Hereditas (Hereditas )

Publisher: Mendelian Society of Lund, Blackwell Publishing


Hereditas is a well established journal in the field of genetics and cytogenetics. It was founded in 1920, and publishes original research and reviews from all sections of genetics.

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    Hereditas website
  • Other titles
    Hereditas (Online)
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    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

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Blackwell Publishing

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    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A rice dominant gene, Ur1, increases spikelet number per panicle, thereby enlarging sink size. The effects of Ur1 on panicle and grain traits were examined using 'Nishihikari' (N), its Ur1 isogenic line (N(U) ) and their F1 , and the sd1-d isogenic line of Taichung 65 (d), the sd1-d-Ur1 isogenic line (u) and their F1 . Ur1 increased number of primary branches per panicle (NB1), number of secondary branches per primary branch (NB2) and number of spikelets per single secondary branch (SB2). Increase in NB1 was higher in N(U) than in u but those in NB2 and SB2 were lower in N(U) than in u, all of which brought about a lower percentage of secondary-branch spikelets for N(U) . Regarding secondary-branch spikelets as well as whole spikelets, N(U) had a higher ripened-grain percentage caused by its higher fertilized-spikelet percentage than u. The above characteristics of N(U) contribute to its high yielding ability, suggesting that N is a favorable genetic background for Ur1. In addition, number of differentiated (developed + degenerated) secondary branches per primary branch and presence of twined spikelets in the uppermost primary branch of a panicle could be new indicators to discriminate Ur1/Ur1 plants from Ur1/+ and +/+ plants in a segregating population like an F2 .
    Hereditas 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The next generation sequencing revolution has enabled rapid discovery of genetic markers, however, development of fully functioning new markers still requires a long and costly process of marker validation. This study reports a rapid and economical approach for the validation and deployment of polymorphic microsatellite markers obtained from a 454 pyrosequencing library of Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, Linnaeus 1758. Primers were designed from raw reads to amplify specific amplicon size ranges, allowing effective PCR multiplexing. Multiplexing was combined with a three-primer PCR approach using four universal tails to label amplicons with separate fluorochromes. A total of 192 primer pairs were tested, resulting in 73 polymorphic markers. Of these, 55 loci were combined in six multiplex panels each containing between six and eleven markers. Variability of the loci was assessed on G. morhua from the Celtic Sea (n = 46) and the Scotian Shelf (n = 46), two locations that have shown genetic differentiation in previous studies. Multilocus FST between the two samples was estimated at 0.067 (P = 0.001). After three loci potentially under selection were excluded, the global FST was estimated at 0.043 (P = 0.001). Our technique combines three-primer and multiplex PCR techniques, allowing simultaneous screening and validation of relatively large numbers of microsatellite loci.
    Hereditas 06/2014; 151(2-3).
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    ABSTRACT: A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population from a cross between ‘HH1B’ and ‘RSB02’ (a deep-water rice variety with resistance to sheath blight) was planted in two locations for four different growing seasons. Seven traits were used to evaluate the disease severity, namely disease rating (DR), lesion length (LL), lesion height (LH), relative lesion length (RLL), relative lesion height (RLH), plant height (PH) and heading date (HD). Based on a linkage map of 163 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, a total of 37 QTLs were mapped on nine chromosomes. Additionally, 32 epistatic QTLs were identified, distributed on all the 12 chromosomes. The contribution of a single QTL's additive and epistatic effect was of low magnitude for most cases (from 0.39% to 24.62%). Among QTL × environment interaction test, 28 additive QTLs and six pairs of epistatic interactions were involved. Correlation analysis showed that DR had significant positive correlations with LL, RLL and RLH, but had a negative correlation with PH, two of six QTLs controlling DR were mapped in the same chromosome regions as the QTLs controlling PH. The alleles which can enhance disease resistance and increase PH are from the resistant parent ‘RSB02’, indicating that PH has certain effect on sheath blight resistance in the present study.
    Hereditas 06/2014; 151(2-3).
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    ABSTRACT: Maize is the third important major food crop. Breeding for low phytate maize genotypes is an effective strategy for decreasing the content of kernel phytic acid (a chelator of cations such as Ca2+ and Fe3+) and thereby increasing the bioavailability of nutritive minerals in human diet and animal feed. Previous studies have established that a mutant plant with a lpa2-2 allele accumulates less phytic acid in seeds. Therefore, the marker assisted backcross breeding (MABB), which involves introgression of lpa2-2 recessive allele (which confer low phytate trait) from a lpa2-2 mutant line into a well-adapted line using backcrosses and selection of lines possessing lpa2-2 allele in each backcross population using molecular markers, is an effective strategy for developing low phytate maize. So far, no studies have developed any lpa2-2 allele specific molecular markers for this purpose. Here, using backcross and selfed progenies, obtained by crossing low phytate mutant line ‘EC 659418’ (i.e. donor of lpa2-2 allele) into agronomically superior line ‘UMI395’, we have validated that a SSR marker ‘umc2230’, located 0.4 cM downstream of lpa2-2, cosegregate, in a Mendelian fashion, with low phytic acid trait. Therefore umc2230 can be dependably used in MABB for the development of low phytate maize.
    Hereditas 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Accumulated evidence suggests that the growth hormone (GH) gene plays a physiological role in the control of reproductive function. Here, we examined the correlation between egg-laying traits and GH gene polymorphisms and expression patterns in the muscovy duck (Cairina moschata). PCR single-strand conformation polymorphism was used to identify polymorphisms in intron 3 of GH. One single nucleotide polymorphism (g.3270 A > G) was detected by sequencing, and the frequencies of the A and G alleles in the population were 0.65 and 0.35, respectively. A comparison test showed that the AA genotype group had more consecutive laying days and more eggs at 300 days than the GG genotype group (P < 0.05); however, there was no significant difference for the age at first laying (P > 0.05). Such a significant correlation between GH polymorphisms and egg-laying performance suggested that GH could be a candidate locus affecting the laying trait in muscovy duck. Furthermore, real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR demonstrated that GH is expressed in all selected tissues, but is highly expressed in the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis and heart. This unique expression pattern suggested that GH may exert its local physiological function through the autocrine or paracrine pathway during gonad development and growth in the muscovy duck. The data presented in this paper revealed GH polymorphisms and expression patterns in the muscovy duck and indicated a potential regulatory effect of GH on reproduction.
    Hereditas 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Using nuclear simple sequence repeats (nuSSRs), we determined the genetic variability in the natural distribution range of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) in the western Mediterranean region. We analysed the role of global and significant climatic fluctuations in driving the evolutionary diversification of this species. We attempted to determine the impact of the last glacial maximum (LGM) and human activity on genetic variation and to identify the effect of bottlenecks, admixing, migration, time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA), and recent splits. A total of 972 individuals were analysed. The sample represented 27 natural populations from the western Mediterranean region, which encompasses most of the natural range of P. pinaster. Using eight nuSSRs, we analysed genetic diversity indices for each population and group of populations. We also examined the interpopulation structure by the frequency and distance method and investigated genetic barriers, signals of historical demographic fluctuations, phylogeographic structure, admixing, rate of mutation, migration, as well as testing the hypothesis of isolation by distance (IBD). Both cluster analyses showed similar population genetic structure with three genetic barriers that divided the samples into four large groups. Intensive migration was only detected during the period of the last glacial maximum (LGM), which permitted the mutation rate of the markers used to be calculated. The majority of the population was found to exhibit signs of a recent bottleneck and its timing showed a clear northeast–southwest geographic distribution. A clearly defined phylogeographic structure (Nst > Gst and Rst > Gst) under IBD was established, and showed the highest divergence between groups of populations separated by physical barriers, such as the Strait of Gibraltar, the Mediterranean Sea and the Pyrenees. The high level of intergroup genetic differentiation (ΦIS= 20.26) was attributed to a long historical isolation (which occurred before the last 18 000 years) between the principal maritime pine population groups that occurred due to physical barriers that limited pollen and seed transfer, combined with a minimal effective radius of distribution. The low level of genetic diversity among the populations was combined with genetic drift and a recent bottleneck during the period of human activity. Significant migration across barriers was due to spontaneous phenomena during the LGM, which had no significant impact on the genetic structure owing to its relatively short duration and the fragmented species. The phylogeographic structure under the assumption of IBD was well established for P. pinaster in each of the principal population groups.
    Hereditas 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The common potato, Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum (tbr, 2n = 4x = 48; 4EBN), has many closely related wild tuber-bearing species. Around 28 to 35 of them spontaneously grow in Argentina overlapping, in some areas, with the crop and/or experimental transgenic potatoes. Although it is well proven that hybridization barriers in potatoes can be incomplete, information on gene flow between cultivated and wild germplasm is scarce. Thus, a gene flow field experiment with a circular array was set up in Balcarce, Argentina, in 2009, and evaluated over two seasons. The tetraploid tbr cultivar Huinkul MAG and one compatible cloned genotype of the related wild potato S. chacoense Bitter (chc, 2n = 2x = 24; 2EBN), which produced 2n eggs, were used, respectively, as pollen donor and receptor. Berries with hybrid seeds - as revealed by ploidy and RAPD profiles - were obtained in one season, at 30 m from the pollen donor. These results reinforce others previously obtained with the same pollen donor and a male sterile tbr cultivar in a similar array, pointing out to the need of increasing isolation distances in areas of overlap between cultivated and wild potato germplasm to prevent or minimize undesirable pollen-mediated gene flow.
    Hereditas 12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: In the state of Sinaloa México, traditional farmers still cultivate maize accessions with a wide diversity of morphological characteristics, but the gene reservoir maintained in these populations has been poorly studied and it is being lost due to changes in land use and the adoption of hybrid commercial varieties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity of some of these maize populations to contribute to their preservation. Twenty eight accessions were used for the analysis. DNA was extracted from 396 individuals and probed with 20 microsatellites distributed across the maize genome. A total of 121 alleles were obtained (average of 6.1 alleles per locus) and a total genetic diversity of 0.72. The UPGMA-cluster analysis, model-based population structure and principal component analysis revealed three major groups, one formed mainly by accessions of races typical of the Northwestern lowlands (Chapalote, Dulcillo del Noroeste, Tabloncillo Perla, Blando de Sonora and Elotero de Sinaloa) and the other two with accessions mainly from Tabloncillo and Tuxpeño. The high number of alleles per locus and total genetic diversity found in this study demonstrate a broad genetic basis of the accessions of maize landraces from Sinaloa, representing a gene reservoir useful in breeding programs.
    Hereditas 12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We list the chromosome numbers for 65 species of Neotropical Hesperiidae and 104 species or subspecies of Pieridae. In Hesperiidae the tribe Pyrrhopygini have a modal n = 28, Eudaminae and Pyrgini a modal n = 31, while Hesperiinae have n = around 29. Among Pieridae, Coliadinae have a strong modal n = 31 and among Pierinae Anthocharidini are almost fixed for n = 15 while Pierini vary with n = 26 as the most common chromosome number. Dismorphiinae show wide variation. We discuss these results in the context of chromosome numbers of over 1400 Neotropical butterfly species and subspecies derived from about 3000 populations published here and in earlier papers of a series. The overall results show that many Neotropical groups are characterized by karyotype instability with several derived modal numbers or none at all, while almost all taxa of Lepidoptera studied from the other parts of the world have one of n = 29-31 as modal numbers. Possibly chromosome number changes become fixed in the course of speciation driven by biotic interactions. Population subdivision and structuring facilitate karyotype change. Factors that stabilize chromosome numbers include hybridization among species sharing the same number, migration, sexual selection and possibly the distribution of chromosomes within the nucleus.
    Hereditas 06/2013; 150(2-3):26-37.
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    ABSTRACT: We have compared the amino acid sequence of all four cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs) in Drosophila and analyzed their spatial expression patterns during development. Three out of four SULTs show distinct expression activity during embryogenesis, while the 4th SULT shows expression only post-embryonically. st1, st3 and st4 are expressed in non-overlapping expression domains mainly confined to organs of the alimentary canal such as esophagus, malphigian tubules, hindgut, as well as in the tracheal system. All these organs are surrounded by the hemolymph suggesting that Drosophila SULTs exert their function in detoxification of substances upon influx from the hemolymph.
    Hereditas 06/2013; 150(2-3):44-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is a key process, but despite the economic and environmental importance, few studies about quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling BNF traits are available, even in the economically important crop soybean Glycine max (L.) Merr. In this study, a population of 157 F2:7 RILs derived from crossing soybean cultivars Bossier (high BNF capacity) and Embrapa 20 (medium BNF capacity) was genotyped with 105 simple sequence repeat markers (SSRs). The genetic map obtained has 1231.2 cM and covers about 50% of the genome, with an average interval of 18.1 cM. Three traits, nodule number (NN), the ratio nodule dry weight (NDW)/NN and shoot dry weight (SDW) were used to evaluate BNF performance. A composite interval mapping for multiple traits method (mCIM) analysis mapped two QTLs for SDW (LGs E and L), three for NN (LGs B1, E and I), and one for NDW/NN (LG I); all QTLs were of small effect (R-values ranging from 1.7% to 10.0%) and explained 15.4%, 13.8% and 6.5% of total variation for these three traits, respectively.
    Hereditas 06/2013; 150(2-3):17-25.
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    ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial membrane permeability transition (MPT) plays a crucial role in apoptotic tail shortening during anuran metamor phosis. L-carnitine is known to shuttle free fatty acids (FFAs) from the cytosol into mitochondria matrix for β-oxidation and energy production, and in a previous study we found that treatment with L-carnitine suppresses 3, 3', 5-triiodothyronine (T3 ) and FFA-induced MPT by reducing the level of FFAs. In the present study we focus on acetyl-L-carnitine, which is also involved in fatty acid oxidation, to determine its effect on T3 -induced tail regression in Rana rugosa tadpoles and spontaneous tail regression in Xenopus laevis tadpoles. The ladder-like DNA profile and increases in caspase-3 and caspase-9 indicative of apoptosis in the tails of T3 -treated tadpoles were found to be suppressed by the addition of acetyl-L-carnitine. Likewise, acetyl-L-carnitine was found to inhibit thyroid hormone regulated spontaneous metamorphosis in X. laevis tadpoles, accompanied by decreases in caspase and phospholipase A2 activity, as well as non-ladder-like DNA profiles. These findings support our previous conclusion that elevated levels of FFAs initiate MPT and activate the signaling pathway controlling apoptotic cell death in tadpole tails during anuran metamorphosis.
    Hereditas 02/2013; 150(1):1-9.
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    Hereditas 12/2012; 149(6).
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    ABSTRACT: Smoothelin is a specific cytoskeletal protein that is associated with smooth muscle cells. The human SMTN gene encodes smoothelin-A and smoothelin-B, and studies using SMTN gene knockout mice have demonstrated that these animals develop hypertension. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between the human SMTN gene and essential hypertension (EH) using a haplotype-based case-control study. This is the first study to assess the association between essential hypertension and this gene. A total of 255 EH patients and 225 controls were genotyped for the five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (rs2074738, rs5997872, rs56095120, rs9621187 and rs10304) used as genetic markers for the human SMTN gene. Data were analyzed for three separate groups: total subjects, men and women. Although there were no differences for genotype distributions, or the dominant and recessive model distributions noted for total subjects, men and women for all of the SNPs selected for the present study, for the total subjects group, the frequency of the G-C-A-C haplotype constructed with rs2074738-rs5997872-rs56095120-rs9621187 was significantly lower in the essential hypertension patients than in the controls (P = 0.002). The G-C-A-C haplotype appears to be a useful protective marker of essential hypertension in Japanese, and the SMTN gene might also be a genetic marker for essential hypertension.
    Hereditas 10/2012; 149(5):178-185.

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