The Review of Diabetic Studies (Rev Diabet Stud )

Publisher: Society for Biomedical Diabetes Research

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  • ISSN
    1614-0575
  • OCLC
    150315954
  • Material type
    Series, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Dyslipoproteinemia is highly prevalent in diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Both diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are associated with hypertriglyceridemia, lower high-density lipoprotein, and higher small, dense low-density lipoprotein. A number of observational studies have reported that dyslipidemia may be associated with albuminuria, renal function impairment, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the general population, and especially in CKD and DKD patients. Diabetic glomerulopathy and the related albuminuria are the main manifestations of DKD. Numerous animal studies support the finding that glomerular atherosclerosis is the main mechanism of glomerulosclerosis in CKD and DKD. Some randomized, controlled trials suggest the use of statins for the prevention of albuminuria and renal function impairment in CKD and DKD patients. However, a large clinical study, the Study of Heart and Renal Protection (SHARP), does not support that statins could reduce ESRD in CKD. In this article, we analyze the complex association of dyslipoproteinemia with DKD and deduce its relevance from animal studies, observational studies, and clinical trials. We show that special subgroups could benefit from the statin treatment.
    The Review of Diabetic Studies 01/2013; 10(2-3):110-20.
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Despite the fact that statins have been prescribed widely, cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death in diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to reassess the benefits of statins for CVD prevention in patients with diabetes mellitus. Methods: Two independent investigators searched for prospective, randomized statin trials that investigated the power of reducing CVD in statin-treated patients. The search was performed using Pubmed, Web of Science, and CENTRAL databases. Data was extracted from eligible studies. Results: A total of 7061 articles were surveyed and 22 articles were identified as eligible articles. The meta-analyses of the 22 trials showed that statin treatment was positively associated with a lowered risk of CVD in the following groups: (i) total population with pooled odds ratios (OR) of 0.791 (95 % CI: 0.74-0.846, p < 0.001), (ii) diabetic population with OR 0.792 (95% CI: 0.721-0.872, p < 0.001), and (iii) non-diabetic population with OR 0.791 (95% CI: 0.730-0.857, p < 0.001). In diabetic patients, statins were also helpful in the primary and secondary prevention of CVD, with pooled ORs of 0.757 (95% CI: 0.676 to 0.847, p < 0.001) and 0.800 (95% CI: 0.712 to 0.898, p < 0.001), respectively. However, when trials that investigated only diabetic patients (i.e., CARDS, 4D, and ASPEN) were included in the analysis, statin treatment was not found to reduce CVD significantly (OR: 0.817, 95% CI: 0.649 to 1.029, p = 0.086). Furthermore, after performing subgroup analysis, no benefit of statin treatment was found in primary prevention (OR: 0.774, 95% CI: 0.506 to 1.186, p = 0.240) or secondary prevention (OR: 0.893, 95% CI: 0.734 to 1.088, p = 0.262) of CVD in diabetic patients. Conclusions: Although our study may be limited by unmeasured confounders and heterogeneity among the studies included, the results suggest that the effects of statins in the prevention of CVD in diabetic patients are not only beneficial. More informative data are needed to verify the benefits of statins in the protection against CVD in diabetic patients.
    The Review of Diabetic Studies 01/2013; 10(2-3):157-70.
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    ABSTRACT: Dessert compositions may conform to diabetic diet when it contains low sugar or artificial sweetener to replace sugar. However, it is still questionable whether glycemic control in type 2 diabetes patients is improved by the use of diet-conforming dessert compositions. To compare, in type 2 diabetes patients, the glycemic, insulin, and C-peptide responses to seven modified dessert compositions for diabetics (D-dessert) with the response to seven similar desserts of non-modified composition, used as control desserts (C-dessert). Seventy type 2 diabetes patients were allocated to seven groups of ten. On three occasions, each patient received either the meal which consisted of bread and cheese, or the meal and D-dessert, or the meal and the respective C-dessert. Differences in postprandial glucose, insulin, and C-peptide were evaluated using analysis of repeated measures at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after consumption. D-cake and D-pastry cream resulted in lower glucose levels (8.81 ± 0.32 mmol/l and 8.67 ± 0.36 mmol/l, respectively) and D-strawberry jelly in lower insulin levels (16.46 ± 2.66 μU/ml) than the respective C-desserts (9.99 ± 0.32 mmol/l for C-cake, 9.28 ± 0.36 mmol/l for C-pastry cream, and 27.42 ± 2.66 μU/ml for C-strawberry jelly) (p < 0.05). Compared with the meal, D-cake did not increase glucose or insulin levels (p < 0.05), while C-cake did (p < 0.05). D-pastry cream increased glucose to a lesser extent than C-pastry cream (p < 0.05). Similar effects were reported for D-milk dessert, D-millefeuille, and D-chocolate on glucose, insulin, and C-peptide at specific timepoints. D-crème caramel showed no effect. Some desserts formulated with sugar substitutes and soluble fiber may have a favorable effect on postprandial levels of glucose, insulin, and C-peptide in type 2 diabetic patients.
    The Review of Diabetic Studies 01/2013; 10(1):39-48.
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    ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) markedly increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Endothelial dysfunction (ED), an early indicator of diabetic vascular disease, is common in T2D and independently predicts cardiovascular risk. Although the precise pathogenic mechanisms for ED in T2D remain unclear, at inception they probably involve uncoupling of both endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, as well as the activation of vascular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase. The major contributing factors include dyslipoproteinemia, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Therapeutic interventions are designed to target these pathophysiological factors that underlie ED. Therapeutic interventions, including lifestyle changes, antiglycemic agents and lipid-regulating therapies, aim to correct hyperglycemia and atherogenic dyslipidemia and to improve ED. However, high residual cardiovascular risk is seen in both research and clinical practice settings. Well-designed studies of endothelial function in appropriately selected volunteers afford a good opportunity to test new therapeutic interventions, paving the way for clinical trials and utilization in the care of the diabetic patient. However, based on the results from a recent clinical trial, niacin should not be added to a statin in individuals with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and very well controlled low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.
    The Review of Diabetic Studies 01/2013; 10(2-3):133-56.
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    ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress plays an important role in the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) is a powerful antioxidant that may have a protective role in diabetic cardiac dysfunction. We investigated the possible beneficial effect of alpha-lipoic acid on diabetic left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in children and adolescents with asymptomatic type 1 diabetes (T1D). Thirty T1D patients (aged 10-14) were randomized to receive insulin treatment (n = 15) or insulin plus alpha-lipoic acid 300 mg twice daily (n = 15) for four months. Age and sex matched healthy controls (n = 15) were also included. Patients were evaluated with conventional 2-dimensional echocardiographic examination (2D), pulsed tissue Doppler (PTD), and 2-dimensional longitudinal strain echocardiography (2DS) before and after therapy. Glutathione, malondialdhyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), Fas ligand (Fas-L), matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), and troponin-I were determined and correlated to echocardiographic parameters. Diabetic patients had significantly lower levels of glutathione and significantly higher MDA, NO, TNF-alpha, Fas-L, MMP-2, and troponin-I levels than control subjects. The expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was also increased in diabetic patients. Significant correlations of mitral e'/a' ratio and left ventricular global peak systolic strain with glutathione, MDA, NO, TNF-alpha, and Fas-L were observed in diabetic patients. Alpha-lipoic acid significantly increased glutathione level and significantly decreased MDA, NO, TNF-alpha, Fas-L, MMP-2, troponin-I levels, and TGF-beta gene expression. Moreover, alpha-lipoic acid significantly increased mitral e'/a' ratio and left ventricular global peak systolic strain in diabetic patients. These findings suggest that alpha-lipoic acid may have a role in preventing the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy in type 1 diabetes.
    The Review of Diabetic Studies 01/2013; 10(1):58-67.
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    ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with the development and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Statins have an established efficacy in the management of dyslipidemia primarily by decreasing the levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and thus decreasing CVD risk. They also have a favorable safety profile. Despite the statin-mediated benefit of CVD risk reduction a residual CVD risk remains, especially in T2DM patients with high triglyceride (TG) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) values. Fibrates decrease TG levels, increase HDL-C concentrations, and improve many other atherosclerosis-related variables. Fibrate/statin co-administration improves the overall lipoprotein profile in patients with mixed dyslipidemia and may reduce the residual CVD risk during statin therapy. However, limited data exists regarding the effects of statin/fibrate combination on CVD outcomes in patients with T2DM. In the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) study the statin/fibrate combination did not significantly reduce the rate of CVD events compared with simvastatin/placebo in patients with T2DM. However, it did show a possible benefit in a pre-specified analysis in the subgroup of patients with high TG and low HDL-C levels. Furthermore, in the ACCORD study the simvastatin/fenofibrate combination significantly reduced the rate of progression of retinopathy compared with statin/placebo administration in patients with T2DM. The present review presents the available data regarding the effects of statin/fibrate combination in patients with T2DM and atherogenic mixed dyslipidemia.
    The Review of Diabetic Studies 01/2013; 10(2-3):171-90.
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are at a markedly increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Dyslipidemia is a common risk factor and a strong predictor of CVD in T2D patients. Although statins decrease the incidence of CVD in T2D, residual cardiovascular risk remains high despite the achievement of optimal or near-optimal plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations. This may, in part, be due to uncorrected atherogenic dyslipidemia. Hypertriglyceridemia, the driving force behind diabetic dyslipidemia, results from hepatic overproduction and/or delayed clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. In patients treated with a statin to LDL-cholesterol goals, the addition of ezetimibe, fenofibrate, niacin, or n-3 fatty acid ethyl esters may be required to correct the persistent atherogenic dyslipidemia. Clinical trial evidence describing best practice is limited, but recent data supports the strategy of adding fenofibrate to a statin, and suggests specific benefits in dyslipidemic patients and in the improvement of diabetic retinopathy. However, based on results from a recent clinical trial, niacin should not be added to a statin in individuals with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and very well controlled LDL-cholesterol. Further evidence is required to support the role of ezetimibe and n-3 fatty acids in treating residual CVD risk in statin-treated T2D patients.
    The Review of Diabetic Studies 01/2013; 10(2-3):191-203.
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    ABSTRACT: In the last decade, significant improvements have been achieved in maternal-fetal and diabetic care which make pregnancy possible in an increasing number of type 1 diabetic women with end-organ damage. Optimal counseling is important to make the advancements available to the relevant patients and to ensure the safety of mother and child. A systematic review will help to provide a survey of the available methods and to promote optimal counseling. To review the literature on diabetic nephropathy and pregnancy in type 1 diabetes. Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were scanned in November 2012 (MESH, Emtree, and free terms on pregnancy and diabetic nephropathy). Studies were selected that report on pregnancy outcomes in type 1 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy in 1980-2012 (i.e. since the detection of microalbuminuria). Case reports with less than 5 cases and reports on kidney grafts were excluded. Paper selection and data extraction were performed in duplicate and matched for consistency. As the relevant reports were highly heterogeneous, we decided to perform a narrative review, with discussions oriented towards the period of publication. Of the 1058 references considered, 34 fulfilled the selection criteria, and one was added from reference lists. The number of cases considered in the reports, which generally involved single-center studies, ranged from 5 to 311. The following issues were significant: (i) the evidence is scattered over many reports of differing format and involving small series (only 2 included over 100 patients), (ii) definitions are non-homogeneous, (iii) risks for pregnancy-related adverse events are increased (preterm delivery, caesarean section, perinatal death, and stillbirth) and do not substantially change over time, except for stillbirth (from over 10% to about 5%), (iv) the increase in risks with nephropathy progression needs confirmation in large homogeneous series, (v) the newly reported increase in malformations in diabetic nephropathy underlines the need for further studies. The heterogeneous evidence from studies on diabetic nephropathy in pregnancy emphasizes the need for further perspective studies on this issue.
    The Review of Diabetic Studies 01/2013; 10(1):6-26.
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the major microvascular complications of diabetes. In developed countries, it is the most common cause of preventable blindness in diabetic adults. Dyslipidemia, a major systemic disorder, is one of the most important risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Patients with diabetes have an increased risk of suffering from dyslipidemia concurrently. The aim of this article is to review the association between diabetic retinopathy (DR) and traditional/nontraditional lipid markers, possible mechanisms involving lipid metabolism and diabetic retinopathy, and the effect of lipid-lowering therapies on diabetic retinopathy. For traditional lipid markers, evidence is available that total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol are associated with the presence of hard exudates in patients with DR. The study of nontraditional lipid markers is advancing only in recently years. The severity of DR is inversely associated with apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), whereas ApoB and the ApoB-to-ApoA1 ratio are positively associated with DR. The role of lipid-lowering medication is to work as adjunctive therapy for better control of diabetes-related complications including DR.
    The Review of Diabetic Studies 01/2013; 10(2-3):121-32.
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    ABSTRACT: Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular complications in people with diabetes. Lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels is effective in the primary and secondary prevention of diabetic vascular complications. However, LDL-C levels do not reflect all aspects of diabetic dyslipidemia, which is characterized by hypertriglyceridemia and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Statins, nicotinic acid, and fibrates play a role in treating diabetic dyslipidemia. Atherosclerosis is a major disorder of the blood vessel wall in patients with diabetes. A number of antihyperlipidemic agents may be beneficial and exhibit effects at the actual site of vascular disease and not only on plasma lipoprotein concentrations. Several novel therapeutic compounds are currently being developed. These include additional therapeutics for LDL-C, triglycerides, HDL-C, and modulators of inflammation that can be used as possible synergic agents for the treatment of atherosclerosis and irregularities in plasma lipoprotein concentrations.
    The Review of Diabetic Studies 01/2013; 10(2-3):204-12.
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    ABSTRACT: This article reviews the relationship between dyslipidemia, chronic kidney disease, and cardiovascular diseases in patients with diabetes. Diabetes mellitus is associated with complications in the cardiovascular and renal system, and is increasing in prevalence worldwide. Modification of the multifactorial risk factors, in particular dyslipidemia, has been suggested to reduce the rates of diabetes-related complications. Dyslipidemia in diabetes is a condition that includes hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein levels, and increased small and dense low-density lipoprotein particles. This condition is associated with higher cardiovascular risk and mortality in diabetic patients. Current treatment guidelines focus on lowering the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level; multiple trials have confirmed the cardiovascular benefits of treatment with statins. Chronic kidney disease also contributes to dyslipidemia, and dyslipidemia in turn is related to the occurrence and progression of diabetic nephropathy. Different patterns of dyslipidemia are associated with different stages of diabetic nephropathy. Some trials have shown that treatment with statins not only decreased the risk of cardiovascular events, but also delayed the progression of diabetic nephropathy. However, studies using statins as the sole treatment of hyperlipidemia in patients on dialysis have not shown benefits with respect to cardiovascular risk. Diabetic patients with nephropathy have a higher risk of cardiovascular events than those without nephropathy. The degree of albuminuria and the reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate are also correlated with the risk of cardiovascular events. Treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers to reduce albuminuria in diabetic patients has been shown to decrease the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
    The Review of Diabetic Studies 01/2013; 10(2-3):88-100.
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) increases with age. Among other changes, testosterone levels decline with age. The relationship between testosterone levels and MetS components in older subjects has not been clearly defined until today. The aim of this work was to evaluate the relationship between total serum testosterone levels and MetS and its components. The working sample consisted of 467 elderly individuals (mean age 75 ± 6 years old, n = 220 men) from Ikaria Island, Greece. MetS was defined according to the NCEP ATPIII criteria. MetS prevalence was 52% in men and 64% in women. Those with MetS had lower testosterone levels; a 10 ng/dl increase in testosterone was associated with a 3% reduction in odds of having MetS in men (95% CI: 0.95-0.99), but not in women. This remained the result after various adjustments had been made, including daily hours of sleep. Testosterone was inversely associated with abnormal waist circumference, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), insulin, and HDL cholesterol levels in men only. When lipid categories, hs-CRP, BMI, and insulin resistance levels were taken into account, testosterone lost its significance in predicting MetS (p < 0.20), suggesting that these markers possess a mediating effect. In elderly men, low serum testosterone was associated with MetS. Lipids, BMI, inflammation, and insulin resistance levels seem to explain this relationship, suggesting a potential mediating effect. This finding may support a research hypothesis relating serum testosterone to cardiovascular disease, which requires further research.
    The Review of Diabetic Studies 01/2013; 10(1):27-38.
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    ABSTRACT: In Asian populations, diabetes mellitus is increasing and has become an important health problem in recent decades. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the most important complications and the most common cause of death in diabetic patients. Among the risk factors of CVD, elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol has been a major concern. Studies suggested that serum triglyceride may also play a role in predicting CVD in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, but the association is still debated. In this review, we summarized published studies focusing on the relationship between serum triglyceride and CVD disease in Asian diabetic patients. Ten studies conducted in six different Asian countries (three from Hong Kong, two from Taiwan, tow from Japan, one from Indonesia, one from South India, and one from South Korea) were summarized and discussed. CVD was subdivided into coronary heart disease, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease. Of the ten studies analyzed, one focused on CVD, five on coronary heart disease, three on stroke, three on peripheral arterial disease, and one on mortality from CVD. Studies from Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Japan suggested that triglyceride is a significant and independent risk factor for coronary heart disease, but not a significant risk factor for stroke (studies conducted in Japan and South Korea) or peripheral arterial disease (studies conducted in Taiwan, Indonesia, and South India). Although serum triglyceride may be a significant risk factor for coronary heart disease in Asian diabetic patients, clinical trials evaluating whether lowering triglycerides using fibrates can reduce the risk of coronary heart disease in these patients need to be initiated.
    The Review of Diabetic Studies 01/2013; 10(2-3):101-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a risk factor for mothers to develop type 2 diabetes (T2D) postpartum, and for their children to develop obesity. The aim of the ongoing POGO study is to identify long-lasting changes in the maternal and fetal metabolism and microbiome, after GDM, which contribute to subsequent development of T2D and obesity. Women screened for GDM are asked to attend a postpartum study visit together with their offspring. At the visit, demographic, nutritional, and anthropometric data are recorded. Additionally, data about physical activity, metabolism, and genetic susceptibility are collected using accelerometers, breath gas analyses, 75g oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT), and bio-samples such as blood and stool. To date, 121 women (median follow-up time postpartum: 5.5 years) have been enrolled together with 133 index children. GDM has been diagnosed using OGTT in 105 women (and 117 children). It showed that 47 mothers had abnormal glucose tolerance, including 19 cases of impaired glucose tolerance, 19 of impaired fasting glucose, eight with T2D, and one with type 1 diabetes (T1D). The prevalence of obesity in the offspring of GDM mothers was 5.1%. Of 61 children tested by OGTT, three were diagnosed with impaired glucose tolerance, another three with impaired fasting glucose, and none with T1D or T2D. The POGO study will contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis of T2D and obesity after GDM, and will thus help to develop appropriate prevention and intervention strategies. This article presents the first results of the ongoing study, which are looking promising.
    The Review of Diabetic Studies 01/2013; 10(1):49-57.
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    ABSTRACT: There is extensive but controversial evidence on the diverse effects of statins on the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Some of these effects may limit the benefits of statins in terms of cardiovascular risk reduction. To identify the conditions for beneficial effects, this study investigated the response to atorvastatin and simvastatin treatment in type 2 diabetic patients with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). 2,872 subjects with type 2 diabetes from a disease management program were investigated. Patients with LDL-C ≥130 mg/dl or total cholesterol ≥200 mg/dl were put onto statin therapy by the National Health Insurance system in Taiwan. 1,080 patients who completed 1 year of statin treatment were analyzed. There were significant reductions in LDL-C in both the atorvastatin (37.1%) and simvastatin (34.3%) group after one year of treatment compared with baseline levels. Unexpectedly, the majority of diabetic patients who received atorvastatin or simvastatin did not show an increase in HDL-C levels. 59.8% of patients had a significant HDL-C reduction (ΔHDL-C ≤ -3%) after atorvastatin treatment. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the following patients were at higher risk of HDL-C reduction after 12 months: (i) patients in whom statin therapy was initiated aged <65 years and who had a BMI ≥24 kg/m(2), (ii) male patients with a baseline HDL-C >40 mg/dl, and (iii) female patients with a baseline HDL-C >50 mg/dl. However, diabetic patients with severe atherogenic dyslipidemia (LDL-C ≥130, TG ≥204, and HDL-C ≤34 mg/dl) obtained more benefits in terms of HDL-C change after statin therapy. Diabetic patients, except those with severe atherogenic dyslipidemia, are prone to a decrease in serum HDL-C level after statin treatment, particularly after atorvastatin treatment.
    The Review of Diabetic Studies 01/2013; 10(2-3):213-22.
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes and nephropathy are important challenges during pregnancy, increasingly encountered because of the advances in maternal-fetal care. To evaluate the maternal and fetal outcomes recorded in "severe" diabetic nephropathy in type 1 diabetic patients referred to nephrological healtcare. The study was performed in an outpatient unit dedicated to kidney diseases in pregnancy (with joint nephrological and obstetric follow-up and strict cooperation with the diabetes unit). 383 pregnancies were referred to the outpatient unit in 2000-2012, 14 of which were complicated by type 1 diabetes. The report includes 12 deliveries, including 2 pregnancies in 1 patient; one twin pregnancy; 2 spontaneous abortions were not included. All cases had long-standing type 1 diabetes (median of 21 (15-31) years), relatively high median age (35 (29-40) years) and end-organ damage (all patients presented laser-treated retinopathy and half of them clinical neuropathy). Median glomerular filtration rate (GFR) at referral was 67 ml/min (48-122.6), proteinuria was 1.6 g/day (0.1-6.3 g/day). Proteinuria steeply increased in 11/12 patients, reaching the nephrotic range in nine (6 above 5 g/day). One patient increased by 2 chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages. Support therapy included blood pressure and diabetes control, bed rest, and moderate protein restriction. All children were preterm (7 early preterm); early spontaneous labor occurred in 4/12 patients. All singletons were appropriate for gestational age and developed normally after birth. The male twin child died 6 days after birth (after surgery for great vessel transposition). Diabetic patients with severe diabetic nephropathy are still present a considerable challenge. Therefore, further investigations are required, particularly on proteinuria management and the occurrence of spontaneous labor.
    The Review of Diabetic Studies 01/2013; 10(1):68-78.