Journal of Pest Science (J PEST SCI )

Publisher: Springer Verlag


The Journal of Pest Science provides authoritative coverage of research developments and advances in the fight against pests. Through peer-reviewed original research papers and informative contributions on current topics, the journal acts as a bridge between academic research and application. While most journals on pest management and plant protection concentrate on damage inflicted by insects, bacteria and viruses, this journal also takes into consideration so-called higher animals, such as snails, birds, and certain reptiles. The contributions provide a broad overview of pest science in the areas of agriculture, horticulture, forestry, conservation, stored products research, and health and safety aspects. In doing so, the journal devotes special attention to the development of new methods to control pests, including their effectiveness and side-effects on useful plants. Journal previously known as Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde (1436-5693).

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    Journal of pest science (Online)
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Springer Verlag

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Publications in this journal

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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nezara viridula (L.), Euschistus servus (Say), and Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) are economic pests of cotton in the southeastern USA. Because adult stink bugs exhibit edge-mediated dispersal at crop-to-crop interfaces as they colonize cotton, strategic placement of physical barriers at these interfaces could manage these pests. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a physical barrier, either synthetic or plant-based, at the peanut-to-cotton interface for suppressing stink bugs that would move to cotton. In 2012 and 2013, sorghum sudangrass (2.4 and 2.1 m high, respectively) was significantly taller than cotton (1.4 and 1.3 m high, respectively) which was taller than peanut (0.4 and 0.5 m high, respectively). Buckwheat (0.6 m high), planted only in 2012, was significantly taller than peanut, but shorter than cotton. For both years of the study, sorghum sudangrass and a 1.8-m-high polypropylene barrier wall effectively deterred dispersal of stink bugs into cotton. Because each of these barriers was taller than cotton, their success in protecting cotton likely was due to disruption of the flight of stink bugs from low-growing peanut into cotton. The shortest barrier wall (0.6-m-high) did not suppress stink bug dispersal into cotton probably because it was approximately the same height as peanut. In 2012, flowering buckwheat increased the efficacy of Trichopoda pennipes (F.) attacking N. viridula in cotton although it did not deter dispersal of stink bugs. In conclusion, a barrier at least as tall as cotton can effectively retard the entry of stink bug adults into cotton.
    Journal of Pest Science 09/2014; 87(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Contact toxicity of spinetoram was evaluated in laboratory bioassays on concrete, ceramic tile, galvanized steel, and plywood. The efficacy of spinetoram was assessed at dose rates of 0.025 mg (AI)/cm2, 0.05 mg (AI)/cm2, and 0.1 mg (AI)/cm2 in two series of bioassays. The first series was conducted on concrete surfaces, with adults of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), Sitophilus oryzae (L.), S. granarius (L.), Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val, Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.), and Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens). The second series was conducted at the same dose rates on all surfaces against adults of R. dominica, S. oryzae, and T. confusum. An equal number of dishes with and without food were used in both bioassay series. Mortality was assessed daily for 7 days for T. confusum and after this interval all live adults were removed and transferred to untreated surfaces with food and held under the same conditions. After the first week of daily evaluation, delayed mortality was evaluated 7 days later. For all the other species, mortality was measured after 5 days of exposure. The results of the first series of bioassays showed that T. confusum was the least susceptible to spinetoram-treated concrete surfaces. In contrast, all the other species were found susceptible, regardless of the dose and the presence of food. Regarding the comparison of different surfaces, our results illustrate that, with the exception of T. confusum, there were no significant differences among surfaces. The results of the present study indicate that spinetoram was effective against various species on several types of surfaces, and the presence of food did not influence its efficacy in most cases.
    Journal of Pest Science 09/2014; 87(3).
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    ABSTRACT: During the last few years following the invasion of European tomato crops by the invasive South American tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), several indigenous larval parasitoid species were recorded as natural enemies of this pest. Necremnus cf. artynes (Walker) and to a lesser extent Stenomesius sp. nr. japonicus (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) have been frequently reported attacking T. absoluta in tomato greenhouses in Europe and they are considered as possible biocontrol agents. Few biological data are available on these two species, notably when they parasitize T. absoluta. Therefore, the present study documents their biology when parasitizing T. absoluta, and provides scientific bases for potential development of biological control programs relying on larval ectoparasitoids in invaded areas. We demonstrated the ability of the two parasitoid species to reproduce on T. absoluta as host on tomato plants. On average, N. cf. artynes female parasitized 28.5 larvae and killed 26.2 larvae during its life time whereas S. sp. nr. japonicus female was more long-lived and consequently more efficient; it parasitized 144.3 larvae and killed 90.1 larvae. In a second step, we also explored the effect of T. absoluta larvae instar on parasitism by S. sp. nr. japonicus and subsequent development of the parasitoid offspring. Best results were obtained with the third larvae instar with a higher number of offspring produced, bigger individuals and a higher proportion of females. Our results support the hypothesis that the two species are good candidates for biological control programs targeting T. absoluta in Europe.
    Journal of Pest Science 09/2014; 87(3).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the present work, the insecticidal effect of two pirimiphos-methyl formulations [emulsifiable concentrate (EC) and capsule suspension (CS)] as surface treatment on concrete, plywood, galvanized metal, plastic, and ceramic tile was evaluated in laboratory bioassays against Sitophilus granarius (L.), Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), and Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val. Pirimiphos-methyl was applied at two-dose-rates, 0.01 and 0.1 mg/cm2, and insect mortality was assessed after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 days of exposure. After the final mortality count, alive individuals were transferred to untreated dishes, and delayed mortality was evaluated after an additional period of 7 days. In another series of laboratory bioassays, the residual efficacy of these two pirimiphos-methyl formulations on concrete was evaluated against S. granarius, R. dominica, and T. confusum. Pirimiphos-methyl was applied at two-dose-rates, 0.01 and 0.1 mg/cm2, on concrete dishes which were either kept in continuous darkness or exposed to light. A bioassay was initiated at the day of storage and every 4 weeks for 4 consecutive months (5 bioassays in total). Mortality of the exposed adult beetles was measured after 3 and 7 days of exposure. Both formulations were highly effective, with S. granarius being the most susceptible species. In general, mortality of the exposed beetles was not significantly affected by the surface type, with the exception of the significantly lower mortality counts of S. granarius adults on ceramic tile. CS appeared to be much more persistent on concrete than EC for all three species tested. Moreover, CS was not affected by light. In contrast, in some of the combinations tested, EC performance was poor in dishes that were exposed to light, in comparison with dishes that were in continuous darkness. We conclude that the surface type does not significantly and consistently affect S. granarius, R. dominica, and T. confusum mortality after surface application of the two pirimiphos-methyl formulations tested. Furthermore, CS can provide long-term protection when applied on concrete surfaces.
    Journal of Pest Science 09/2014; 87(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Biological invasions are a leading threat to native wildlife, human health and food production worldwide. Understanding the invasion history helps identifying introduction pathways and organizing integrated management strategies especially aimed at avoiding multiple reintroductions. We coupled a recently developed spatial analysis (Geographic profiling) with trade flows quantification to identify the most likely spreading centre of a recent invader of Europe, the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii. This polyphagous vinegar fly recently colonized western countries, where it is heavily threatening fruit production causing severe economic losses. Characterized by a rapid spread and a huge impact, the invasion of this pest has a few precedents and it is becoming a model in invasion biology and pest management. Thanks to our spatial approach based on data presence of D. suzukii in European countries in the very first years of it spread, we update the current knowledge of a first spread in Spain and Italy, suggesting on the contrary that the South of France may be the most likely spreading centre of D. suzukii in Europe. Estimates of propagule pressure (fresh host fruits importation) support this finding as imports from contaminated South East Asian countries are higher in France than in Spain or Italy. Our study provides a first step in the comprehension of invasion history of this pest species and emphasizes geographic profiling as an efficient technique to track down invaders colonization patterns.
    Journal of Pest Science 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The diversity and abundance of natural enemies of insect pests is often higher in agroforestry plantations than in sun-exposed monocultures, and it is often assumed that this will lead to improved pest suppression. The effect that incorporating trees in cropping systems will have on pest populations, however, also depends on the habitat requirements of the pests themselves. In Eastern Uganda, we studied how shade level (full >50 trees per acre, moderate 21–50 trees per acre, and low 0–20 trees per acre) and altitude (high 1,717–1,840 m.a.s.l. and low 1,511–1,605 m.a.s.l.) influenced the abundance of the white stem borer Monochamus leuconotus and the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei. We found that the effect of shade trees differed between the two pest species. The coffee berry borer was more common on sun-exposed plantations, whereas the white stem borer was more common in shaded plantations. Furthermore, the effect of shade level on the white stem borer depended on altitude, with the differences between shade levels being most pronounced in plantations at low altitudes. This implies that the impact of agroforestry on pest regulation both under current conditions and in a global warming scenario will be highly context dependent; it will depend on the identity of the most important pests in the area, and on environmental factors such as altitude.
    Journal of Pest Science 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Two exotic European click beetle species, Agriotes obscurus and Agriotes lineatus, were introduced into the lower Fraser valley of British Columbia over a century ago, and are now predominant pests of a number of arable crops. A semiochemical-based method of monitoring both species has been developed as a part of an integrated pest management plan, and there is interest in mass trapping with pheromones as a management tool. A. obscurus females produce primarily geranyl octanoate (G8) and geranyl hexanoate (G6), while A. lineatus females produce both G8 and geranyl butanoate (G4). The current studies examined the possibility of using a blend of G8, G6, and G4 components in a single lure to trap both species simultaneously. A blended G8, G6 and G4 lure in a 1:1:1 ratio was, on average, 1.42 times more attractive to A. lineatus males than standard A. lineatus pheromone lures, but caught only 0.24 times the number of A. obscurus in standard A. obscurus traps. Blended traps, therefore, are effective for monitoring and mass trapping of A. lineatus, but only for detection of A. obscurus.
    Journal of Pest Science 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The worldwide presence of feral pigeons Columba livia domestica in urban habitats presents potential public health hazards from pathogens and parasites, and droppings can lead to damage to buildings. A variety of lethal and non-lethal chemical repellents, visual, sonic or mechanic measures are available to deter pigeons, but they are not always applicable or effective. Ultrasonic devices are one of the available possibilities with the advantage of being inaudible to humans and more or less harmless to animals. However, their utility is questionable, because the upper limit of frequencies heard by pigeons reported is well below that of ultrasound. We tested whether a commercially used ultrasound deterrent system has an effect on the behaviour of free-living, as well as caged feral pigeons and assessed whether ultrasound has a physiological effect, i.e. whether it can activate the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal-axis (HPA-axis) known to trigger flight behaviour. Our experimental tests did neither show any effect on the behaviour and the HPA-axis of the caged pigeons nor any deterring effect on the free-living pigeons. A habituation effect could not be detected. We therefore, conclude that ultrasound does not deter feral pigeons.
    Journal of Pest Science 06/2014; 87(2).
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    ABSTRACT: The larvae of the invasive maize pest Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Coleoptera; Chrysomelidae, western corn rootworm) hatch in the soil in spring and search for maize roots following CO2 gradients. CO2 is one cue that might be used as an attractant towards soil insecticides, a mechanism already shown in laboratory experiments. This study compared the efficacy of several combinations of in or between-row applications of different rates of CO2-emitting capsules and/or soil insecticides (here tefluthrin) aimed at preventing root damage by the pest larvae under field conditions. CO2 emission of the capsules in the soil lasted up to 28 days with a peak after 21 days coinciding with the first larval hatch. The pest density in the soil was not high enough to cause root damage above the economic threshold. Furthermore all tefluthrin applications, regardless of whether at full, half or quarter rates effectively prevented root damage; thus CO2 did not significantly further increase this efficacy. In-row applications of tefluthrin with or without CO2-emitting capsules prevented root damage to a much larger extent (59–77 % on the node injury scale) than the between-row applications of tefluthrin with or without capsules (17–31 %). In conclusion, further research on belowground orientation and movement of D. v. virgifera larvae, as well as tests with combinations of CO2-emitting capsules and lower rates of soil insecticide are needed to potentially develop attract and kill strategies as a management option against this maize pest.
    Journal of Pest Science 06/2014; 87(2).
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    ABSTRACT: Maintaining the numbers of wood mice and common voles at an acceptable economic level, especially during years of massive outbreaks, is a major challenge in plant protection. Efforts to reduce the negative effects of rodenticides on the environment, to improve the integrated pest control system, and to minimize risks for human and animal health require investigation of the potentials of cellulose, as a natural product, and sodium selenite as rodenticides. The present study was conducted to determine the sensitivity of these rodent species to bromadiolone (a.i. 0.005 %), sodium selenite (a.i. 0.1 and 0.05 %), and cellulose (a.i. 45 %) baits. All experiments were done using no-choice and choice feeding trials. A low acceptance of cellulose baits was found in the choice feeding trial, and the time of first deaths indicate that stress and hunger increase the death rate in both species. The taste had a negative impact on the acceptability of baits containing sodium selenite. Low bait acceptance of cellulose and sodium selenite resulted in lower mortality of both species. The acquired results indicate that bromadiolone remains a more effective solution than cellulose and sodium selenite for control of wood mice and common voles.
    Journal of Pest Science 06/2014; 87(2).
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    ABSTRACT: The current study aimed to determine how the pest management practice applied during crop production may impact consumer purchase intentions of an edible (tomato) and a non-edible (chrysanthemum) greenhouse crop. The study examined five pest management practices and applied conjoint analysis to evaluate the relative importance of the pest management practice compared to several other product factors (price, benefit claims related to the pest management practice, tomato variety/flower colour, quality) in contributing to consumers’ purchase intentions. Out of the factors examined, price (26–29 % relative importance) and the pest management practice (22–25 % relative importance) were the most important to consumers. In both studies, there were segments of the sampled populations (13.5–24 %) for whom the pest management practice was the most important factor driving purchase decisions. These segments had significantly more consumers with low confidence in science and technology and preferred products grown using organic practices or pests’ natural predators. In the tomatoes study (crop intended for consumption), the proportion of pest management conscious consumers nearly doubled compared to the chrysanthemums study. Findings suggest that making consumers aware that a product has been produced using pests’ natural predators (i.e. using biocontrol strategies) for pest management could convince a significant segment of the population to purchase these products over other similar products. When the crop is edible, a higher proportion of consumers becomes concerned with the production practice.
    Journal of Pest Science 06/2014; 87(2).
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    ABSTRACT: Invasive species management is a critical issue worldwide, but mitigation strategies are slow to develop, and invader populations often expand too rapidly for eradication to be feasible. Thus, reduction in numbers of individuals is the most heavily used management strategy for invasive pests. While long-term biocontrol agents may take years or decades to develop, simple trap modifications can increase capture of targeted demographic groups, such as ovigerous females. The present study identifies the effectiveness of trap modification and use of multiple attractants to capture the invasive cane toad (Rhinella marina). Cane toad traps typically use lights to attract insect prey. Studies suggest that adding a male cane toad advertisement call to attract toads by phonotaxis may be effective. The aims of this study were to determine whether (i) female capture efficiency was influenced by attractants in the same manner as male and juvenile captures, (ii) an acoustic attractant alone (without a light attractant) was sufficient to attract toads, and (iii) the location of an acoustic attractant (inside or on top of the trap) influenced trap success. Male toads were captured more frequently than females and juveniles; combining light and acoustic attractants increased toad capture; and placing the acoustic attractant inside the trap increased the capture of female cane toads. Removal of adult, ovigerous females is a promising strategy to slow population growth of invasive species. Our results suggest that using a sound attractant inside the trap with a UV light is most effective in targeting that particular cane toad cohort.
    Journal of Pest Science 06/2014; 87(2).
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    ABSTRACT: Essential oils of Achillea biebersteinii, Achillea santolina and Achillea mellifolium were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The plant oils were tested for their toxic and repellent activities against the Khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium (Everts) (Coleoptera: Dermestidae). T. granarium was sensitive to the oils via topical application, contact and fumigation bioassays, where A. biebersteinii oil was the most toxic regardless of the technique used. Using topical application, a dosage of 15 μg/mg insect of A. biebersteinii oil was sufficient to kill 100 and 83.2.0 % after 7 days exposure of adults and 2nd instar larvae, respectively. Meanwhile, twice this concentration of A. santolina and A. mellifolium oils caused 90.4 (72.5 %) and 73.8 (60.1 %) adult and larval mortality after 7 days, respectively. Using fumigation and 7 days exposure, a concentration of 50.0 μl/l air of A. biebersteinii oil displayed the strongest activity (percentage adult and larval mortalities of 100.0 and 88.0 %), respectively, while A. santolina and A. mellifolium oils at the same concentration caused 92.5 (76.8 %) and 76.1 (61.3 %) adult and larval mortality, respectively. The three oils were strongly repellent to the larvae and adults of T. granarium. The repellent activity was time and concentration-dependent, where A. biebersteinii oil was the most effective, even though at low concentrations (percentage repellency of 100 and 81.0 % were recorded against adults and larvae after 6 h exposure to a concentration of 0.22 μl/cm2, respectively). Results suggested the potential use of Achillea oils as natural grain protectants against T. granarium.
    Journal of Pest Science 06/2014; 87(2).

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