Blood pressure

Publisher: Taylor & Francis


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    Blood pressure (Online)
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: It was previously demonstrated that metabolic syndrome in humans is associated with an impairment of insulin signalling in circulating mononuclear cells. At least in animal models of hypertension, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) may correct alterations of insulin signalling in the skeletal muscle. In the first study, we investigated the effects of a 3-month treatment with an ARB with additional PPARγ agonist activity, telmisartan, or with a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker, nifedipine, on insulin signalling in patients with mild-moderate essential hypertension. Insulin signalling was evaluated in mononuclear cells by isolating them through Ficoll-Paque density gradient centrifugation and protein analysis by Western Blot. An increased expression of mTOR and of phosphorylated (active) mTOR (p-mTOR) was observed in patients treated with telmisartan, but not in those treated with nifedipine, while both treatments increased the cellular expression of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT-4). We also investigated the effects of antihypertensive treatment with two drug combinations on insulin signalling and oxidative stress. Twenty essential hypertensive patients were included in the study and treated for 4 weeks with lercanidipine. Then they were treated for 6 months with lercanidipine + enalapril or lercanidipine + hydrochlorothiazide. An increased expression of insulin receptor, GLUT-4 and an increased activation of p70S6K1 were observed during treatment with lercanidipine + enalapril but not with lercanidipine + hydrochlorothiazide. In conclusion, telmisartan and nifedipine are both effective in improving insulin signalling in human hypertension; however, telmisartan seems to have broader effects. The combination treatment lercanidipine + enalapril seems to be more effective than lercanidipine + hydrochlorothiazide in activating insulin signalling in human lympho-monocytes.
    Blood pressure 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Aim. Increased angiogenic factors [vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2)] have been associated with vascular dysfunction and hypertension. Black Africans undergoing rapid urbanization present with elevated blood pressure (BP) and we aimed to determine whether angiogenic factors are elevated in urban versus rural Africans with normal and elevated BP. Methods and Materials. Africans (n = 272), matched for gender and age, were recruited from rural and urban communities in South Africa. Omron HEM-757 BP data were obtained and angiogenic markers in plasma and serum were determined. Results. Urban African men displayed a higher (43.90%) hypertension prevalence compared with their rural counterparts (18.52%) and disturbed angiongenic factors. Adjusted VEGF-A concentrations were higher in urban men and women compared with their rural counterparts. Similar VEGF-A levels were observed in rural and urban hypertensives. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that VEGF-A and Ang-2 levels were associated with psychosocial stress but not with hypertensive status in Africans [odds ratios 1.01-1.09 (95% CI 1.01-1.15), p ≤ 0.05]. Conclusion. Psychosocial stress per se was associated with disturbed VEGF-A and Ang-2. We suggest that hyperkinetic BP may act as compensatory mechanism when chronic psychosocial stress prevails, affecting vascular functioning and subsequent increased cardiovascular disease risk.
    Blood pressure 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Chagas disease is a parasite infection caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. Its most common complications is chronic Chagas heart disease but impairments of the systemic vasculature also has been observed. Although the different mechanisms that regulate blood pressure are disrupted, to our knowledge data on the association of hypertension and chronic Chagas disease are scarce. In this regard we evaluate whether Chagas disease constitutes a high blood pressure risk factor. Materials and methods. We recruited 200 individuals, half of them with positive serology for T. cruzi. They were subjected to a complete clinical examination. Results. The mean age of sampled individuals was 46.7 ± 12.3, and the mean of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were 124 ± 12 mmHg and 82 ± 10 mmHg, respectively. There were no between-group differences regarding age, sex distribution or body mass index. Chagas disease contributed significantly to high blood pressure (OR = 4, 95% CI 1.8323-7.0864, p = 0.0002). Conclusion. Our results reveal an important association between Chagas disease and high blood pressure, which should be contemplated by physicians in order to promote preventive cardiovascular actions in patients with Chagas disease.
    Blood pressure 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Aim. To evaluate the concordance between automated oscillometric measurement (WatchBP(®) Office ABI) of the ankle- brachial index (ABI) and the traditional measurement by eco-Doppler in a Spanish population without peripheral artery disease attended in primary care. Methods. The ABI was determined by both methods in a general population aged ≥ 18 years, from the RICARTO study. The intraclass correlation coefficient was calculated to assess the concordance between both techniques and the Bland-Altman plot was determined to analyze the agreement between them. Results. A total of 322 subjects (mean age 47.7 ± 16.0 years; 54.3% women) were included in the study. With regard to cardiovascular risk factors, 70.5% of subjects had dyslipidemia, 26.7% hypertension, 24.8% obesity, 8.4% diabetes and 25.5% were smokers. Mean ABI measured by eco-Doppler and the automated method were 1.17 ± 0.1 and 1.2 ± 0.1, respectively (mean differences - 0.03 ± 0.09; p < 0.001). The Pearson correlation coefficient and the intraclass correlation coefficient were in both cases 0.70. Conclusions. The automated oscillometric measurement of ABI is a reliable and useful alternative to conventional eco-Doppler determination in the general population without peripheral artery disease attended in primary care.
    Blood pressure 03/2014;
  • Blood pressure 02/2014; 23(1):1-2.
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    ABSTRACT: Aim. We evaluated the eventual effects of leg compression on seating-induced postural hypotension (PH) in the context of various relevant clinical variables. Methods. Included were 73 hospitalized patients with various acute conditions, aged ≥ 60 years, bedridden for ≥ 8 h, with diagnosed PH [≥ 20 mmHg systolic and/or ≥ 10 mmHg diastolic blood pressure (BP) falls] at the first seating. BP, heart rhythm, dizziness and palpitations were recorded before and during 5 min of sitting. The next day, the patients were reevaluated, this time using compression bandages applied along both legs before seating. Results. Compared with the non-bandaged state, PH was registered in only 53% of bandaged patients (p < 0.001). Moreover, the appearance of PH symptoms decreased (p < 0.001). On the second day (bandaged), supine diastolic BP values were higher in the persisting vs non-persisting PH group (p = 0.027). In the bandaged state, PH symptoms were significantly reduced in the non-persisting PH group (p = 0.003). Even in patients with persistent PH, the magnitude of BP decline and appearance of PH symptoms were decreased while wearing bandages (p = 0.004 and 0.002, respectively). Conclusion. During mobilization of inpatients, leg compression seems to reduce the seating-induced PH and relevant symptoms. Even in patients with persisting PH, bandaging may improve hemodynamics and attenuate associated symptoms.
    Blood pressure 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Percutaneous renal denervation is a new treatment option for patients with resistant hypertension and little is known about the eligibility of patients referred. 100 consecutive patients were referred for renal denervation from March 2011 through September 2012. Clinical data were prospectively extracted from letters and documents from referring clinics and from our physical examination. Of the 100 patients included, 68 were men and the mean age was 60 (± 12) years. Office blood pressure was 176 (± 28)/99 (± 19) mmHg and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure 156 (± 20)/88 (± 13) mmHg. The mean number of antihypertensive agents was 4.0 (± 1.6). Nearly four-fifths (82%) of the patients were categorized as having resistant hypertension based on the criteria stated by The American Heart Association's stated criteria. Nine patients declined interest in renal denervation before completing the clinical workup program. Thus, 91 patients were screened, and of those 51 were found to be candidates for renal denervation. Forty patients were not candidates, of which secondary hypertension was the most common cause (n = 10). Only 51% of patients referred for renal denervation were eligible for treatment. The prevalence of secondary hypertension was 10% of the referred population. Secondary hypertension should therefore be considered in the evaluation of candidates for renal denervation.
    Blood pressure 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the effect of renal denervation on office blood pressure (OBP) and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (BP) measurement (ABPM) at baseline and 6 months after intervention in 25 consecutive patients with resistant hypertension. Mean baseline 24-h ABPM and OBP were 158/88 mmHg and 169/96 mmHg, respectively. Patients were treated with an average of 4 ± 1 antihypertensive drugs. Among the 22 patients included in data analysis, mean ambulatory systolic and diastolic BP were reduced by 6 mmHg from 158 ± 17 to 152 ± 20 mmHg (p < 0.05) and by 3 mmHg from 88 ± 12 to 85 ± 14 mmHg (p = ns) after 6 months follow-up, respectively. Blood pressure reduction was most pronounced during daytime with a decrease of 9 mmHg from 164 ± 17 to 155 ± 19 (p < 0.05) in systolic (SBP) and 6 mmHg from 94 ± 14 to 88 ± 14 mmHg in diastolic BP (DBP) (p < 0.05). Night-time SBP mmHg and DBP were similar at baseline compared with follow-up. Systolic and diastolic OBP during follow-up were significantly reduced by 17 mmHg from 169 ± 20 to 152 ± 21 (p < 0.05) and by 9 mmHg from 96 ± 16 to 87 ± 13 mmHg (p < 0.05), respectively. These results provide new insight into the effect of renal denervation on ABPM day- and night-time blood pressure profile in comparison with OBP. The decrease in ABPM was identified during daytime registration and was less pronounced compared with reduction of OBP.
    Blood pressure 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Business cycles affect people's lives. A growing literature examines their effect on health outcomes. The available studies on the relationship between ambient economic conditions and cardiovascular health show mixed results. They are furthermore limited in their outcome measures, focusing mostly on mortality. Methods. We examined the relationship between economic conditions and cardiovascular disease and hypertension, using the Icelandic economic collapse of 2008. Logit regression analyses are used to examine the relationship between economic conditions and the probability of reporting a cardiovascular disease or hypertension. We furthermore investigated potential mediators of this relationship. The data used come from a health and lifestyle survey carried out by the Public Health Institute of Iceland in 2007 and 2009. Results. The crisis was positively related to hypertension in males but no statistically significant relationship was found for females. The mediation analyses indicated partial mediation through changes in working hours and stress level, but negligible mediation through changes in income. The male hypertension was, however, suppressed by concurrent changes in smoking and body weight. Conclusions. Only examining mortality effects of society-wide economic conditions may understate the overall effect on cardiovascular health.
    Blood pressure 12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Aims. In patients with hypertension (HT), increased aortic stiffness is related to higher cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Recent investigations have shown that epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is a new potential cardiometabolic risk factor. The aim of our study was to examine the relation between echocardiographically measured EAT thickness and aortic stiffness in patients with primary HT. Methods. The study included 144 newly diagnosed and untreated essential hypertensive outpatients. Transthoracic echocardiographic EAT thickness and aortic stiffness measurements were performed for all study participants. Afterwards patients were divided in two groups according to their median EAT thickness values. The patients with EAT thickness of < 7 mm were included in group 1 and patients with EAT thickness of ≥ 7 mm were included in group 2. Results. Aortic strain and distensibility parameters of group 2 were lower than in group 1. The aortic stiffness index of group 2 was found to be higher than group 1. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that EAT thickness was the only independent variable for all three parameters of aortic stiffness index, aortic strain and aortic distensibility. Conclusion. In patients with newly diagnosed primary HT, increased EAT thickness was significantly linked to impaired aortic elastic properties independently of other conventional adiposity measurements.
    Blood pressure 12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Hypertension resistant to lifestyle interventions and antihypertensive medications is a common problem encountered by physicians in everyday practice. It is most often defined as a blood pressure remaining ≥ 140/90 mmHg despite the regular intake of at least three drugs lowering blood pressure by different mechanisms, one of them being a diuretic. It now appears justified to include, unless contraindicated or not tolerated, a blocker of the renin-angiotensin system and a calcium channel blocker in this drug regimen, not only to gain antihypertensive efficacy, but also to prevent or regress target organ damage and delay the development of cardiorenal complications. A non-negligible fraction of treatment-resistant hypertension have normal "out of office" blood pressures. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and/or home blood pressure recording should therefore be routinely performed to identify patients with true resistant hypertension, i.e. patients who are more likely to benefit from treatment intensification.
    Blood pressure 11/2013;