or only microbiota participating in litter decomposition. Invertase and amylase increased more for shorter food webs at the early stages of decomposition, while activities of endocellulase, β-glucosidase, xylanase and polyphenoloxydase increased to their maxima at the later stages, but greater increase occurred with extended food webs. Invertase and amylase had negative relationships and endocellulase, β-glucosidase, xylanase and polyphenoloxydase had positive relationships with litter decomposition (mass loss). The activities of enzymes responded to the process of litter decomposition. Invertase and amylase played key roles for microbiota utilizing the substrates at early stages of decomposition, while endocellulase, β-glucosidase, xylanase and polyphenoloxydase worked on the further decay of recalcitrant compounds at later stages. All enzymes related to carbon decay acted as effective indicators of litter decomposition. The decomposition of plant organic matter was essentially an enzymatic process.
    Frontiers of Forestry in China 02/2009; 4(1):28-37.
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    ABSTRACT: We studied ion distribution in roots and the growth of Cyclocarya paliurus seedlings of three provenances, Huangshan in Anhui, Jiujiang in Jiangxi and Kunming in Yunnan, under conditions of 0, 1, 3 and 5 g/L NaCl stress using X-ray microanalysis. Results show that under NaCl stress of 3 and 5 g/L, the relative contents of Na+ and Cl− in root tissues increased, while the relative contents of K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ decreased. With an increase in salinity, the relative content of Na+ in the epidermis and cortex of the root increased, while the relative content of Cl− in the stele and cortex of the root increased markedly. Thus, ions in the root tissues were unbalanced and the ratios K+/Na+ and Ca2+/Na+ decreased, while Na+/(K++ Na++Ca2++Mg2+) increased. The decrease of the K+/Na+ ratio and the substantial increase of Cl− in root tissues contributed to a decline in seedlings survival and reduced the increments for seedling leaf area, height, basal diameter as well biomass. Our preliminary conclusion is that the level of salt tolerance for the tested provenance seedlings was in the order of Huangshan > Kunming > Jiujiang, and the threshold of salt tolerance for C. paliurus seedlings was about 1 g/L.
    Frontiers of Forestry in China 01/2009; 4(2):208-215.

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