Autoimmunity (Autoimmunity)

Publisher: Informa Healthcare

Journal description

Current understanding of autoimmune disease is being increasingly underpinned by the new molecular sciences. Progress in this area has been little short of spectacular, and all clinical specialities now recognise autoimmunity as a major component of the diseases with which they are involved. Autoimmunity is an international, peer reviewed journal that publishes articles of clinical and basic science on the pathogenesis, immunology, genetics, molecular biology, and treatment of autoimmune diseases. In addition to the basic mechanisms and elements of the immune system, the journal focuses on the autoimmune processes associated with systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren syndrome, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, and other systemic and organ-specific autoimmune diseases. The journal is not restricted to any disease type or clinical speciality, but reflects the areas where scientific progress is most rapid and clinical applications significant and widespread. The journal is valuable to clinicians and researchers in immunology and molecular biology.

Current impact factor: 2.75

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 2.754
2012 Impact Factor 2.767
2011 Impact Factor 2.471
2010 Impact Factor 2.138
2009 Impact Factor 2.813
2008 Impact Factor 2.525
2007 Impact Factor 2.887
2006 Impact Factor 2.033
2005 Impact Factor 1.49
2004 Impact Factor 1.392
2003 Impact Factor 1.052
2002 Impact Factor 0.921
2001 Impact Factor 1.169
2000 Impact Factor 1.204
1999 Impact Factor 1.232
1998 Impact Factor 1.082
1997 Impact Factor 1.133
1996 Impact Factor 1.608
1995 Impact Factor 1.257
1994 Impact Factor 1.308
1993 Impact Factor 1.417
1992 Impact Factor 1.053

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 2.51
Cited half-life 5.80
Immediacy index 0.47
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.79
Website Autoimmunity website
ISSN 1607-842X
OCLC 300118157
Material type Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Informa Healthcare

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 months embargo
  • Conditions
    • On author's personal website or institution website
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged
    • On a non-profit server
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • NIH funded authors may post articles to PubMed Central for release 12 months after publication
    • Wellcome Trust authors may deposit in Europe PMC after 6 months
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Juvenile-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disease in which both the genetic and environmental factors seem to be involved in the etiopathogenesis of the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1, also called PD-1) gene polymorphisms with JSLE susceptibility in Iranian population. In this case-control association study, three PDCD1 SNPs, including PD-1.1 G/A, PD-1.3 G/A and PD-1.9 C/T were genotyped in 50 Iranian patients with JSLE and 202 healthy unrelated controls, using PCR-RFLP method. The PD-1.1 A allele was found to be more frequent in the case group compared with controls (6% vs. 1.5%, p = 0.024). Moreover, the GG genotype was less frequent in cases than in controls (88% vs. 97%, p = 0.021). The other PDCD1 SNPs did not show association. At the haplotypic level, no significant differences was recognized between the two groups of case and control neither for the GAC (PD-1.1 G, PD-1.3 A, PD-1.9 C) nor for the GGC haplotype (PD-1.1 G, PD-1.3 G, PD-1.9 C). Our findings support the influence of the PD1.1 A SNP on the development of JSLE in Iranian population.
    Autoimmunity 06/2015; DOI:10.3109/08916934.2015.1058370
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    ABSTRACT: Progression to chronic renal failure varies between patients with lupus nephritis. We compared the effects of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and cyclophosphamide (CTX), on renal histology and cellular pathways of fibrosis in murine lupus nephritis. Female NZBWF1/J mice were randomized to treatment with vehicle, methylprednisolone (MP) alone, MMF + MP or CTX + MP for up to 12 weeks, and the effects on clinical parameters, renal histology, and fibrotic processes were investigated. Treatment with MMF + MP or CTX + MP both improved survival, renal function, and decreased anti-dsDNA antibody level and immune complex deposition in kidneys of mice with active nephritis. Vehicle-treated mice showed progressive increase in mesangial proliferation, inflammatory cell infiltration and renal tubular atrophy, associated with PKC-α activation, increased TGF-β1 expression and increased matrix protein deposition. MP treatment alone did not have any significant effect. MMF + MP or CTX + MP treatment for 12 weeks reduced these abnormalities. MMF + MP was more effective than CTX + MP in suppressing fibrotic mediators, histological fibrosis score and expression of TGF-β1, fibronectin and collagen I in the kidney. Results from in vitro experiments on human mesangial cells (HMC) showed that mycophenolic acid (MPA) was more effective than CTX in suppressing PKC-α activation and TGF-β1 secretion induced by human polyclonal anti-dsDNA antibodies. While both MPA and CTX decreased TGF-β1- and TNF-α-induced fibronectin synthesis, only MPA decreased IL-6 induced fibronectin synthesis. MPA and CTX show distinct effects on fibrotic and inflammatory processes in NZBWF1/J murine lupus nephritis, suggesting that MMF + MP may be more effective than CTX + MP in preserving normal renal histology in lupus nephritis.
    Autoimmunity 06/2015; DOI:10.3109/08916934.2015.1054027
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    ABSTRACT: In the past, there were no studies to evaluate the incidence of Sjogren's syndrome and its relationship with sex and age in patients with systemic sclerosis. In this study, we enrolled 2217 patients with systemic sclerosis and 6485 controls from Taiwan's Registry of Catastrophic Illness database and National Health Insurance Research Database. Every patient with systemic sclerosis was matched to at most three controls by sex, age, month, and year of first diagnosis of systemic sclerosis. Standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of Sjogren's syndrome in patients with systemic sclerosis and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated. Cox hazard regression was used to calculate the hazard ratio (HR). Both male and female patients with systemic sclerosis had higher incidences of Sjogren's syndrome (SIR: 7.59, 95% CI = 2.97-19.51; SIR: 7.59, 95% CI = 5.56-10.42, respectively). The incidence of Sjogren's syndrome in patients with systemic sclerosis was still higher compared with control when stratified according to age. Age at diagnosis of Sjogren's syndrome was earlier in patients with systemic sclerosis in both male and female groups (p = 0.018; p < 0.001, respectively). Systemic sclerosis was associated with Sjogren's syndrome after adjusting for age, sex, and various autoimmune diseases (HR: 5.98, 95% CI = 4.79-7.47, p < 0.001). Common cytokines, overlapping antibodies, and similar risk alleles were all potential causes of increased incidence of Sjogren's syndrome in systemic sclerosis.
    Autoimmunity 05/2015; DOI:10.3109/08916934.2015.1045583
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    ABSTRACT: Blockade of the complement cascade at the C5a/C5a receptor (C5aR)-axis is believed to be an attractive treatment avenue in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the effects of such interventions during the early phases of arthritis remain to be clarified. In this study we use the murine delayed-type hypersensitivity arthritis (DTHA) model to study the very early effects of a blocking, non-depleting anti-C5aR mAb on joint inflammation with treatment synchronised with disease onset, an approach not previously described. The DTHA model is a single-paw inflammatory arthritis model characterised by synchronised and rapid disease onset driven by T-cells, immune complexes and neutrophils. We show that a reduction in paw swelling, bone erosion, cartilage destruction, synovitis and new bone formation is apparent as little as 60 h after administration of a single dose of a blocking, non-depleting anti-mouse C5aR mAb. Importantly, infiltration of neutrophils into the joint and synovium is also reduced following a single dose, demonstrating that C5aR signalling during the early stage of arthritis regulates neutrophil infiltration and activation. Furthermore, the number of T-cells in circulation and in the draining popliteal lymph node is also reduced following a single dose of anti-C5aR, suggesting that modulation of the C5a/C5aR axis results in effects on the T cell compartment in inflammatory arthritis. In summary, these data demonstrate that blockade of C5aR leads to rapid and significant effects on arthritic disease development in a DTHA model strengthening the rationale of C5aR-blockade as a treatment strategy for RA, especially during the early stages of arthritis flare.
    Autoimmunity 04/2015; DOI:10.3109/08916934.2015.1031888
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    ABSTRACT: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complicated autoimmune disease of multifactorial pathoaetiology. One of the most serious manifestations is lupus nephritis. The pathogenesis of SLE has not been well elucidated, but it has been reported that interleukin-17 (IL-17) and Th17 cells play important roles in the pathogenesis of SLE. IL-17A, a member of IL-17 family, amplifies the immune response by inducing the local production of chemokines and cytokines, recruiting neutrophils and monocytes, augmenting the production of autoantibodies, and aggravating the inflammation and damage of target organs such as the kidney in SLE. In recent years, several IL-17A pathway inhibitors have advanced into clinical trials, including the anti-IL-17A monoclonal antibody and the anti-17RA monoclonal antibody. Several agents have shown great success in Phase II trials in multiple autoimmune diseases such as psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, multiple sclerosis, and non-infectious uveitis, which has sparked the urgent need of anti-IL-17A as innovative therapeutic option in controlling disease activity of moderate-to-severe SLE. Here, we review and summarize current progress in IL-17A and SLE from in vitro studies, human expression studies, and animal models, providing novel insight into its therapeutic potential.
    Autoimmunity 04/2015; DOI:10.3109/08916934.2015.1037441
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    ABSTRACT: A potential role of preproghrelin polymorphisms on autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs) has not been established equivocally yet. To estimate the association of two polymorphisms of preproghrelin gene with the predisposition to Graves' disease (GD) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) in children. The study was performed in 145 patients with GD, 87 with HT and 161 healthy volunteers. The two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs696217 (C_3151003_20) and rs4684677 (C_25607748_10) in the preproghrelin gene were genotyped by TaqMan SNP genotyping assay using the real-time PCR. Rs4684677 T alleles were more frequent in HT patients (99% in women and 100% in men) in comparison to healthy subjects (p = 0.002) with OR = 8.0 and 95% confidence interval for OR: 1.8-206.7. In women group, rs4684677 T alleles were more frequent compared to healthy controls (99%) in HT (p = 0.02) with OR = 6.7 and 95% confidence interval for OR: 1.2-168.37. Frequency of the SNP rs696217 did not differ between the groups. There was a significant relationship between rs696217 polymorphisms and anti-TSHR antibodies level (p = 0.036) in women from GD/HT groups. A significant relationship between rs696217 polymorphisms and anti-TG antibodies level in GD women group (p = 0.038) and between rs696217 polymorphisms and fT4 concentration (p = 0.03) were found. Rs4684677 T/A polymorphisms in preproghrelin gene could contribute to development of AITDs in children and T allele is the main risk factor.
    Autoimmunity 04/2015; DOI:10.3109/08916934.2015.1033687
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the co-occurrence of autoimmune diseases (ADs) in a large population of myasthenia gravis (MG) patients from a single center. Our survey included 984 patients, 904 with anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies and 80 with anti-muscle specific kinase antibodies. The anti-acetylcholine receptor positive population included patients with early-onset (age at onset ≤50 years), late-onset and thymoma-associated disease. Follow-up ranged 2-40 years. Two-hundred and fourteen ADs were diagnosed in 185 patients; 26 of them had two or more ADs in association with MG. Thyroid disorders were the most common and, together with vitiligo and thrombocytopenia, occurred in all disease subsets. Otherwise, there was a broad variability with partial overlap among patient groups. The highest rate of ADs was observed in early-onset patients, while clusters, i.e. 2 or more ADs other than MG in the same individual, were more common among thymoma cases. Thirty-four diseases were diagnosed at the same time, 88 occurred before and 92 after the onset of MG. On multivariate analysis, immunosuppressive treatment was the only independent variable which negatively influenced the risk of developing other ADs in our cohort.
    Autoimmunity 04/2015; DOI:10.3109/08916934.2015.1031890
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    ABSTRACT: The immune system is known to affect reproductive function, and maternal-fetal immune tolerance is essential for a successful pregnancy. To investigate the relationship between autoimmune disease and female reproductive function, we performed a comparative analysis of the ovarian phenotypes for C57BL/6 mice, autoimmune disease-prone MRL/MpJ (MRL/+) mice and congenic MRL/MpJ-Fas(lpr) (MRL/lpr) mice harboring a mutation in the Fas gene that speeds disease onset. Both MRL-background strains showed earlier vaginal opening than C57BL/6 mice. The estrous cycle became irregular by 6 and 12 months of age in MRL/lpr mice and mice of the other two strains, respectively. Histological analysis at 3 months revealed that the number of primordial follicles was smaller in MRL-background mice than in C57BL/6 mice after 3 months. In addition, MRL/lpr and MRL/+ mice displayed lower numbers of ovarian follicles and corpora lutea at 3 and 6 months, and 6 and 12 months, respectively, than that in age-matched C57BL/6 mice. MRL/lpr and MRL/+ mice developed ovarian interstitial glands after 3 and 6 months, respectively. In particular, MRL/lpr mice showed numerous infiltrating lymphocytes within the ovarian interstitia, and partially stratified ovarian surface epithelia with more developed microvilli than that observed in C57BL/6 mice at 6 months. No significant differences in serum hormone levels were observed between the strains. In conclusion, MRL/lpr mice display altered ovarian development, morphology and function consistent with the progression of severe autoimmune disease, as these findings are less severe in MRL/+ counterparts.
    Autoimmunity 04/2015; DOI:10.3109/08916934.2015.1031889
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    ABSTRACT: Important interactions between female reproduction and autoimmunity are suggested by the female-predominance of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and other autoimmune diseases and the amelioration of certain autoimmune diseases during pregnancy. Sexually dimorphic risk of developing SLE involves modulation of genetic risk by environmental factors, sex hormones and non-hormonal factors encoded on the sex chromosomes. In some lupus models, estrogen, via estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α), enhances production of highly pathogenic IgG2a/c autoantibodies (autoAbs). Some studies indicate that treatment with progesterone, a chief female reproductive steroid, can suppress IgG2a/2c autoAb production. Little is known about how endogenous progesterone impacts lupus autoimmunity. To investigate this, we introduced a disruptive progesterone receptor (PR) gene mutation into lupus-prone mice and tracked the development of spontaneous IgG autoAbs. Here, we present evidence that PR can suppress the emergence of class-switched IgG2c autoAbs, suggesting that PR and ER-α counter-regulate a critical step in lupus autoimmunity. PR's control of IgG2c autoAb production correlates with alterations in the relative abundance of splenic T follicular helper (TFH) cells and non-TFH CD4(+) T cells, especially regulatory T cells (TREGS). Surprisingly, PR also appears to help to maintain sexually dimorphic abundance of splenic leukocytes, a feature common to many mouse models of SLE. Together our results identify a novel molecular link between female reproduction and lupus autoimmunity. Further investigation into the immunomodulatory functions of PR promises to inform reproductive health care in women and offers mechanistic insight into important immunologic phenomena of pregnancy.
    Autoimmunity 04/2015; DOI:10.3109/08916934.2015.1030613
  • Autoimmunity 04/2015; DOI:10.3109/08916934.2015.1030922
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    ABSTRACT: Macrophages are important in vascular inflammation and environmental factors influence macrophage plasticity. Macrophage transitions into pro-inflammatory (M1) or anti-inflammatory (M2) states have been defined predominately by measuring cytokines in culture media (CM). However, temporal relationships between cellular and secreted cytokines have not been established. We measured phenotypic markers and cytokines in cellular and CM of murine bone marrow-derived macrophages at multiple time points following stimulation with IFN-γ + LPS (M1), IL-4 (M2a) or IL-10 (M2c). Cytokines/proteins in M1-polarized macrophages exhibited two distinct temporal patterns; an early (0.5-3 h), transient increase in cellular cytokines (GM-CSF, KC-GRO, MIP-2, IP-10 and MIP-1β) and a delayed (3-6 h) response that was more sustained [IL-3, regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1)]. M2a-related cytokine/cell markers (IGF-1, Fizz1 and Ym1) were progressively (3-24 h) increased post-stimulation. In addition, novel patterns were observed. First, and unexpectedly, cellular pro-inflammatory chemokines, MCP-1 and MCP-3 but not MCP-5, were comparably increased in M1 and M2a macrophages. Second, Vegfr1 mRNA was decreased in M1 and increased in M2a macrophages. Finally, VEGF-A was increased in the CM of M1 cultures and strikingly reduced in M2a coinciding with increased Vegfr1 expression, suggesting decreased VEGF-A in M2a CM was secondary to increased soluble VEGFR1. In conclusion, macrophage cytokine production and marker expression were temporally regulated and relative levels compared across polarizing conditions were highly dependent upon the timing and location (cellular versus CM) of the sample collection. For most cytokines, cellular production preceded increases in the CM suggesting that cellular regulatory pathways should be studied within 6 h of stimulation. The divergent polarization-dependent expression of Vegfr1 may be essential to controlling VEGF potentially regulating angiogenesis and inflammatory cell infiltration in the vascular niche. The current study expands the repertoire of cytokines produced by polarized macrophages and provides insights into the dynamic regulation of macrophage polarization and resulting cytokines, proteins and gene expression that influence vascular inflammation.
    Autoimmunity 03/2015; 48(3):1-16. DOI:10.3109/08916934.2015.1027816
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    ABSTRACT: The activation of natural regulatory T cells (nTreg) recognizing the heavy constant region (Fc) of IgG is an important mechanism of action of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy in Kawasaki disease (KD). Lack of circulating Fc-specific nTreg in the sub-acute phase of KD is correlated with the development of coronary artery abnormalities (CAA). Here, we characterize the fine specificity of nTreg in sub-acute (2- to 8-week post-IVIG) and convalescent (1- to 10-year post-IVIG) KD subjects by testing the immunogenicity of 64 peptides, 15 amino acids in length with a 10 amino acid-overlap spanning the entire Fc protein. About 12 Fc peptides (6 pools of 2 consecutive peptides) were recognized by nTreg in the cohorts studied, including two patients with CAA. To test whether IVIG expands the same nTreg populations that maintain vascular homeostasis in healthy subjects, we compared these results with results obtained in healthy adult controls. Similar nTreg fine specificities were observed in KD patients after IVIG and in healthy donors. These results suggest that T cell fitness rather than T cell clonal deletion or anergy is responsible for the lack of Fc-specific nTreg in KD patients who develop CAA. Furthermore, we found that adolescents and adults who had KD during childhood without developing CAA did not respond to the Fc protein in vitro, suggesting that the nTreg response induced by IVIG in KD patients is short-lived. Our results support the concept that peptide epitopes may be a viable therapeutic approach to expand Fc-specific nTreg and more effectively prevent CAA in KD patients.
    Autoimmunity 03/2015; 48(3):1-8. DOI:10.3109/08916934.2015.1027817
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    ABSTRACT: While the statins are best known for their cholesterol lowering capabilities, they also appear to have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and endothelial-repairing properties that have raised the question as to whether this class of drugs can be of benefit in non-atherosclerotic, acute and chronic vasculitides. These effects, independent of the lipid-lowering effects, make the statins a class of drugs that are primed for repurposing and being used in disease states where innate and adaptive immunity and endothelial damage play a key role. Thus far, statins have been used in Behcet's, rheumatoid arthritis and Kawasaki disease with some promising results. Further study is needed to better understand the innate and adaptive immunological response to statins in cardiovascular diseases as well as the full potential of statins in acute and chronic inflammatory vasculitides.
    Autoimmunity 03/2015; 48(3):1-4. DOI:10.3109/08916934.2015.1027818