Acta Pharmacologica Sinica (ACTA PHARMACOL SIN )

Publisher: Zhongguo yao li xue hui; Shanghai yao wu yan jiu suo; Zhongguo ke xue yuan, Nature Publishing Group

Description

Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, published monthly, is the official journal of the Chinese Pharmacological Society and Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences. APS was registered as an English international journal in 2000. APS has gained a well-earned reputation during the last two decades for its persisting in reporting researches of high scientific quality.The APS welcomes current original researches on all aspects of life sciences, both experimental and clinical, from any part of the world. Reviews based primarily on authors' own research of internationally important topics are especially welcome.

  • Impact factor
    2.35
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    Impact factor
  • 5-year impact
    2.52
  • Cited half-life
    6.20
  • Immediacy index
    0.60
  • Eigenfactor
    0.01
  • Article influence
    0.60
  • Website
    Acta Pharmacologica Sinica website
  • Other titles
    Acta pharmacologica Sinica (Online), APS, Acta pharmacologica Sinica, Zhongguo yao li xue bao
  • ISSN
    1671-4083
  • OCLC
    51169124
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Nature Publishing Group

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    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
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    • 6 months embargo
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    • Authors retain copyright
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    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • On author's personal website and institutional repository
    • If funding agency rules apply, authors may post authors version to their relevant funding body's archive, 6 months after publication
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • Lei Zhen, De-Sheng Fan, Yan Zhang, Xin-Ming Cao, Li-Ming Wang
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    ABSTRACT: Aim:To investigate the therapeutic effects of resveratrol (RSV) on periodontitis in diabetic mice and to explore the underlying mechanisms in vitro.Methods:Experimental periodontitis was induced in db/db mice by ligature application of porphyromonas gingivalis. The mice were treated with RSV (20 mg/kg, po) daily for 4 weeks. Alveolar bone loss, proinflammatory cytokines and TLR4 expression in the gingival tissue were measured. Cultured gingival epithelial cells (GECs) were used for in vitro studies. The transcriptional activity of TLR4 downstream signaling was analyzed using Western blotting.Results:RSV administration significantly decreased the blood glucose levels, and ameliorated alveolar bone loss in db/db mice with experimental periodontitis. RSV administration also suppressed the high levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, and TLR4 in gingival tissue of the mice. In the GECs incubated in high glucose medium, TLR4 expression was substantially upregulated, which was partly blocked in the presence of RSV. Lipopolysaccharides markedly increased the expression and secretion of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α in the GECs cultured in high glucose medium, which was also partly blocked in the presence of RSV. Furthermore, RSV significantly suppressed the phosphorylation of TLR4 downstream factors NF-κB p65, p38MAPK, and STAT3.Conclusion:RSV exerts protective effects against experimental periodontitis in db/db mice via negative regulation of TLR4 signaling.
    Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by the aberrant accumulation of triglycerides in hepatocytes in the absence of significant alcohol consumption, viral infection or other specific causes of liver disease. NAFLD has become a burgeoning health problem both worldwide and in China, but its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a member of the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily, has been demonstrated to be the primary sensor for endogenous bile acids, and play a crucial role in hepatic triglyceride homeostasis. Deciphering the synergistic contributions of FXR to triglyceride metabolism is critical for discovering therapeutic agents in the treatment of NAFLD and hypertriglyceridemia.
    Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The identification of the estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) as the first orphan nuclear receptors ignited a new era in molecular endocrinology, which led to the discovery of new ligand-dependent response systems. Although ERR subfamily members have yet to be associated with a natural ligand, the characterization of these orphan receptors has demonstrated that they occupy a strategic node in the transcriptional control of cellular energy metabolism. In particular, ERRs are required for the response to various environmental challenges that require high energy levels by the organism. As central regulators of energy homeostasis, ERRs may also be implicated in the etiology of metabolic disorders, such as type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Here, we review the recent evidence that further highlights the role of ERRs in metabolic control, particularly in liver and skeletal muscle, and their likely involvement in metabolic diseases. Consequently, we also explore the promises and pitfalls of ERRs as potential therapeutic targets.
    Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is initially defined as a xenobiotic nuclear receptor that protects the liver from injury. Detoxification of damaging chemicals is achieved by CAR-mediated induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. More recent research has implicated CAR in energy metabolism, suggesting a therapeutic potential for CAR in metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes and obesity. A better understanding of the mechanisms by which CAR regulates energy metabolism will allow us to take advantage of its effectiveness while avoiding its side effects. This review summarizes the current progress on the regulation of CAR nuclear translocation, upstream modulators of CAR activity, and the crosstalk between CAR and other transcriptional factors, with the aim of elucidating how CAR regulates glucose and lipid metabolism.
    Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Nuclear receptors (NRs) are members of a large superfamily of evolutionarily related transcription factors that control a plethora of biological processes. NRs orchestrate complex events such as development, organ homeostasis, metabolism, immune function, and reproduction. Approximately one-half of the 48 human NRs have been shown to act as ligand-regulated transcription factors and respond directly to a large variety of endogenous hormones and metabolites that are generally hydrophobic and small in size (eg, retinoic acid or estradiol). The second half of the NR family comprises the so-called orphan receptors, for which regulatory ligands are still unknown or may not exist despite the presence of a C-terminal ligand-binding domain, which is the hallmark of all NRs. Several chemicals released into the environment (eg, bisphenols, phthalates, parabens, etc) share some physicochemical properties with natural ligands, allowing them to bind to NRs and activate or inhibit their action. Collectively referred to as endocrine disruptors or endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), these environmental pollutants are highly suspected to cause a wide range of developmental, reproductive, neurological, or metabolic defects in humans and wildlife. Crystallographic studies are revealing unanticipated mechanisms by which chemically diverse EDCs interact with the ligand-binding domain of NRs. These studies thereby provide a rational basis for designing novel chemicals with lower impacts on human and animal health. In this review, we provide a structural and mechanistic view of endocrine disrupting action using estrogen receptors α and β, (ERα/β), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ), and their respective environmental ligands as representative examples.
    Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Nuclear receptors (NRs) are ligand-regulated transcription factors that regulate metabolism, development and immunity. The NR superfamily is one of the major classes of drug targets for human diseases. Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor (ROR) α, β and γ belong to the NR superfamily, and these receptors are still considered as 'orphan' receptors because the identification of their endogenous ligands has been controversial. Recent studies have demonstrated that these receptors are regulated by synthetic ligands, thus emerge as important drug targets for the treatment of multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, etc. Studying the structural basis and ligand development of RORs will pave the way for a better understanding of the roles of these receptors in human diseases. Here, we review the structural basis, disease relevance, strategies for ligand identification, and current status of development of therapeutic ligands for RORs.
    Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Bile acids (BAs) are traditionally considered as "physiological detergents" for emulsifying hydrophobic lipids and vitamins due to their amphipathic nature. But accumulating clinical and experimental evidence shows an association between disrupted BA homeostasis and various liver disease conditions including hepatitis infection, diabetes and cancer. Consequently, BA homeostasis regulation has become a field of heavy interest and investigation. After identification of the Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR) as an endogenous receptor for BAs, several nuclear receptors (SHP, HNF4α, and LRH-1) were also found to be important in regulation of BA homeostasis. Some post-translational modifications of these nuclear receptors have been demonstrated, but their physiological significance is still elusive. Gut secrets FGF15/19 that can activate hepatic FGFR4 and its downstream signaling cascade, leading to repressed hepatic BA biosynthesis. However, the link between the activated kinases and these nuclear receptors is not fully elucidated. Here, we review the recent literature on signal crosstalk in BA homeostasis.
    Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear receptor family and a ligand-modulated transcription factor. In the liver, FXR has been considered a multi-functional cell protector and a tumor suppressor. FXR can suppress liver carcinogenesis via different mechanisms: 1) FXR maintains the normal liver metabolism of bile acids, glucose and lipids; 2) FXR promotes liver regeneration and repair after injury; 3) FXR protects liver cells from death and enhances cell survival; 4) FXR suppresses hepatic inflammation, thereby preventing inflammatory damage; and 5) FXR can directly increase the expression of some tumor-suppressor genes and repress the transcription of several oncogenes. However, inflammation and epigenetic silencing are known to decrease FXR expression during tumorigenesis. The reactivation of FXR function in the liver may be a potential therapeutic approach for patients with liver cancer.
    Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Aim:To develop a population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) model of tacrolimus in healthy Chinese volunteers and liver transplant recipients for investigating the difference between the populations, and for potential individualized medication.Methods:A set of 1100 sparse trough concentration data points from 112 orthotopic liver transplant recipients, as well as 851 dense data points from 40 healthy volunteers receiving a single dose of tacrolimus (2 mg, po) were collected. PopPK model of tacrolimus was constructed using the program NONMEM. Related covariates such as age, hepatic and renal functions that were potentially associated with tacrolimus disposition were evaluated. The final model was validated using bootstrapping and a visual predictive check.Results:A two-compartment model of tacrolimus could best describe the data from the two populations. The final model including two covariates, population (liver transplant recipients or volunteers) and serum ALT (alanine aminotransferase) level, was verified and adequately described the pharmacokinetic characteristics of tacrolimus. The estimates of V2/F, Q/F and V3/F were 22.7 L, 76.3 L/h and 916 L, respectively. The estimated CL/F in the volunteers and liver transplant recipients was 32.8 and 18.4 L/h, respectively. Serum ALT level was inversely related to CL/F, whereas age did not influence CL/F. Thus, the elderly (≥65 years) and adult (<65 years) groups in the liver transplant recipients showed no significant difference in the clearance of tacrolimus.Conclusion:Compared with using the sparse data only, the integrating modeling technique combining sparse data from the patients and dense data from the healthy volunteers improved the PopPK analysis of tacrolimus.
    Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Aim:Sitagliptin, an oral glucose-lowering agent, has been found to produce cardiovascular protection possibly via anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic activities of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1). The aim of this study was to investigate whether sitagliptin protected the kidney function from acute ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in rats.Methods:Adult male SD rats were categorized into 4 groups: sham control, IR injury, IR+sitagliptin (300 mg/kg) and IR+sitagliptin (600 mg/kg). Acute renal IR injury of both kidneys was induced by clamping the renal pedicles for 1 h. The drug was orally administered at 1, 24 and 48 h after acute IR. Blood samples and 24-h urine were collected before and at 72 h after acute IR. Then the rats were sacrificed, and the kidneys were harvested for biochemical and immunohistochemical studies.Results:Acute IR procedure markedly increased serum levels of creatinine and BUN and the ratio of urine protein to creatinine. The kidney injury score, inflammatory biomarkers (MMP-9, TNF-α and NF-κB) levels and CD68+ cells in IR kidneys were considerably increased. The expression of oxidized protein, reactive oxygen species (NOX-1, NOX-2) and apoptosis proteins (Bax, caspase-3, PARP) in IR kidneys was also significantly upregulated. All these pathological changes were suppressed by sitagliptin in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the serum GLP-1 level, and the expression of GLP-1 receptor, anti-oxidant biomarkers (HO-1 and NQO-1 cells, as well as SOD-1, NQO-1 and HO-1 proteins), and angiogenesis markers (SDF-1α+ and CXCR4+ cells) in IR kidneys were significantly increased, and further upregulated by sitagliptin.Conclusion:Sitagliptin dose-dependently protects rat kidneys from acute IR injury via upregulation of serum GLP-1 and GLP-1 receptor expression in kidneys.
    Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Estrogens are important endocrine hormones that control physiological functions in reproductive organs, and play a pivotal role in the generation and progression of breast cancer. Therapeutic drugs including anti-estrogen and aromatase inhibitors are used to treat patients with breast cancer. The estrogen receptors, ERα and ERβ, function as hormone-dependent transcription factors that directly regulate the expression of their target genes. Therefore, a better understanding of the function and regulation of estrogen-responsive genes provides insight into the gene regulation network associated with breast cancer. Recent technological developments in high-throughput sequencing have enabled the genome-wide identification of estrogen-responsive genes. Further elucidating the estrogen gene cascade is critical for advancements in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer.
    Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Aim:To prepare a biodegradable polymeric carrier for oral delivery of a water-insoluble drug capsaicin (CAP) and evaluate its quality.Methods:CAP-loaded methoxy poly (ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) nanoparticles (CAP/NPs) were prepared using a modified emulsification solvent diffusion technique. The quality of CAP/NPs were evaluated using transmission electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared techniques. A dialysis method was used to analyze the in vitro release profile of CAP from the CAP/NPs. Adult male rats were orally administered CAP/NPs (35 mg/kg), and the plasma concentrations of CAP were measured with a validated HPLC method. The morphology of rat gastric mucosa was studied with HE staining.Results:CAP/NPs had an average diameter of 82.54±0.51 nm, high drug-loading capacity of 14.0%±0.13% and high stability. CAP/NPs showed a biphasic release profile in vitro: the burst release was less than 25% of the loaded drug within 12 h followed by a more sustained release for 60 h. The pharmacokinetics study showed that the mean maximum plasma concentration was observed 4 h after oral administered of CAP/NPs, and approximately 90 ng/mL of CAP was detected in serum after 36 h. The area under the curve for the CAP/NPs group was approximately 6-fold higher than that for raw CAP suspension. Histological studies showed that CAP/NPs markedly reduced CAP-caused gastric mucosa irritation.Conclusion:CAP/NPs significantly enhance the bioavailability of CAP and markedly reduce gastric mucosa irritation in rats.
    Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: G226 is a novel derivative of epipolythiodioxopiperazines with potent inhibitory activity against cancer cells. Here, we sought to identify potential targets involved in the anti-cancer activity of G226. Cell proliferation assay was conducted in a panel of 12 human cancer cell lines. The activities of topoisomerase I (Topo I) and Topo II were studied using supercoiled pBR322 DNA relaxation and kDNA decatenation assays. ROS production was assessed with probes DCFH-DA and H&E. Western blot analysis and flow cytometry were used to examine DNA damage, apoptosis and cell cycle changes. G226 displayed potent cytotoxicity in the 12 human cancer cell lines with a mean IC50 value of 92.7 nmol/L. This compound (1-100 μmol/L) selectively inhibited the activity of Topo II, and elevated the expression of phosphorylated-H2AX in a dose-dependent manner. In Topo II-deficient HL60/MX2 cells, however, G226-induced DNA damage, apoptosis and cytotoxicity were only partially reduced, suggesting that Topo II was not essential for the anti-tumor effects of G226. Furthermore, G226 (0.125-2 μmol/L) dose-dependently elevated the intracellular levels of H2O2 and in the cancer cells, and pretreatment with GSH, NAC or DTT not only blocked G226-induced intracellular accumulation of ROS, but also abrogated G226-mediated phosphorylation of H2AX, apoptosis and cytotoxicity. G226-mediated ROS production contributes to the anti-cancer activity of this compound.
    Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 12/2014; 35(12):1546-55.
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    ABSTRACT: Retinoid X receptor-α (RXRα), a unique member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, represents an intriguing and unusual target for pharmacologic interventions and therapeutic applications in cancer, metabolic disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Despite the fact that the RXR-based drug Targretin (bexarotene) is currently used for treating human cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and the fact that RXRα ligands (rexinoids) show beneficial effects in the treatment of cancer and diseases, the therapeutic potential of RXRα remains unexplored. In addition to its conventional transcription regulation activity in the nucleus, RXRα can act in the cytoplasm to modulate important biological processes, such as mitochondria-dependent apoptosis, inflammation, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT-mediated cell survival. Recently, new small-molecule-binding sites on the surface of RXRα have been identified, which mediate the regulation of the nongenomic actions of RXRα by a class of small molecules derived from the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) Sulindac. This review discusses the emerging roles of the nongenomic actions of RXRα in the RXRα signaling network, and their possible implications in cancer, metabolic and neurodegenerative disorders, as well as our current understanding of RXRα regulation by targeting alternate binding sites on its surface.
    Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Aim:β, β-Dimethylacrylshikonin (DMAS) is an anticancer compound extracted from the roots of Lithospermum erythrorhizon. In the present study, we investigated the effects of DMAS on human lung adenocarcinoma cells in vitro and explored the mechanisms of its anti-cancer action.Methods:Human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells were tested. Cell viability was assessed using an MTT assay, and cell apoptosis was evaluated with flow cytometry and DAPI staining. The expression of the related proteins was detected using Western blotting. The mitochondrial membrane potential was measured using a JC-1 kit, and subcellular distribution of cytochrome c was analyzed using immunofluorescence staining.Results:Treatment of A549 cells with DMAS suppressed the cell viability in dose- and time-dependent manners (the IC50 value was 14.22 and 10.61 μmol/L, respectively, at 24 and 48 h). DMAS (7.5, 10, and 15 μmol/L) dose-dependently induced apoptosis, down-regulated cIAP-2 and XIAP expression, and up-regulated Bax and Bak expression in the cells. Furthermore, DMAS resulted in loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c in the cells, and activated caspase-9, caspase-8, and caspase-3, and subsequently cleaved PARP, which was abolished by pretreatment with Z-VAD-FMK, a pan-caspase inhibitor. DMAS induced sustained p38 phosphorylation in the cells, while pretreatment with SB203580, a specific p38 inhibitor, blocked DMAS-induced p38 activation and apoptosis.Conclusion:DMAS inhibits the growth of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells in vitro via activation of p38 signaling pathway.
    Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Aim:α-Naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) is a well-characterized cholestatic agent for rats. The aim of this study was to examine whether resveratrol could attenuate ANIT-induced acute cholestasis and liver injury in rats.Methods:SD rats were treated with resveratrol (15 or 30 mg/kg, ip) or a positive control drug ursodeoxycholic acid (100 mg/kg, po) for 5 consecutive days followed by a single dose of ANIT (60 mg/kg, po). Bile flow, and serum biochemical markers and bile constituents were measured 48 h after ANIT administration. Hepatic levels of oxidative repair enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, catalase and MnSOD), myeloperoxidase activity, TNF-α, IL-6 and ATP content, as well as the expression of liver transporter genes and proteins were assayed.Results:ANIT exposure resulted in serious cholestasis and liver injury, as shown by marked neutrophil infiltration in liver, dramatically increased serum levels of ALT, AST, GGT, ALP, TBA, TBIL, IBIL and DBIL, and significantly decreased bile excretion and biliary output of GSH and HCO3(-). ANIT significantly increased TNF-α and IL-6 release and myeloperoxidase activity, decreased mitochondrial biogenesis in liver, but had little effect on hepatic oxidative repair enzymes and ATP content. Furthermore, ANIT significantly decreased the expression of Mrp2, FXR and Cyp7a1, markedly increased Mrp3 expression in liver. Pretreatment with resveratrol attenuated ANIT-induced acute cholestasis and liver injury, and other pathological changes. Pretreatment with ursodeoxycholic acid was less effective.Conclusion:Resveratrol effectively attenuates ANIT-induced acute cholestasis and liver injury in rats, possibly through suppression of neutrophil infiltration, as well as upregulation of expression of hepatic transporters and enzymes, thus decreasing accumulation of bile acids.
    Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Aim:Para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) is effective in the treatment of manganism-induced neurotoxicity (manganism). In this study we investigated the roles of P-glycoprotein (MDR1a) and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) in transporting PAS and its N-acetylated metabolite AcPAS through blood-brain barrier.Methods:MDR1a-null or wild-type mice were intravenously injected with PAS (200 mg/kg). Thirty minutes after the injection, blood samples and brains were collected, and the concentrations of PAS and AcPAS in brain capillaries and parenchyma were measured using HPLC. Both MDCK-MDR1 and MDCK-MRP1 cells that overexpressed P-gp and MRP1, respectively, were used in two-chamber Transwell transport studies in vitro.Results:After injection of PAS, the brain concentration of PAS was substantially higher in MDR1a-null mice than in wild-type mice, but the brain concentration of AcPAS had no significant difference between MDR1a-null mice and wild-type mice. Concomitant injection of PAS with the MRP-specific inhibitor MK-571 (50 mg/kg) further increased the brain concentration of PAS in MDR1a-null mice, and increased the brain concentration of AcPAS in both MDR1a-null mice and wild-type mice. Two-chamber Transwell studies with MDCK-MDR1 cells demonstrated that PAS was not only a substrate but also a competitive inhibitor of P-gp, while AcPAS was not a substrate of P-gp. Two-chamber Transwell studies with the MDCK-MRP1 cells showed that MRP1 had the ability to transport both PAS and AcPAS across the BBB.Conclusion:P-gp plays a major role in the efflux of PAS from brain parenchyma into blood in mice, while MRP1 is involved in both PAS and AcPAS transport in the brain.
    Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The human ether-à-go-go related gene (hERG) potassium channel is an obligatory anti-target for drug development on account of its essential role in cardiac repolarization and its close association with arrhythmia. Diverse drugs have been removed from the market owing to their inhibitory activity on the hERG channel and their contribution to acquired long QT syndrome (LQTS). Moreover, mutations that cause hERG channel dysfunction may induce congenital LQTS. Recently, an increasing number of biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying hERG-associated LQTS have been reported. In fact, numerous potential biochemical and molecular rescue strategies are hidden within the biogenesis and regulating network. So far, rescue strategies of hERG channel dysfunction and LQTS mainly include activators, blockers, and molecules that interfere with specific links and other mechanisms. The aim of this review is to discuss the rescue strategies based on hERG channel toxicology from the biochemical and molecular perspectives.
    Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Aim:To investigate the antidepressant-like effects of a novel 5-HT3 receptor antagonist N-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)-3-methoxyquinoxalin-2-carboxamide (6z) in acute and chronic murine models of depression.Methods:5-HT3 receptor antagonism was examined in guinea pig ileum in vitro. A tail suspension test (TST) was used as acute depression model to evaluate the antidepressant-like behavior in mice treated with 6z (0.5-2 mg/kg, ip). In chronic depression model, mice were exposed to a 4-week chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) protocol, and treated with 6z (0.5-2 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), po) or a positive drug fluoxetine (10 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), po) in the last 2 weeks, followed by behavioral and biochemical assessments.Results:The 5-HT3 receptor antagonism of 6z (pA2=7.4) in guinea pig ileum was more potent than that of a standard 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron (pA2=6.9). In acute depression model, 6z administration significantly decreased the immobility duration. In chronic depression model, 6z administration reversed CUS-induced depressive-like behavior, as evidenced by increased immobility duration in the forced swim test and sucrose preference in the sucrose preference test. Furthermore, chronic administration of 6z prevented CUS-induced brain oxidative stress, with significant reduction of pro-oxidant markers and elevation of antioxidant enzyme activity. Moreover, chronic administration of 6z attenuated CUS-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hyperactivity, as shown by reduced plasma corticosterone levels. Similar results were observed in the fluoxetine-treated group.Conclusion:6z is a novel 5-HT3 receptor antagonist with potential antidepressant-like activities, which may be related to modulating hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and attenuating brain oxidative damage.
    Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Aim:Hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME), which consists of equal amounts of isomers HMME-1 and HMME-2, is a novel porphyrin-related drug for photodynamic therapy. This study was aimed to investigate the uptake transporter-mediated selective uptake of HMME into the liver and to identify the major uptake transporter isoforms involved.Methods:Adult SD rats were intravenously injected with a single dose of HMME (5 mg/kg) with or without rifampicin (an inhibitor of organic anion transporting polypeptides OATP1B1 and OATP1B3, 25 mg/kg). Blood samples were collected, and HMME concentrations were measured using LC-MS/MS. Rat hepatocytes, human hepatocytes and HEK293 cells expressing OATP1B1, OATP1B3, or OATP2B1 were used to investigate the uptake of HMME or individual isomers in vitro.Results:Co-administration of rifampicin significantly increased the exposure of HMME isomers, and decreased the AUC ratio of HMME-1 to HMME-2 from 1.98 to 1.56. The uptake of HMME-2 into human hepatocytes and the HEK293 cells expressing OATP1B1 or OATP2B1 in vitro was 2-7 times greater than that of HMME-1, whereas OATP1B3 mediated a higher HMME-1 uptake. OATP1B1 exhibited a higher affinity for HMME-2 than for HMME-1 (the Km values were 0.63 and 5.61 μmol/L, respectively), which were similar to those in human hepatocytes. By using telmisartan (a non-specific OATP inhibitor) and rifampicin, OATP2B1 was demonstrated to account for <20% of hepatic HMME uptake.Conclusion:OATP1B1 is the major transporter involved in the rapid hepatic uptake of HMME, and the greater uptake of HMME-2 by OATP1B1 may lead to a lower exposure of HMME-2 than HMME-1 in humans.
    Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 11/2014;