Frontiers of Forestry in China (Front Forest China )

Publisher: Gao deng jiao yu chu ban she, Springer Verlag


Frontiers of Forestry in China presents notable research by professors and students of Chinese Universities, facilitating exchanges between scientists in China and abroad. Its broad coverage reflects the diverse character of the field. China's unique forestry characteristics have inspired a number of notable publications, drawing interest from researchers around the world. Until now, few publications are available for the academic exchanges between Chinese and overseas scholars. The journal covers a broad span of advanced theoretical and applied research, including forest ecology, silviculture, forest management, forest plant biology, tree physiology, landscape and ornamental horticulture, pest and disease control, information management, soil and water conservation, economics and management, wood sciences and technology, and forest products processing. Special attention is paid to interaction among different fields of forestry, and the cross-fertilization of ideas between disciplines.

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Publications in this journal

  • Frontiers of Forestry in China 12/2009; 4:484-488.
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    ABSTRACT: With the aid of canonical correlation analysis, the relations among soil nutrients, soil microorganisms, and soil enzyme activities were studied in vegetation restoration areas of degraded and eroded soils in the Nverzhai watershed in northwestern Hunan. The main results were as follows: the key factors in soil nutrients, microorganisms, and enzyme activities were N and P elements, number of bacteria, carbon and nitrogen in soil microbial biomass and the activities of urease, polyphenol oxidase, phosphatase, and invertase. The activities of urease and polyphenol oxidase are related to the inversion of N and P elements that had important impact on the accumulation of carbon and nitrogen in soil microbial biomass. Moreover, the activities of urease, polyphenol oxidase, and phosphatase could promote carbon accumulation in microbial biomass; however, invertase activities inhibited the accumulation of microbial biomass nitrogen. On the other hand, urease activities were beneficial to the N element content in soils but unfavorable for P elements. There is a negative relation between polyphenol oxidase activity and N element content. For every canonical variable group, the tendencies of soil nutrients, microorganisms, and enzyme activities to accumulate in different soil layers in different vegetation restoration communities could offer some scientific basis for the diagnosis of the health of the soil and the site type division in the process of vegetation restoration.
    Frontiers of Forestry in China 12/2009; 4(4):443-449.
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    ABSTRACT: Floristic composition of the evergreen broad-leaved forest in Jiulianshan Mountain was analyzed based on field investigations and community ecology. The community is rich in species diversity, with 144 spermatophyte families including 379 genera and 647 species, in which there are 6 gymnosperm families including 8 genera and 9 species, 21 monocotyledon families including 77 genera and 116 species, and 117 dicotyledon families including 294 genera and 522 species. Dominant families of the flora are Fagaceae, Lauraceae, Aquifoliaceae, Rosaceae, Ternstroemiaceae, Theaceae, Rubiaceae, Moraceae and Euphoarbiaceae, most of which are of tropical & subtropical distribution. As for family systematic distribution, the ratio of tropical & subtropical to temperate genera is 100:62.8 in 142 genera of 16 families. As for generic distribution in field investigation data, the tropical & subtropical areal type accounts for the majority of genera, in which there are 205 genera belonging to the tropical & subtropical areal type, 131 genera belonging to the temperate areal type, 35 genera belonging to the cosmopolitan areal type and 8 genera belonging to the endemic-to-China areal type. The ratio of the tropical & subtropical to temperate genera was 100:63.9. Floristic composition of the evergreen forest community in Jiulianshan and the typical species of the zonal flora will provide a scientific foundation for stand rehabilitation and stand establishment approximating a natural evergreen broad-leaved forest community. This study also indicates that the sample data based on community research are valid and convenient for floristic and environmental analysis of the evergreen broad-leaved forest community from the Jiulianshan Mountain.
    Frontiers of Forestry in China 12/2009; 4(4):416-423.
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    ABSTRACT: Forestry division has been discussed rarely since 1995 in China. The growing interest in forestry provides an opportunity to improve the research tools and approaches that can help achieve a broader understanding of forestry division. Based on research in Yong’an, Fujian Province of China, a framework that may be useful in correlative forestry division study was proposed: 1) the factor-system for Yong’an forestry division was established; 2) the factors were extracted with spatial analysis; 3) the forestry division method of integrated modeling at county level based on GIS was processed. The method was taken through principal components analysis, building the comprehensive model, discriminate analysis, seeking the ideal number of divisions and eliminating the fine polygons. The outcome showed that the method based on GIS with comprehensive modeling could reflect the present situation of forestry development. The relative dominant subdivisions were distinguished reasonably, and a specific direction in forestry development is presented. According to the statistics of the subdivisions’ state, the relative dominant subdivisions were clearly demonstrated.
    Frontiers of Forestry in China 12/2009; 4(4):424-431.
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    ABSTRACT: ITS sequences of ten kinds of plants of Lespedeza and an out group were obtained by primer design PCR, sequencing and cluster analysis. The results show that ITS1 section length was 228–243 bp, 5.8S sequence length was 165 bp which was very conservative; ITS2 section lengths varied from 215 to 220 bp and the conservative sites occupied 88.1%. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequences using PAUP 4.0 software and their genetic relationship were discussed.
    Frontiers of Forestry in China 12/2009; 4(4):489-493.
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    ABSTRACT: In order to improve the accuracy and reliability of identifying wood defects and to realize the maximum wood utilization of trees, we employed an experimental method to test the stress wave propagation velocity in standing Fraxinus mandshurica trees selected from the Harbin Forest Experimental Station in winter. Thirty standing trees in good conditions were taken as test specimens and stress wave propagation velocities were measured using a FAKOPP Microsecond Timer in trees in both fall and winter. The test data were processed with the aid of Excel and SPSS software. The results show that 1) the velocities in longitudinal and radial stress wave propagation in frozen F. mandshurica trees were much higher than those in the non-frozen trees; 2) there was a highly positive correlation between longitudinal stress wave propagation velocity in frozen and non-frozen states, with a correlation coefficient of 0.82, as well as a positive correlation between radial stress wave propagation velocity in frozen and non-frozen states with a correlation coefficient of 0.87; 3) in the frozen state, the longitudinal stress wave propagation velocity was significantly affected by the moisture content (MC) of standing tree, while it was not obvious in the non-frozen state and 4) the radial stress wave propagation velocity was not significantly affected by MC in either frozen or non-frozen state.
    Frontiers of Forestry in China 12/2009; 4(4):382-387.
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    ABSTRACT: In order to examine correlations among the properties of tree species and to quantify the relationships between these properties and flammability, the properties of 20 tree species, consisting of heat of combustion, extractive contents, ash content, moisture content and basic density, were measured via experimental methods. In the first instance, the results show that, there are significant correlations between heat of combustion and extractive contents, ash content and basic density. Second, heat of combustion can be presented effectively in terms of linear regression models with extractive contents and ash content as independent variables. Third, a flammable model was developed based on four properties of tree species as independent variables, i.e., heat of combustion, extractive contents, ash content and moisture content. Finally, the flammability of 20 tree species is compared, ordered and ranked based on this flammable model. The conclusion is that flammability can be predicted from properties of tree species, which are significantly correlated among themselves.
    Frontiers of Forestry in China 09/2009; 4(3):304-308.
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    ABSTRACT: The dynamic change of soil water as a function of leaf area index and the soil water deficit value, prerequisites for assuring the survival of plants, were simulated. We established a dynamic soil water model based on a theory of water balance, the characteristics of the environment, and the physiological ecology of the plants in the Ulan Buh Desert, northwestern China. We estimated the soil water carrying capacity of the vegetation in our study area of the desert. The results showed that the proportion of soil evaporation in the total amount of precipitation was greater than 60% in the wandering and semifixed sands and 44.8%in the fixed sand. When the leaf area index was less than 1.7 m2/m2, the soil water deficit was maintained at a low level, but when the leaf area index continued to increase, the soil water deficit increased rapidly as well. In consequence, we come to the conclusion that the leaf area index of the soil water carrying capacity of the vegetation is 1.7 m2/m2 in our study area.
    Frontiers of Forestry in China 09/2009; 4(3):309-316.
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    ABSTRACT: Spearman rank-correlation analysis and grey relational grade analysis were used to study infiltration characteristics of water in different forest soils in the Simian mountains, Chongqing City. The results indicate that the soil bulk density, contents of coarse sand, and porosity of macropores were significantly correlated with saturated hydraulic conductivity. Porosity of macropores and contents of coarse sand were positively correlated with soil saturated hydraulic conductivity and soil bulk density negatively. Based on the initial infiltration rate, the stable infiltration rate, time required for infiltration to reach a stable state, and cumulative infiltration, all of which are crucial parameters determining soil infiltration capacity, the results of grey relational grade analysis showed that the grey relational grades of the different forest soils were listed from high to low as broad-leaved forest (0.8031) > Phyllostachys pubescens forest (0.7869) > mixed conifer-broadleaf forest (0.4454) > coniferous forest (0.4039). Broadleaf forest had the best ability to be infiltrated among the four soils studied. The square roots of the coefficients of determination obtained from fitting the Horton infiltration equation, simulated in our study of forest soils, were higher than 0.950.We conclude that soils of broad-leaved forests were the best suited for infiltration processes of forestry in the Simian mountains.
    Frontiers of Forestry in China 09/2009; 4(3):338-343.
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    ABSTRACT: I analyzed and elaborated the trends in and responses to global change in arid regions of China, from the perspective of nine variables, i.e., temperature, precipitation, river runoff, melting glaciers, water level of lakes, wind power and evaporation, vegetation, oases, and desertification. The climate and hydrology data I cited represent many years of observations. I conclude that, since the 1980s, the climate in arid regions of China has clearly changed with rising temperatures and precipitation in most areas. Wind power and the number of galestorm days have continuously decreased, which resulted in an improvement of humid conditions and increases in river discharge and water levels of lakes. Simultaneously, vegetation also has improved and the process of desertification has essentially been arrested. Although there are some unfavorable developments, such as decreased river flows or flow interruptions and downstream oases have suffered from degradation, these incidental cases should not distract our attention from the generally favorable trends during the middle and late 20th century. These discordant phenomena are not consequences of climate change but rather of unsuitable human activities. Despite a substantial increase in precipitation, the level of the original precipitation was so small that any increase in precipitation was still small. As a result, none of the fundamental conditions such as a scarcity of water resources and precipitation nor the landscape of drought-ridden deserts in the arid regions will change. The vulnerability of the eco-environmental system in the arid regions will not change fundamentally either in the near future.
    Frontiers of Forestry in China 09/2009; 4(3):255-262.
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    ABSTRACT: Owing to the irrational use of water resources in the Heihe River, northern China, the eco-environment has deteriorated seriously in its lower reaches. Some ecological problems exist (i.e., lake shrinkage, the decline of the underground water table, vegetation degradation, land desertification, and sandstorm damage). Subareas of ecological protection and restoration in the lower reaches of the river are proposed, considering the course of the river, its ecosystem characteristics, and the range of impact of water resource allocation. Based on a comprehensive decision-making method and GIS technology, the targets of ecological protection and restoration in the lower reaches of the river were determined quantitatively. Using a phreatic evapotranspiration model and a groundwater balance equation, the ecological water requirements of the riparian forest ecosystem, the desert ecosystem, the water area ecosystem, and the underground ecosystem, given various eco-restoration targets in different level years, were calculated and analyzed. The results show that the total ecological water requirements of the Shaomaying section were 548 million m3 in 2000 to maintain the normal growth of its natural vegetation and a stable groundwater table in the lower reaches of the Heihe River. The total ecological water requirement of the Shaomaying section is expected to be 632 million m3 in 2010, 635 million m3 in 2020, and 635 million m3 in 2030.
    Frontiers of Forestry in China 09/2009; 4(3):263-270.
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    ABSTRACT: The hydrological characteristics of litter in four different forest succession stages, i.e., a Pinus massoniana forest, a mixed conifer and broad-leaved forest with conifer being the dominant species, a mixed conifer and broad-leaved forest with deciduous trees as dominant species, and an evergreen broad-leaved forest, have been studied by means of substituting space for time. The results show that while a community is developing to a zonal climax, the amount of litter becomes larger and its decomposition intensity becomes stronger; there is a positive relation between its water-holding capacity and velocity and its community maturity for the half-decomposed litter layer.
    Frontiers of Forestry in China 09/2009; 4(3):317-322.
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    ABSTRACT: The objectives of our study were to explore the relationship of leaf area and stand density and to find a convenient way to measure stand leaf areas. During the 2004 growing season, from May to October, we used direct and indirect methods to measure the seasonal variation of the leaf areas of tree and shrub species. The trees were from Robinia pseudoacacia stands of four densities (3333 plants/hm2, 1666 plants/hm2, 1111 plants/hm2, and 833 plants/hm2) and Platycladus orientalis stands of three densities (3333 plants/hm2, 1666 plants/hm2, and 1111 plants/hm2). The shrub species were Caragana korshinskii, Hippophae rhamnoides, and Amorpha fruticosa. Based on our survey data, empirical formulas for calculating leaf area were obtained by correlating leaf fresh weight, diameter of base branches, and leaf areas. Our results show the following: 1) in September, the leaf area and leaf area index (LAI) of trees (R. pseudoacacia and P. orientalis) reached their maximum values, with LAI peak values of 10.5 and 3.2, respectively. In August, the leaf area and LAI of shrubs (C. korshinskii, H. rhamnoides, and A. fruticosa) reached their maximum values, with LAI peak values of 1.195, 1.123, and 1.882, respectively. 2) There is a statistically significant power relation between leaf area and leaf fresh weight for R. pseudoacacia. There are significant linear relationships between leaf area and leaf fresh weight for P. orientalis, C. korshinskii, H. rhamnoides, and A. fruticosa. Moreover, there is also a significant power relation between leaf area and diameter of base branches for C. korshinskii. There are significant linear relations between leaf area and diameter of base branches of H. rhamnoides and A. fruticosa. 3) In the hills and gully regions of the Loess Plateau, the LAIs of R. pseudoacacia stand at different densities converged after the planted stands entered their fast growth stage. Their LAI do not seem to be affected by its initial and current density. The same is true for P. orientalis stands. However, the leaf area of individual trees is negatively and linearly related with stand density. We conclude that, in the hills and gully regions of the Loess Plateau, the bearing capacity of R. pseudoacacia and P. orientalis stands we studied have reached their maximum limitation, owing to restricted access to soil water. Therefore, in consideration of improving the quality of single trees, a stand density not exceeding 833 and 1111 plants/hm2 is recommended for R. pseudoacacia and P. orientalis, respectively. In consideration of improving the quality of the entire stands, the density can be reduced even a little more.
    Frontiers of Forestry in China 09/2009; 4(3):351-357.