Journal of Pest Science (J PEST SCI )

Publisher: Springer Verlag


The Journal of Pest Science provides authoritative coverage of research developments and advances in the fight against pests. Through peer-reviewed original research papers and informative contributions on current topics, the journal acts as a bridge between academic research and application. While most journals on pest management and plant protection concentrate on damage inflicted by insects, bacteria and viruses, this journal also takes into consideration so-called higher animals, such as snails, birds, and certain reptiles. The contributions provide a broad overview of pest science in the areas of agriculture, horticulture, forestry, conservation, stored products research, and health and safety aspects. In doing so, the journal devotes special attention to the development of new methods to control pests, including their effectiveness and side-effects on useful plants. Journal previously known as Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde (1436-5693).

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    Journal of pest science (Online)
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Springer Verlag

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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Efficacy of commercial formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki (Btk) against spruce budworm Choristoneura fumiferana in black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP), white spruce (P. glauca (Moench) Voss) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) was investigated in Québec’s Côte-Nord region. As expected, larval mortality was higher in Btk-treated plots (80.26 ± 2.34 %) than in control plots (66.32 ± 2.80 %). There were no differences in larval mortality among the three host tree species tested. Btk was most efficient in reducing spruce budworm defoliation when applied to black spruce and white spruce trees. Black spruce and white spruce exhibited lower final defoliation in Btk-treated plots than balsam fir. Btk applications produced a reduction in defoliation of 36 % in balsam fir, 44 % in white spruce and 41 % in black spruce. Control plots exhibited about 35 % higher amount of current-year foliage destroyed (AFD) and 56 % lower amount of current-year foliage remaining (ARF) than Btk-treated plots, whereas no differences in the amount of current-year foliage produced (AFP) were observed among host tree species. Black spruce trees showed the lowest AFD. Although not statistically significant, black spruce also showed the highest ARF. Our results suggest that Btk application is more efficient in protecting against spruce budworm damage when it is applied to spruce species than it is to balsam fir. It appears that the observed inter-specific differences in host tree foliage protection might be related to interactions between Btk, host tree foliage, and larval feeding behaviour.
    Journal of Pest Science 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: The efficacy of spot-spray application of conidia of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorok. conidia formulated in an emulsifiable extract of Calpurnia aurea (Ait.) Benth in attracting and infecting Rhipicephalus appendiculatus Neumann, 1901 ticks was evaluated in semi-field experiments. Formulation was applied on a 900-cm² spot and ticks released from various distances. Attracted ticks were individually placed in glass vials to determine the number of M. anisopliae conidia picked by a single tick. Infected ticks were either transferred in glass vials or maintained in the laboratory until death or exposed to rabbits in order to investigate the effects of fungal infection on feeding and potential reproduction parameters. Data showed that individual ticks picked between 3.2 and 4.1 × 105 conidia. Mortality of 83 % was observed among ticks maintained in the laboratory conditions. The engorgement period of fungus-infected ticks significantly increased by 16 % compared to the control. A significant reduction (P M. anisopliae formulated in C. aurea extract for an integrated pest management approach. This study showed that conidia of M. anisopliae formulated in C. aurea extract are effective in attracting, infecting and causing mortalities of R. appendiculatus ticks. Moreover, the reproduction performance of fungus-infected females was significantly reduced.
    Journal of Pest Science 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The Chinese citrus fly, Bactrocera minax, is a major tephritid fruit fly pest that infests Citrus spp. fruits. The pest was removed from the national quarantine pest list in China in 2009 owing to its wide spread across the country, and it is currently considered a major threat to citrus industry in Asia. The frequent high infestation levels of B. minax in China emphasize the need for a more comprehensive understanding of its biology and ecology so that more efficient control measures can be developed and applied. In the framework of developing a sterile insect technique program against B. minax, we studied the feeding and mating activities of B. minax in situ (Citrus orchards and surrounding habitats) through open field surveys and video recordings. In the pre-oviposition period, sexually immature adults largely foraged for food (e.g. honeydew from aphids, nectar and sooty mould) on non-host plants. Then, sexually mature adult flies shifted to lick sooty moulds, bird faeces and, to a lesser extent, an unknown substance on the Citrus leaves and fruits during the mating and oviposition periods. Finally, during the post-oviposition period, the flies were observed feeding on ooze from grapes. The mating behaviour patterns of B. minax in the field were described as follows: first, the male established its territory close to the potential oviposition substrate (Citrus fruit), second, the female landed on the fruit and began inspection and ovipositor boring behaviour on the fruit surface (no male courtship observed e.g. wing vibration), and third, the male mounted and copulated with the female. The present study shed light on the feeding ecology and mating behaviour of B. minax in the field; this knowledge will facilitate development of better management strategies against this tephritid fly.
    Journal of Pest Science 12/2014; 87(4).
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    ABSTRACT: The Khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium Everts, is a global pest species of stored grain products. Accurate identification of Trogoderma specimens trapped within stores of grain is critical to surveillance and exclusion efforts for the Khapra beetle. To enhance diagnostic capacity, we report PCR-based diagnostic assays for Khapra beetle identification. Three methods such as conventional PCR, real-time PCR, and DNA sequencing are reported for the diagnosis of Trogoderma specimens captured within the U.S. All three methods discern the Khapra beetle based on variation in fragments of 16S mitochondrial DNA. To examine PCR assay stringency, ten native or introduced Trogoderma species and two Megatoma species were also examined. These DNA-based assays provide reliable identification of T. granarium regardless of condition, life stage, or taxonomic expertise of the investigator.
    Journal of Pest Science 12/2014; 87(4).
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    ABSTRACT: Essential oils are by-products of plant metabolism that are now known to interfere with basic metabolic, physiological and behavioral functions of insects, thereby having promise for use as pest control agents. Accordingly, four essential oil compounds, thymol, 1,8-cineole, linalool and pulegone, were evaluated against the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae), to determine their acute toxicity. Thymol and 1,8-cineole were highly toxic to third instars with a LD50 of 0.22 and 0.41 μg/larva, respectively. Linalool and pulegone were moderately active against this insect species, exhibiting P. xylostella larvae, were antagonistic as biorational mixtures. Linalool was antagonistic in all combinations. In various assays with detoxification enzymes in treated conditions, there was a significant increase in enzyme levels both in vivo and in vitro. Thymol and 1,8-cineole were the active toxicants against P. xylostella, with significant potential to control this pest as biorational mixtures in a synergistic combination with pulegone. Induction in enzyme levels by these compounds suggests possibilities of resistance, which at present remains a speculation, but cannot be summarily ignored because the induction of enzymes due to involvement of detoxification enzymes in the metabolism of a broad range of xenobiotics and secondary metabolites in plants is well known.
    Journal of Pest Science 12/2014; 87(4).
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    ABSTRACT: The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is one of the most important pests of crucifers worldwide. Susceptibility to insecticides and host plants of P. xylostella vary geographically. To investigate local adaptation, we measured the variation of the biology, life-histories and life-table parameters of P. xylostella populations from five widely ranging geographical regions in China, Beijing (BJ), Shandong (SD), Shaanxi (SX), Yunnan (YN), and Guangdong (GD), using the same variety of cabbage (Brassicae oleracea L. var. capitata; var. “Qingan 80”) as the food plant at the same temperature in the laboratory. Principal components analysis showed the life-history and life-table parameters of P. xylostella differed among the five geographical populations. The first component, including female fecundity and adult longevity and male adult longevity, accounted for the most variation among the five geographical regions, which can be classified into three groups: BJ–SX, YN–GD, and SD. The intrinsic rate of increase (r m ) was greatest in BJ and SX, intermediate for GD and YN, and the lowest for SD, whereas mean generation time (T) was greatest in SD, intermediate for YN and GD, and the lowest for BJ and SX. These variations reflect the importance of local genetic adaptation and should be considered when planning management of P. xylostella in China.
    Journal of Pest Science 12/2014; 87(4).
  • Journal of Pest Science 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In vitro and in vivo studies were developed to evaluate the compatibility of the six most common herbicides applied to the soil of olive orchards with the Metarhizium brunneum strain EAMa 01/58-Su for controlling Ceratitis capitata preimaginals. The fungus demonstrated high in vitro compatibility with the six active ingredients in malt agar medium, with growth rates (a) ranging between 2.5 mm d-1 (glyphosate ? terbuthylazine) and 3.3 mm d-1 (oxyfluorfen). This compatibility was also revealed in vivo by assaying the fungus (1.0 9 108 conidia g soil-1) toward medfly prepupariating larvae in soil containing herbicides. Even if there was a decrease in the M. brunneum level in the soil up to 104–105 conidia g soil-1 15 days after inoculation, mortality rates, which ranged between 70–80 %, did not differ significantly from the control, except the ones observed in soils that contained glyphosate and its herbicide combinations, in which a significant 50 %reduction of virulence was detected. These results reveal a general compatibility of M. brunneum with the most common herbicides applied to the soil of olive orchards, but a mixture of the fungus in the atomizer tank for simultaneous treatment beneath the tree canopy is recommended for all active ingredients except glyphosate.
    Journal of Pest Science 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In the present work, the insecticidal effect of two pirimiphos-methyl formulations [emulsifiable concentrate (EC) and capsule suspension (CS)] as surface treatment on concrete, plywood, galvanized metal, plastic, and ceramic tile was evaluated in laboratory bioassays against Sitophilus granarius (L.), Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), and Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val. Pirimiphos-methyl was applied at two-dose-rates, 0.01 and 0.1 mg/cm2, and insect mortality was assessed after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 days of exposure. After the final mortality count, alive individuals were transferred to untreated dishes, and delayed mortality was evaluated after an additional period of 7 days. In another series of laboratory bioassays, the residual efficacy of these two pirimiphos-methyl formulations on concrete was evaluated against S. granarius, R. dominica, and T. confusum. Pirimiphos-methyl was applied at two-dose-rates, 0.01 and 0.1 mg/cm2, on concrete dishes which were either kept in continuous darkness or exposed to light. A bioassay was initiated at the day of storage and every 4 weeks for 4 consecutive months (5 bioassays in total). Mortality of the exposed adult beetles was measured after 3 and 7 days of exposure. Both formulations were highly effective, with S. granarius being the most susceptible species. In general, mortality of the exposed beetles was not significantly affected by the surface type, with the exception of the significantly lower mortality counts of S. granarius adults on ceramic tile. CS appeared to be much more persistent on concrete than EC for all three species tested. Moreover, CS was not affected by light. In contrast, in some of the combinations tested, EC performance was poor in dishes that were exposed to light, in comparison with dishes that were in continuous darkness. We conclude that the surface type does not significantly and consistently affect S. granarius, R. dominica, and T. confusum mortality after surface application of the two pirimiphos-methyl formulations tested. Furthermore, CS can provide long-term protection when applied on concrete surfaces.
    Journal of Pest Science 09/2014; 87(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Nezara viridula (L.), Euschistus servus (Say), and Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) are economic pests of cotton in the southeastern USA. Because adult stink bugs exhibit edge-mediated dispersal at crop-to-crop interfaces as they colonize cotton, strategic placement of physical barriers at these interfaces could manage these pests. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a physical barrier, either synthetic or plant-based, at the peanut-to-cotton interface for suppressing stink bugs that would move to cotton. In 2012 and 2013, sorghum sudangrass (2.4 and 2.1 m high, respectively) was significantly taller than cotton (1.4 and 1.3 m high, respectively) which was taller than peanut (0.4 and 0.5 m high, respectively). Buckwheat (0.6 m high), planted only in 2012, was significantly taller than peanut, but shorter than cotton. For both years of the study, sorghum sudangrass and a 1.8-m-high polypropylene barrier wall effectively deterred dispersal of stink bugs into cotton. Because each of these barriers was taller than cotton, their success in protecting cotton likely was due to disruption of the flight of stink bugs from low-growing peanut into cotton. The shortest barrier wall (0.6-m-high) did not suppress stink bug dispersal into cotton probably because it was approximately the same height as peanut. In 2012, flowering buckwheat increased the efficacy of Trichopoda pennipes (F.) attacking N. viridula in cotton although it did not deter dispersal of stink bugs. In conclusion, a barrier at least as tall as cotton can effectively retard the entry of stink bug adults into cotton.
    Journal of Pest Science 09/2014; 87(3).
  • Journal of Pest Science 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: During the last few years following the invasion of European tomato crops by the invasive South American tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), several indigenous larval parasitoid species were recorded as natural enemies of this pest. Necremnus cf. artynes (Walker) and to a lesser extent Stenomesius sp. nr. japonicus (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) have been frequently reported attacking T. absoluta in tomato greenhouses in Europe and they are considered as possible biocontrol agents. Few biological data are available on these two species, notably when they parasitize T. absoluta. Therefore, the present study documents their biology when parasitizing T. absoluta, and provides scientific bases for potential development of biological control programs relying on larval ectoparasitoids in invaded areas. We demonstrated the ability of the two parasitoid species to reproduce on T. absoluta as host on tomato plants. On average, N. cf. artynes female parasitized 28.5 larvae and killed 26.2 larvae during its life time whereas S. sp. nr. japonicus female was more long-lived and consequently more efficient; it parasitized 144.3 larvae and killed 90.1 larvae. In a second step, we also explored the effect of T. absoluta larvae instar on parasitism by S. sp. nr. japonicus and subsequent development of the parasitoid offspring. Best results were obtained with the third larvae instar with a higher number of offspring produced, bigger individuals and a higher proportion of females. Our results support the hypothesis that the two species are good candidates for biological control programs targeting T. absoluta in Europe.
    Journal of Pest Science 09/2014; 87(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Contact toxicity of spinetoram was evaluated in laboratory bioassays on concrete, ceramic tile, galvanized steel, and plywood. The efficacy of spinetoram was assessed at dose rates of 0.025 mg (AI)/cm2, 0.05 mg (AI)/cm2, and 0.1 mg (AI)/cm2 in two series of bioassays. The first series was conducted on concrete surfaces, with adults of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), Sitophilus oryzae (L.), S. granarius (L.), Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val, Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.), and Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens). The second series was conducted at the same dose rates on all surfaces against adults of R. dominica, S. oryzae, and T. confusum. An equal number of dishes with and without food were used in both bioassay series. Mortality was assessed daily for 7 days for T. confusum and after this interval all live adults were removed and transferred to untreated surfaces with food and held under the same conditions. After the first week of daily evaluation, delayed mortality was evaluated 7 days later. For all the other species, mortality was measured after 5 days of exposure. The results of the first series of bioassays showed that T. confusum was the least susceptible to spinetoram-treated concrete surfaces. In contrast, all the other species were found susceptible, regardless of the dose and the presence of food. Regarding the comparison of different surfaces, our results illustrate that, with the exception of T. confusum, there were no significant differences among surfaces. The results of the present study indicate that spinetoram was effective against various species on several types of surfaces, and the presence of food did not influence its efficacy in most cases.
    Journal of Pest Science 09/2014; 87(3).