Reviews on advanced materials science (REV ADV MATER SCI )

Publisher: Institut problem mashinovedenii︠a︡ (Rossiĭskai︠a︡ akademii︠a︡ nauk)


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    ABSTRACT: This review paper addresses the current developments regarding use of nano-materials in construction industry. In this report, primarily, the significance of nanotechnology for construction industry is emphasized. Secondarily, the introduction and application of important nano building products are presented. Some prominent world construction projects using nanotechnology are also documented. Along with benefits, some serious health risks are also associated with the use of nano technology. These risks should be known and remedied so that the nano building products could be fully exploited for the benefit of the mankind. Keywords: Nano-materials, construction industry, significance, applications, benefits, health risks.
    Reviews on advanced materials science 02/2014;
  • Reviews on advanced materials science 01/2014; 36:in press.
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    ABSTRACT: Over the past 15 years, development of polymeric entities and their applications as drug delivery systems have been a promising alternative to overcome protein and anti-inflammatory oral administration drawbacks. Designing oral protein delivery systems has been a persistent challenge to scientists due to their instability in gastrointestinal fluids and poor absorption. Proteins would be denatured by enzymatic action or even by the acidic pH in the stomach, which results in the loss of biological activity. On the other hand, anti-inflammatories do not present stability problems but serious side effects, like stomach ulcers, caused in patients. In this regard, some pharmaceutical approaches such us molecules that act as carriers for proteins, bioadhesive systems and pH sensitive systems have been used with different degrees of success. Thus, the present mini-review discuss these approaches and details the latest state of pH-sensitive polymers development as drug delivery systems. It also shows the increasing interest in block copolymers and enteric nanoparticles structures and their potential applications in oral delivery of proteins and anti-inflammatories.
    Reviews on advanced materials science 10/2013; 34(2):62-71.
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    ABSTRACT: Driven by the world’s thirst for energy, the demand for uranium is rapidly increasing. Hence, producers of uranium are struggling to keep up with demands and are exploring more cost-effective methods of extraction. Uranium is currently mined via open pit and underground mining as well as with in situ leaching methods, with in situ leaching currently accounting for approximately 45 % of total uranium production. Studies have shown that the presence of uranium in soils strongly affects the composition and function of resident microbial communities. In view of the close association of biological processes and uranium geochemistry, it is surprising how little information is available on the effect of microbial communities on in situ leaching. Hence, this review focuses on the possibility to exploit the properties of such microorganisms and identify opportunities to use natural microbial processes to improve uranium recovery and mine site rehabilitation.
    Reviews on advanced materials science 10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: To satisfy the ever-increasing demand for higher density (functionality) and lower power (portability), the dimensions and operating voltages of the modern electronic devices are being reduced frequently. This has brought new challenges both from the technology and materials point of view. One such issue is soft error, the temporary malfunction of device caused by the effect of radiation on the Si ICs. One such radiation is high energy alpha particle whose main source is the solders used in the packaging. The continued scaling of complementary metal oxide semiconductor device technologies has led to continued device shrinkage and decreases in the operating voltage of the device transistors. Scaling has meant denser circuitry overall, thinner silicon (e.g., silicon on insulator) in logic applications, and less charge on capacitors for volatile memory. These trends have resulted in devices being more sensitive to soft errors since now low energy alpha particles can flip a memory bit or alter timing in a logic circuit. Due to the use of flip-chip joints and developments towards 3D packaging, the solder bumps have moved very closer to the active Si devices, where even the low energy alpha ray having short range is able to induce soft error. One of the major sources of alpha particle radiation is the solders used for joining components in the packaging and they contain alpha emitters and there is increasing demand of Low Alpha activity Pb-free solders. The present paper reviews the issue of soft error in depth covering its historical background, causes and effects on electronic devices along with mitigation efforts. The importance of low alpha solders in microelectronics packaging applications is discussed in the light of soft-error issue.
    Reviews on advanced materials science 02/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are today one of the most commonly used nanomaterials both in fundamental medical sciences and clinical practice. These nanoparticles are also incorporated into many commercial products and widely available to general population. However, recent reports have linked silver nanomaterials to programmed cell death, and increased cytotoxicity in certain conditions. This short review focuses on the recent findings regarding molecular interactions of silver nanoparticles with living cells and tissues. Potential immunomodulatory effects of AgNPs, as well as recent toxicity concerns are also discussed. Finally, we also describe recent public and government efforts to monitor and control the use and availability of silver nanomaterials used as dietary supplements in some countries.
    Reviews on advanced materials science 01/2013; 34.
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    ABSTRACT: Recent investigations have demonstrated that ultra-fine grained (UFG) Al 5xxx alloys have a significant potential for industrial applications due to their enhanced mechanical and functional properties. The Al 5xxx alloys often have to undergo hot/cold rolling metalforming operations for fabrication of near-net shape products since they are widely used in form of sheets in marine, transport, and chemical engineering. The development of hot/cold rolling routes for the UFG metallic materials are very expensive due to much higher cost of the UFG metallic materials and time consuming due to numerous experimental trials. The objective of this work is to perform physical simulation of cold rolling of the UFG Al 5083 alloy obtained via equal channel angular pressing with parallel channels and to analyze the effect of cold rolling on the microstucture and microhardness of the material. It is demonstrated that physical simulation of metalforming processes for the UFG metallic materials can significantly reduce the amount of material required for development of processing routes and increase the efficiency of experimental work.
    Reviews on advanced materials science 01/2013; 35:14-34.
  • Reviews on advanced materials science 01/2012;

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