Diseases of Aquatic Organisms

Publisher: Inter Research

Journal description

Diseases affect all facets of life - at the cell, tissue, organ, individual, population and ecosystem level. Since life originated in an aquatic medium, studies of disease phenomena in the wide array of aquatic taxa contribute significantly to the analysis, comprehension, prevention and treatment of diseases in general, including those of organisms now inhabiting terrestrial environments and of humans. DAO aims to fully cover these important research areas

Current impact factor: 1.73

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2011 Impact Factor 2.201

Additional details

5-year impact 2.10
Cited half-life 8.80
Immediacy index 0.31
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.53
Website Diseases of Aquatic Organisms website
Other titles Diseases of aquatic organisms (Online)
ISSN 1616-1580
OCLC 44210633
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Inter Research

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Author's pre-print on author's personal website, institutional website or institutional repository
    • Author's post-print on author's personal website or institutional website
    • Author's post-print on institutional repository after 12 months embargo
    • Authors covered by funding agency rules, may post author's post-print in PubMed Central after a 6 months embargo
    • If mandated by a funding agency or institution, the author's post-print may be deposited in institutional repository before 12 months, as long addendum is submitted
    • Publisher's version/PDF may be used after 5 years embargo
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged
    • Reviewed 31/01/2014
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recent reports suggest an emergence of novel Chryseobacterium spp. associated with aquaculture-reared fish worldwide. Herein, we report on multiple Chryseobacterium spp. infecting Great Lakes fishes that are highly similar to previously detected isolates from Europe, Africa, and Asia but have never before been reported in North America. Polyphasic characterization, which included extensive physiological, morphological, and biochemical analyses, fatty acid profiling, and phylogenetic analyses based upon partial 16S rRNA gene sequences, highlighted the diversity of Great Lakes' fish-associated chryseobacteria and also suggested that at least 2 taxa represent potentially novel Chryseobacterium spp. Screening for the ability of representative chryseobacteria to elicit lesions in experimentally challenged fish showed that they induced varying degrees of pathology, some of which were severe and resulted in host death. Median lethal dose (LD50) experiments for the isolate that elicited the most extensive pathology (Chryseobacterium sp. T28) demonstrated that the LD50 exceeded 4.5 × 108 cfu, thereby suggesting its role as a facultative fish-pathogenic bacterium. Histopathological changes in T28-infected fish included epithelial hyperplasia of the secondary lamellae and interlamellar space that resulted in secondary lamellar fusion, monocytic infiltrate, and mucus cell hyperplasia, all of which are consistent with branchitis, along with monocytic myositis, hemorrhage within the muscle, liver, adipose tissue, and ovaries, spongiosis of white matter of the brain, multifocal edema within the granular cell layer of the cerebellar cortex, and renal tubular degeneration and necrosis. The findings of this study underscore the widespread presence of chryseobacteria infecting Great Lakes fish.
    Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 03/2015; 113(2):113-125. DOI:10.3354/dao02819
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    ABSTRACT: As part of a state-wide multispecies survey of amphibian diseases, sampling was conducted at Archbold Biological Station, Venus, Florida, USA, on 15 April 2011. Gross examination of southern toad (Anaxyrus terrestris) larvae was unremarkable, but infections by a mesomycetozoean-like organism were observed in longitudinally sectioned routine haematoxylin and eosin-stained histologic slides. In 100% of the sectioned specimens examined (n = 5), a high density of the organism, representing several developmental stages, was found in the central nervous system, mainly in the spinal cord, brain, retina and optic nerve. No host inflammatory responses were found to be associated with the parasitic infection. Free, mature schizonts were occasionally found in the gill chamber and, more commonly, in the dorsal roof area. No organisms were found in other organs examined histologically, i.e. liver, kidney, heart, alimentary tract, exocrine pancreas and skeletal muscles. Presumptive mesomycetozoean ichthyophonids in anurans are usually reported to be pathogenic, especially affecting skeletal muscle tissue and causing death. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a similar organism infecting primarily the central nervous system in an amphibian.
    Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 03/2015; 113(2):157-162. DOI:10.3354/dao02836
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    ABSTRACT: In Australia, the spread of the ostreid herpesvirus-1 microvariant (OsHV-1 µVar) threatens the Pacific oyster industry. There is an urgent need to develop an experimental infection model in order to study the pathogenesis of the virus under controlled laboratory conditions. The present study constitutes the first attempt to use archived frozen oysters as a source of inoculum, based on the Australian OsHV-1 µVar strain. Experiments were conducted to test (1) virus infectivity, (2) the dose-response relationship for OsHV-1, and (3) the best conditions in which to store infective viral inoculum. Intramuscular injection of a viral inoculum consistently led to an onset of mortality 48 h post-injection and a final cumulative mortality exceeding 90%, in association with high viral loads (1 × 105 to 3 × 107 copies of virus mg-1) in dead individuals. For the first time, an infective inoculum was produced from frozen oysters (tissues stored at -80°C for 6 mo). Storage of purified viral inoculum at +4°C for 3 mo provided similar results to use of fresh inoculum, whereas storage at -20°C, -80°C and room temperature was detrimental to infectivity. A dose-response relationship for OsHV-1 was identified but further research is recommended to determine the most appropriate viral concentration for development of infection models that would be used for different purposes. Overall, this work highlights the best practices and potential issues that may occur in the development of a reproducible and transferable infection model for studying the pathogenicity of the Australian OsHV-1 strain in Crassostrea gigas under experimental conditions.
    Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 03/2015; 113(2):137-147. DOI:10.3354/dao02826
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    ABSTRACT: The dugong Dugong dugon is classified as Vulnerable to extinction but may be endangered in some regions. Cause of death in stranded dugongs has not been determined in a large proportion of animals examined, with investigations hindered by limited information on dugong health and diseases, and paucity of knowledge of common or endemic pathological findings. Here we describe pathological findings in harvested dugongs from the relatively pristine area of central Torres Strait, and we characterise lesions attributable to drowning. Other recorded lesions were mild and predominated by host reaction to the presence of trematodes within the gastrointestinal tracts, liver and pancreas. Ascarid worm burdens were low in comparison to dugongs from developed coastlines. Hepatocellular lipofuscin and ferritin pigmentation were commonly observed, more pronounced in livers of older animals and concurrent with periportal and bridging fibrosis. Lesions attributable to drowning included incomplete collapse of lungs, dorsal or diffuse pulmonary congestion, mild intra-alveolar haemorrhage and oedema, mild interstitial oedema and rupture of peripheral alveolar septae with acute myofibre fragmentation and degeneration. No accumulation of foam or aspiration of water or particulate matter was observed, suggesting that dugongs 'dry drown'. Morphometric features of normal spleen are also presented. Characterisation of common pathological findings and those attributable to drowning in this species will aid in the interpretation of post mortem findings for the significant number of dugongs found deceased along urbanised coastlines.
    Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 03/2015; 113(2):89-102. DOI:10.3354/dao02825
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    ABSTRACT: Fish herpesviruses and their hosts may have coevolved for 400 to 450 million yr. During this coexistence, the hosts have equipped themselves with an elaborate immune system to defend themselves from invading viruses, whereas the viruses have developed strategies to evade host immunity, including the expression of cytokine genes that have been captured from the host. Taking advantage of our experimental model for cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) persistence in carp, we studied the gene expression of host and virus immune-related genes in each stage of infection: acute, persistent and reactivation phases. IFNγ-1, IFNγ-2, IL-12 and IL-10 host genes, and the CyHV-3 vIL-10 gene (khvIL-10) were highly significantly up-regulated in different phases of CyHV-3 infection. Similarly, host IL-1β was up-regulated in the acute phase of CyHV-3 infection. There was no significant difference in the expression of host TNFα-1 and MHC-II genes during all phases of CyHV-3 infection. Based on the expression profile of carp immune-related genes in each stage of CyHV-3 infection, we propose a possible interaction between carp IL-12, carp IL-10 and khvIL-10 during the course of viral infection. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the expression of cytokine genes during all phases (acute, persistent and reactivation) of CyHV-3 infection.
    Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 03/2015; 113(2):127-135. DOI:10.3354/dao02824
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    ABSTRACT: Vibrio alginolyticus is an opportunistic pathogen which may affect different aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to assess the probiotic properties and the protective mode of action of Lactobacillus pentosus H16 against V. alginolyticus 03/8525, through in vitro and in vivo studies using Artemia franciscana (hereafter Artemia). This strain showed antimicrobial activity against V. alginolyticus 03/8525 and Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida ATCC33658 possibly related to lactobacilli organic acid production. It was able to survive at high rainbow trout bile concentrations and showed high selective adhesion to rainbow trout mucus (1.2 × 105 ± 8.0 × 103 cells cm-2). H16 outcompeted V. alginolyticus 03/8525 and A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida ATCC33658, greatly reducing their adherence to rainbow trout mucus (64.8 and 74.1%, respectively). Moreover, H16 produced a cell-bound biosurfactant which caused an important decrease in the surface tension. H16 also protected Artemia nauplii against mortality when it was administered previous to V. alginolyticus 03/8525 inoculation. Furthermore, H16 bioencapsulated in Artemia, suggesting that it is possible to use live carriers in its administration. We conclude that the ability of L. pentosus H16 to selectively adhere to mucosal surfaces and produce cell-bound biosurfactants, displacing pathogenic strains, in addition to its antimicrobial activity, confer H16 competitive advantages against pathogens as demonstrated in in vivo challenge experiments. Thus, L. pentosus H16, a marine bacterium from the intestinal tract of hake, is an interesting probiotic for Artemia culture and also has the potential to prevent vibriosis in other aquaculture activities such as larvae culture and fish farming.
    Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 02/2015; 113(1):41-50. DOI:10.3354/dao02815
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    ABSTRACT: The amphibian skin fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) occurs widely in Puerto Rico and is thought to be responsible for the apparent extinction of 3 species of endemic frogs in the genus Eleutherodactylus, known as coquis. To examine immune defenses which may protect surviving species, we induced secretion of skin peptides from adult common coqui frogs E. coqui collected from upland forests at El Yunque. By matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry, we were unable to detect peptide signals suggestive of antimicrobial peptides, and enriched peptides showed no capacity to inhibit growth of Bd. Thus, it appears that E. coqui depend on other skin defenses to survive in the presence of this deadly fungus.
    Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 02/2015; 113(1):81-3. DOI:10.3354/dao02823
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    ABSTRACT: Chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is responsible for massive declines and extinctions of amphibians worldwide. The most common method for detecting Bd is quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). qPCR is a highly sensitive detection technique, but its ability to determine the presence and accurately quantify the amount of Bd is also contingent on the efficiency of the DNA extraction method used prior to PCR. Using qPCR, we compared the extraction efficiency of 3 different extraction methods commonly used for Bd detection across a range of zoospore quantities: PrepMan Ultra Reagent, Qiagen DNeasy Blood and Tissue Kit, and Mobio PowerSoil DNA Isolation Kit. We show that not all extraction methods led to successful detection of Bd for the low zoospore quantities and that there was variation in the estimated zoospore equivalents among the methods, which demonstrates that these methods have different extraction efficiencies. These results highlight the importance of considering the extraction method when comparing across studies. The Qiagen DNeasy kit had the highest efficiency. We also show that replicated estimates of less than 1 zoospore can result from known zoospore concentrations; therefore, such results should be considered when obtained from field data. Additionally, we discuss the implications of our findings for interpreting previous studies and for conducting future Bd surveys. It is imperative to use the most efficient DNA extraction method in tandem with the highly sensitive qPCR technique in order to accurately diagnose the presence of Bd as well as other pathogens.
    Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 02/2015; 113(1):1-8. DOI:10.3354/dao02822
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    ABSTRACT: Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) caused by the myxozoan parasite Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae is a severe parasitic disease of salmonid fish. Estimates of genetic variation in parasite populations across Europe are currently lacking. We developed the first polymorphic microsatellite markers for T. bryosalmonae using Illumina MiSeq sequence data derived from genomic DNA. Twelve polymorphic loci were identified from 24 tested loci. Allelic variation was low at most loci, ranging from 2 to 6 (average 3.0). The markers developed here are expected to be useful in future genetic studies of T. bryosalmonae, aimed at further understanding the dispersal of the parasite, host-parasite relationships and the epidemiology of PKD.
    Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 02/2015; 113(1):85-8. DOI:10.3354/dao02833
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    ABSTRACT: Vibrio ordalii is the causative agent of atypical vibriosis and has the potential to cause severe losses in salmonid aquaculture, but the factors determining its virulence have not yet been elucidated. In this work, cell-surface-related properties of the isolates responsible for outbreaks in Atlantic salmon were investigated. We also briefly examined whether pathogenicity against fish varied for V. ordalii strains with differing cell-surface properties. Hydrocarbon adhesions indicated the hydrophobic character of V. ordalii, although only 4 of 18 isolates induced haemagglutination in Atlantic salmon erythrocytes. A minority of the studied isolates (6 of 18) and the type strain ATCC 33509T produced low-grade biofilm formation on polyethylene surface after 2 h post-inoculation (hpi), but no strains were slime producers. Interestingly, V. ordalii isolates showed wide differences in hydrophobicity. Therefore, we chose 3 V. ordalii isolates (Vo-LM-03, Vo-LM-18 and Vo-LM-16) as representative of each hydrophobicity group (strongly hydrophobic, relatively hydrophobic and quasi-hydrophilic, respectively) and ATCC 33509T was used in the pathogenicity studies. All tested V. ordalii strains except the type strain resisted the killing activity of Atlantic salmon mucus and serum, and could proliferate in these components. Moreover, all V. ordalii isolates adhered to SHK-1 cells, causing damage to fish cell membrane permeability after 16 hpi. Virulence testing using rainbow trout revealed that isolate Vo-LM-18 was more virulent than isolates Vo-LM-03 and Vo-LM-16, indicating some relationship between haemagglutination and virulence, but not with hydrophobicity.
    Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 02/2015; 113(1):9-23. DOI:10.3354/dao02820
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    ABSTRACT: Phaeohyphomycoses are emerging and opportunistic diseases caused by dematiaceous fungi that infect many animal species. This paper describes a case of cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis in an Antillean manatee Trichechus manatus manatus caused by Bipolaris hawaiiensis. Blackish skin lesions were observed in an Antillean manatee calf held captive in Brazil. Direct examination of skin scraping from the affected areas revealed the presence of dematious hyphae. Culture of skin fragments led to the isolation and subsequent identification of B. hawaiiensis as the etiologic agent. Treatment with itraconazole for 14 d was effective. Infections by Bipolaris spp. are rare in animals, and this is the first report of B. hawaiiensis in veterinary medicine.
    Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 02/2015; 113(1):69-73. DOI:10.3354/dao02827
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    ABSTRACT: We describe a novel syndrome in crayfish, eroded swimmeret syndrome (ESS), affecting wild female signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus. ESS causes partial or total swimmeret erosion. We observed ESS only in female signal crayfish larger than 40 mm carapace length, i.e. sexually mature and probably having carried eggs at least once. The eroded swimmerets were melanised, indicating a crayfish immune system response. We isolated Fusarium tricinctum species complex (SC), F. sambucinum SC, Saprolegnia parasitica and S. australisfrom the melanised tissue of the eroded swimmerets. ESS includes chronic Aphanomyces astaci infection and a secondary infection by Fusariumsp. In Sweden, we found female signal crayfish with ESS in 6 out of 11 populations with a prevalence below 1% in lakes with commercially productive signal crayfish populations and higher than 29% in lakes with documented signal crayfish population crashes. In Finland, the ESS prevalence was from 3.4 to 6.2% in a commercially productive population. None of the sampled male signal crayfish showed signs of ESS. A caging experiment indicated that females with at least 1 lost swimmeret carried on average 25% fewer fertilized eggs compared to females with intact swimmerets. ESS could significantly reduce individual female fecundity and thus could also affect fecundity at the population level. The decline in reproductive success due to ESS could be among the factors contributing to fluctuations in wild signal crayfish populations.
    Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 01/2015; 112(3):219-228. DOI:10.3354/dao02811