Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports (Scand J Med Sci Sports )

Publisher: Blackwell Publishing

Journal description

Representing the Scandinavian sports medicine and science associations the journal publishes original articles on the traumatologic (orthopaedic) physiologic biomechanic medical (including rehabilitation) sociologic psychologic pedagogic historic and philosophic aspects of sport. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports is thus multidisciplinary and encompasses all elements of research in sport. Leading authorities are invited to contribute reviews on selected topics. The journal is divided into three sections: I Physiology and Biomechanics; II Medicine Traumatology and Rehabilitation; III Social and Behavioural Aspects of Sports.

Current impact factor: 3.21

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2011 Impact Factor 2.867

Additional details

5-year impact 3.27
Cited half-life 5.50
Immediacy index 0.56
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 1.02
Website Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports website
Other titles Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports (Online), Scandinavian journal of medicine and science in sports
ISSN 1600-0838
OCLC 47858815
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Blackwell Publishing

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
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    • Some journals impose embargoes typically of 6 or 12 months, occasionally of 24 months
    • no listing of affected journals available as yet
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    • See Wiley-Blackwell entry for articles after February 2007
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    • On author's server, institutional server or subject-based server
    • Server must be non-commercial
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged with set statement ("The definitive version is available at www.blackwell-synergy.com")
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • 'Blackwell Publishing' is an imprint of 'Wiley'
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • R. Arnold, D. Fletcher, K. Daniels
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    ABSTRACT: Organizational stressors are particularly prevalent across sport performers’ experiences and can influence their performance, health, and well-being. Research has been conducted to identify which organizational stressors are encountered by sport performers, but little is known about how these experiences vary from athlete to athlete. The purpose of this study was to examine if the frequency, intensity, and duration of the organizational stressors that sport performers encounter vary as a function of gender, sport type, and performance level. Participants (n = 1277) completed the Organizational Stressor Indicator for Sport Performers (OSI-SP; Arnold et al., 2013), and the resultant data were analyzed using multivariate analyses of covariance. The findings show that demographic differences are apparent in the dimensions of the goals and development, logistics and operations, team and culture, coaching, and selection organizational stressors that sport performers encounter. More specifically, significant differences were found between males and females, between team and individual-based performers, and between performers competing at national or international, regional or university, and county or club levels. These findings have important implications for theory and research on organizational stress, and for the development of stress management interventions with sport performers.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 03/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of oral salt supplementation to improve exercise performance during a half-ironman triathlon. Twenty-six experienced triathletes were matched for age, anthropometric data, and training status, and randomly placed into the salt group (113 mmol Na(+) and 112 mmol Cl(-) ) or the control group (cellulose). The experimental treatments were ingested before and during a real half-ironman triathlon competition. Pre- and post-race body mass, maximal force during a whole-body isometric strength test, maximal height during a countermovement jump, were measured, and blood samples were obtained. Sweat samples were obtained during the running section. Total race time was lower in the salt group than in the control group (P = 0.04). After the race, whole-body isometric strength (P = 0.17) and jump height (P = 0.49) were similarly reduced in both groups. Sweat loss (P = 0.98) and sweat Na(+) concentration (P = 0.72) were similar between groups. However, body mass tended to be less reduced in the salt group than in the control group (P = 0.09) while post-race serum Na(+) (P = 0.03) and Cl(-) (P = 0.03) concentrations were higher in the salt group than in the control group. Oral salt supplementation was effective to lessen body mass loss and increase serum electrolyte concentration during a real half-ironman. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 03/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: The sex difference in marathon performance increases with finishing place and age of the runner but whether this occurs among swimmers is unknown. The purpose was to compare sex differences in swimming velocity across world record place (1st–10th), age group (25–89 years), and event distance. We also compared sex differences between freestyle swimming and marathon running. The world's top 10 swimming times of both sexes for World Championship freestyle stroke, backstroke, breaststroke, and butterfly events and the world's top 10 marathon times in 5-year age groups were obtained. Men were faster than women for freestyle (12.4 ± 4.2%), backstroke (12.8 ± 3.0%), and breaststroke (14.5 ± 3.2%), with the greatest sex differences for butterfly (16.7 ± 5.5%). The sex difference in swimming velocity increased across world record place for freestyle (P < 0.001), breaststroke, and butterfly for all age groups and distances (P < 0.001) because of a greater relative drop-off between first and 10th place for women. The sex difference in marathon running increased with the world record place and the sex difference for marathon running was greater than for swimming (P < 0.001). The sex difference in swimming increased with world record place and age, but was less than for marathon running. Collectively, these results suggest more depth in women's swimming than marathon running.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 03/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: We sought to determine if an in-field gait retraining program can reduce excessive impact forces and peak hip adduction without adverse changes in knee joint work during running. Thirty healthy at-risk runners who exhibited high-impact forces were randomized to retraining [21.1 (±1.9) years, 22.1 (±10.8) km/week] or control groups [21.0 (±1.3) years, 23.2 (±8.7) km/week]. Retrainers were cued, via a wireless accelerometer, to increase preferred step rate by 7.5% during eight training sessions performed in-field. Adherence with the prescribed step rate was assessed via mobile monitoring. Three-dimensional gait analysis was performed at baseline, after retraining, and at 1-month post-retraining. Retrainers increased step rate by 8.6% (P < 0.0001), reducing instantaneous vertical load rate (−17.9%, P = 0.003), average vertical load rate (−18.9%, P < 0.0001), peak hip adduction (2.9° ± 4.2 reduction, P = 0.005), eccentric knee joint work per stance phase (−26.9%, P < 0.0001), and per kilometer of running (−21.1%, P < 0.0001). Alterations in gait were maintained at 30 days. In the absence of any feedback, controls maintained their baseline gait parameters. The majority of retrainers were adherent with the prescribed step rate during in-field runs. Thus, in-field gait retraining, cueing a modest increase in step rate, was effective at reducing impact forces, peak hip adduction and eccentric knee joint work.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 03/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: This study analyzed the relationships between isometric as well as concentric maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) strength of the leg muscles and the times as well as speeds over different distances in 17 young short track speed skaters. Isometric as well as concentric single-joint MVC strength and multi-joint MVC strength in a stable (without skates) and unstable (with skates) condition were tested. Furthermore, time during maximum skating performances on ice was measured. Results indicate that maximum torques during eversion and dorsal flexion have a significant influence on skating speed. Concentric MVC strength of the knee extensors was higher correlated with times as well as speeds over the different distances than isometric MVC strength. Multi-joint MVC testing revealed that the force loss between measurements without and with skates amounts to 25%, while biceps femoris and soleus showed decreased muscle activity and peroneus longus, tibialis anterior, as well as rectus femoris exhibited increased muscle activity. The results of this study depict evidence that the skating times and speeds are primarily influenced by concentric MVC strength of the leg extensors. To be able to transfer the strength onto ice in an optimal way, it is necessary to stabilize the knee and ankle joints. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 03/2015;
  • A. Boström, K. Thulin, M. Fredriksson, D. Reese, P. Rockborn, M. L. Hammar
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the 1-year self-reported incidence of overuse and traumatic sport injuries and risk factors for injuries in children participating in a summer sports camp representing seven different sports. 4363 children, 11 to 15 years old participating in a summer camp in seven different sports answered a questionnaire. Injury in this cross-sectional study was defined as a sport-related trauma or overload leading to pain and dysfunction preventing the person from participation in training or competition for at least 1 week. A number of risk factors for injury were investigated such as sex, age, number of hours spent on training in general, and on resistance training with weights. Nearly half [49%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 48–51%] of the participants had been injured as a result of participation in a sport during the preceding year, significantly more boys than girls (53%, 95% CI 50–55% vs 46%, 95% CI 43–48%; P < 0.001). Three factors contributed to increased incidence of sport injuries: age, sex, and resistance training with weights. Time spent on resistance training with weights was significantly associated with sport injuries in a logistic regression analysis. In children age 11 to 15 years, the risk of having a sport-related injury increased with age and occurred more often in boys than in girls. Weight training was the only modifiable risk factor that contributed to a significant increase in the incidence of sport injuries.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 03/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to determine how different categorizations of self-reported and objectively measured physical activity (PA) reflect variations in cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max ). A total of 759 individuals (366 women) with a mean age of 48.5 years (SD 14.4) wore an accelerometer (ActiGraph GT1M) for seven consecutive days and answered the short International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). VO2max was directly measured during a continuous graded exercise treadmill test until exhaustion. Men and women categorized as highly active by IPAQ had 9% and 13% higher VO2max , respectively, than those reporting a low PA level (P < 0.05). Men and women meeting the PA recommendation of 150 min/week of daily moderate intensity PA, measured by accelerometer, had 13% and 9% higher VO2max , respectively, than participants not meeting this recommendation (P < 0.01). No significant differences in average sedentary time, analyzed in total min/day and in bouts of 10 and 30 min, were found between participants with high or low cardiorespiratory fitness. However, women spent less time than men in bouts of sedentary behaviors. Self-reported PA by IPAQ and objectively measured PA by accelerometer were both useful instruments for detecting differences in VO2max . © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 03/2015;
  • A. W. Jones, R. Thatcher, D. S. March, G. Davison
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    ABSTRACT: Bovine colostrum (COL) has been advocated as a nutritional countermeasure to exercise-induced immune dysfunction. The aims of this study were to identify the effects of 4 weeks of COL supplementation on neutrophil responses and mucosal immunity following prolonged exercise. In a randomized double-blind, parallel group design, participants [age 28 ± 8 years; body mass 79 ± 7 kg; height 182 ± 6 cm; maximal oxygen uptake () 55 ± 9 mL/kg/min] were assigned to 20 g per day of COL (n = 10) or an isoenergetic/isomacronutrient placebo (PLA; n = 10) for 4 weeks. Venous blood and unstimulated saliva samples were obtained before and after 2.5 h of cycling at 15% Δ (∼55–60% ). A significantly greater formyl-methionyl-leucyl phenylalanine-stimulated oxidative burst was observed in the COL group compared with PLA group (P < 0.05) and a trend toward a time × group interaction (P = 0.06). However, there was no effect of COL on leukocyte trafficking, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-stimulated oxidative burst, bacterial-stimulated neutrophil degranulation, salivary secretory IgA, lactoferrin or lysozyme (P > 0.05). These findings provide further evidence of the beneficial effects of COL on receptor-mediated stimulation of neutrophil oxidative burst in a model of exercise-induced immune dysfunction.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 03/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: To determine whether participating in a cross-country skiing stage race (TDS) affects subsequent illness incidence, training and race performance. Methods: Self-reported training and illness data from 44 male and female elite cross-country skiers were included. In total, 125 years’ of data was collected (2-3 seasons per athlete). Illness incidence, training load and performance in international competitions were calculated for athletes who did and did not participate in TDS. Results: 48% of athletes reported becoming ill during or in the days immediately after taking part in TDS, vs. 16% of athletes who did not participate. In both groups, illness incidence was somewhat lower for female athletes. For male athletes, race performance was significantly worse for 6 weeks following TDS vs. 6 weeks before TDS. Furthermore, while female athletes who participated in TDS performed relatively better than controls in Olympics/World Championships, male athletes who participated in TDS typically performed worse in subsequent major championships. Conclusion: Participating in TDS appears to result in ~3-fold increase in risk of illness in this period. Male athletes appear more prone to illness and also see a drop in race performance following TDS, possibly linked to differences in training load before and after the event.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 02/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Patellar tendinopathy (jumper's knee) has a high prevalence in jumping athletes. Excessive load on the patellar tendon through high volumes of training and competition is an important risk factor. Structural changes in the tendon are related to a higher risk of developing patellar tendinopathy. The critical tendon load that affects tendon structure is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate patellar tendon structure on each day of a 5-day volleyball tournament in an adolescent population (16-18 years). The right patellar tendon of 41 players in the Australian Volleyball Schools Cup was scanned with ultrasound tissue characterization (UTC) on every day of the tournament (Monday to Friday). UTC can quantify structure of a tendon into four echo types based on the stability of the echo pattern. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to test for change of echo type I and II over the tournament days. Participants played between eight and nine matches during the tournament. GEE analysis showed no significant change of echo type percentages of echo type I (Wald chi-square = 4.603, d.f. = 4, P = 0.331) and echo type II (Wald chi-square = 6.070, d.f. = 4, P = 0.194) over time. This study shows that patellar tendon structure of 16-18-year-old volleyball players is not affected during 5 days of cumulative loading during a volleyball tournament. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 02/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate differences in quadriceps corticospinal excitability, spinal-reflexive excitability, strength, and voluntary activation before, 2 weeks post and 6 months post-anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLr). This longitudinal, case-control investigation examined 20 patients scheduled for ACLr (11 females, 9 males; age: 20.9 ± 4.4 years; height:172.4 ± 7.5 cm; weight:76.2 ± 11.8 kg) and 20 healthy controls (11 females, 9 males; age:21.7 ± 3.7 years; height: 173.7 ± 9.9 cm; weight: 76.1 ± 19.7 kg). Maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC), central activation ratio (CAR), normalized Hoffmann spinal reflexes, active motor threshold (AMT), and normalized motor-evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes at 120% of AMT were measured in the quadriceps muscle at the specific time points. ACLr patients demonstrated bilateral reductions in spinal-reflexive excitability compared with controls before surgery (P = 0.02) and 2 weeks post-surgery (P ≤ 0.001). ACLr patients demonstrated higher AMT at 6 months post-surgery (P ≤ 0.001) in both limbs. No MEP differences were detected. Quadriceps MVIC and CAR were lower in both limbs of the ACLr group before surgery and 6 months post-surgery (P ≤ 0.05) compared with controls. Diminished excitability of spinal-reflexive and corticospinal pathways are present at different times following ACLr and occur in combination with clinical deficits in quadriceps strength and activation. Early rehabilitation strategies targeting spinal-reflexive excitability may help improve postoperative outcomes, while later-stage rehabilitation may benefit from therapeutic techniques aimed at improving corticospinal excitability. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 02/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Tendon transfer surgery to a new extensor insertion was performed for musculus flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) of young adult rats, after which animals were allowed to recover. Mechanical properties and adaptive effects on body mass, bone growth, serial number of sarcomeres, and muscle physiological cross-sectional area were studied. Between the transfer and control groups, no differences were found for body mass and forearm length growth. In contrast, transferred muscles had a 19% smaller physiological cross-sectional area and 25% fewer sarcomeres in series within its muscle fibers than control muscles, i.e., a deficit in muscle belly growth is present. Our present results confirm our the length of previous work showing a limited capability of changing the adapted transferred FCU muscle belly, as the muscle-tendon complex is stretched, so that most of the acute FCU length change must originate from the tendon. This should most likely be attributed to surgery-related additional and/or altered connective tissue linkages at the muscle-tendon boundary. The substantially increased FCU tendon length found, after recovery from surgery and adaptation to the conditions of the transferred position, is likely to be related to such enhanced stretching of the FCU tendon. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 02/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the cardiovascular status of elite athletes in Denmark, the extent of abnormal cardiac findings - both training related and pathologic - and how participating in cardiac examination was perceived by the athletes. A standardized protocol of questionnaires, physical examination, resting electrocardiogram, and 2D echocardiography was used. In total 1347 elite athletes were invited; 516 athletes (38%) from 30 different sports participated. Results were stored in a web-based database for future research and long-term follow-up. Cardiac pathology was infrequent; eight athletes (1.6%) received a cardiac diagnosis; one athlete (0.2%) diagnosed with long QT syndrome was advised against competition level sports. In total, 60 athletes (11.6%) were referred for additional testing. The athletes presented a very low level of psychological stress before and a slight decrease immediately after the examination as measured by the REST-Q 76 Sport questionnaire. Athletes needing further examinations did not present a higher level of stress after the initial examination compared with athletes with normal test results. Overall, very few athletes were diagnosed with a cardiac condition that increased risk of sudden cardiac death. Less than half of the invited athletes volunteered, but participation was not perceived stressful by the enrolled athletes, not even when additional testing was needed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 02/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of aerobic exercise training (AT) on the expression of glucocorticoid receptors (GR) and anti-inflammatory cytokines in an asthma model. BALB/c mice were divided into groups control (CT; nonsensitized/nontrained), aerobic training (AT; nonsensitized/trained), ovalbumin (OVA; sensitized/not trained), and OVA+AT (sensitized/trained). OVA groups received OVA by inhalation, and the AT groups completed 1, 3, or 7 days of exercise (60 min/session). Expression of GR, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-1ra, NF-κB, TGF-β, VEGF, ICAM-1, VCAM-1; eosinophils counting; and airway remodeling (AR) features [airway smooth muscle (ASM) and epithelial thickness and collagen fiber deposition] were quantified. OVA sensitization induced a decrease in the expression of GR and increases in the eosinophil, IL-4, IL-5, NF-κB, TGF-β, VEGF, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and AR features (P < 0.05). After 3 days, AT reversed the OVA-induced reduction in the expression of GR, and subsequently induced increases in the expression of IL-10 and IL-1ra (seventh day). In contrast, the eosinophil migration, the expression of NF-κB, IL-4, IL-5, TGF-β, RANTES, VEGF, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and the AR features (P < 0.05) were reduced. AT increases the expression of GR and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and IL-1ra) and reduces the expression of inflammatory mediators and airway inflammation in an animal model of asthma. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 02/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: This study compared the capacity of young and old male C57Bl/6J mice to exercise with increasing resistance over 10 weeks, and its impact on muscle mass. Young mice (aged 15-25 weeks) were subjected to low (LR) and high (HR) resistance exercise, whereas only LR was used for old mice (107-117 weeks). Weekly patterns of voluntary wheel activity, food consumption and body weights were measured. Running patterns changed over time and with age, with two peaks of activity detected for young, but only one for old mice: speed and distance run was also less for old mice. The mass for six limb muscles was measured at the end of the experiment. The most pronounced increase in mass in response to exercise was for the soleus in young and old mice, and also quadriceps and gastrocnemius in young mice. Soleus and quadriceps muscles were analyzed histologically for myofiber number and size. A striking feature was the many small myofibers in response to exercise in young (but not old) soleus, whereas these were not present after exercise in young or old quadriceps. Overall, there was a striking difference in response to exercise between muscles and this was influenced by age. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 02/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: As short-term cardiorespiratory adaptation to high altitude (HA) exposure has not yet been studied in children, we assessed acute mountain sickness (AMS), hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) at rest and maximal exercise capacity (CPET) at low altitude (LA) and HA in pre-pubertal children and their fathers. Twenty father-child pairs (11 ± 1 years and 44 ± 4 years) were tested at LA (450 m) and HA (3450 m) at days 1, 2, and 3 after fast ascent (HA1/2/3). HVR was measured at rest and CPET was performed on a cycle ergometer. AMS severity was mild to moderate with no differences between generations. HVR was higher in children than adults at LA and increased at HA similarly in both groups. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) relative to body weight was similar in children and adults at LA and decreased significantly by 20% in both groups at HA; maximal heart rate did not change at HA in children while it decreased by 16% in adults (P < 0.001). Changes in HVR and VO2 peak from LA to HA were correlated among the biological child-father pairs. In conclusion, cardiorespiratory adaptation to altitude seems to be at least partly hereditary. Even though children and their fathers lose similar fractions of aerobic capacity going to high altitude, the mechanisms might be different. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 02/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) are a novel class of endogenous noncoding RNAs, which post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression via mRNA degradation or translational inhibition. miRNAs have become increasingly recognized as central players in the process of gene regulation and are responsible for a variety of essential biological processes including proliferation, differentiation and metabolism. miRNAs can be released into the circulation where they remain stable. Exercise is one of the most positive and effective means of achieving enhanced physique. This review highlights and summarizes recent progress in the field of circulating miRNAs in response to acute and chronic exercise and discusses future directions in studying circulating miRNAs in exercise-induced adaptation. A better understanding of how circulating miRNAs participate in the physiological response to exercise would eventually help develop circulating miRNAs as therapeutic targets for improving exercise capacity in patients with heart failure and other diseases. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 02/2015;