Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports (Scand J Med Sci Sports)

Publisher: Wiley

Journal description

Representing the Scandinavian sports medicine and science associations the journal publishes original articles on the traumatologic (orthopaedic) physiologic biomechanic medical (including rehabilitation) sociologic psychologic pedagogic historic and philosophic aspects of sport. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports is thus multidisciplinary and encompasses all elements of research in sport. Leading authorities are invited to contribute reviews on selected topics. The journal is divided into three sections: I Physiology and Biomechanics; II Medicine Traumatology and Rehabilitation; III Social and Behavioural Aspects of Sports.

Current impact factor: 3.21

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2011 Impact Factor 2.867

Additional details

5-year impact 3.27
Cited half-life 5.50
Immediacy index 0.56
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 1.02
Website Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports website
Other titles Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports (Online), Scandinavian journal of medicine and science in sports
ISSN 1600-0838
OCLC 47858815
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details


  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
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  • Restrictions
    • 12 months embargo
  • Conditions
    • Some journals have separate policies, please check with each journal directly
    • On author's personal website, institutional repositories, arXiv, AgEcon, PhilPapers, PubMed Central, RePEc or Social Science Research Network
    • Author's pre-print may not be updated with Publisher's Version/PDF
    • Author's pre-print must acknowledge acceptance for publication
    • On a non-profit server
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Publisher source must be acknowledged with citation
    • Must link to publisher version with set statement (see policy)
    • If OnlineOpen is available, BBSRC, EPSRC, MRC, NERC and STFC authors, may self-archive after 12 months
    • If OnlineOpen is available, AHRC and ESRC authors, may self-archive after 24 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 07/08/2014
    • This policy is an exception to the default policies of 'Wiley'
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to determine the reliability and validity of the Functional Rating Index (FRI) for athletes with low back pain (LBP). In this cross-sectional and prospective cohort study, the validated Persian FRI (PFRI) was tested in 100 athletes with LBP and 50 healthy athletes. From the athletes with LBP, data were recollected among 50 athletes with a 7-day interval to examine test-retest reliability. The content validity was excellent, and the athletes with LBP responded to all items with no floor or ceiling effects. The discriminative validity was supported by a statistically significant difference in PFRI total scores between the athletes with LBP and healthy athletes. The concurrent criterion validity was good (rho = 0.72). The construct, convergent validity was good (r = 0.83). The internal consistency reliability estimate was high (Cronbach's α = 0.90). Factor analysis demonstrated a single-factor structure with an explained variance of 52.22%. The test-retest reliability was excellent, indicated by an ICCagreement of 0.97, and the agreement observed in the Bland and Altman plot demonstrated no systematic bias. It is concluded that the PFRI has excellent psychometric properties for assessing athletes with LBP.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 04/2015; DOI:10.1111/sms.12447
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    ABSTRACT: Anecdotal evidence suggests that athletes hyperhydrate to mask prohibited substances in urine and potentially counteract suspicious fluctuations in blood parameters in the athlete biological passport (ABP). It is examined if acute hyperhydration changes parameters included in the ABP. Twenty subjects received recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) for 3 weeks. After 10 days of rhEPO washout, 10 subjects ingested normal amount of water (∼ 270 mL), whereas the remaining 10 ingested a 1000 mL bolus of water. Blood variables were measured 20, 40, 60, and 80 min after ingestion. Three days later, the subjects were crossed-over with regard to water ingestion and the procedure was repeated. OFF-hr was reduced by ∼ 4%, ∼ 3%, and ∼ 2% at 40, 60, and 80 min, respectively, after drinking 1000 mL of water, compared with normal water ingestion (P < 0.05). Forty percent of the subjects were identified with atypical blood profiles (99% specificity level) before drinking 1000 mL of water, whereas 11% (n = 18), 10% and 11% (n = 18) were identified 40, 60, and 80 min, respectively, after ingestion. This was different (P < 0.05) compared with normal water intake, where 45% of the subjects were identified before ingestion, and 54% (n = 19), 45%, and 47% (n = 19) were identified 40, 60, and 80 min, respectively, after ingestion. In conclusion, acute hyperhydration reduces ABP OFF-hr and reduces ABP sensitivity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 04/2015; DOI:10.1111/sms.12438
  • Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 04/2015; 25(2). DOI:10.1111/sms.12372
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    ABSTRACT: Muscle damage caused through impacts in rugby union is known to increase oxidative stress and inflammation. Pterins have been used clinically as markers of oxidative stress, inflammation, and neurotransmitter synthesis. This study investigates the release of myoglobin from muscle tissue due to force-related impacts and how it is related to the subsequent oxidation of 7,8-dihydroneopterin to specific pterins. Effects of iron and myoglobin on 7,8-dihydroneopterin oxidation were examined in vitro via strong cation-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography (SCX-HPLC) analysis of neopterin, xanthopterin, and 7,8-dihydroxanthopterin. Urine samples were collected from 25 professional rugby players pre and post four games and analyzed for myoglobin by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and 7,8-dihydroneopterin oxidation products by HPLC. Iron and myoglobin oxidized 7,8-dihydroneopterin to neopterin, xanthopterin, and 7,8-dihydroxanthopterin at concentrations at or above 10 μM and 50 μg/mL, respectively. All four games showed significant increases in myoglobin, neopterin, total neopterin, biopterin, and total biopterin, which correlated between each variable (P < 0.05). Myoglobin and iron facilitate 7,8-dihydroneopterin oxidation to neopterin and xanthopterin. In vivo delocalization of myoglobin due to muscle damage may contribute to oxidative stress and inflammation after rugby. Increased concentrations of biopterin and total biopterin may indicate production of nitric oxide and monoamine neurotransmitters in response to the physical stress. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 04/2015; DOI:10.1111/sms.12436
  • Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 04/2015; 25(2). DOI:10.1111/sms.12179
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    ABSTRACT: Slackline training (balancing on nylon ribbons) has been shown to improve neuromuscular performance in children and adults. Comparable studies in seniors are lacking. Thus, 32 seniors were randomly assigned [strata: age, gender, physical activity (PA)] to an intervention [INT; n = 16, age: 65 ± 4 years, PA: 9 ± 5 h/week] or control [CON, n = 16, age: 63 ± 4 years, PA: 8 ± 4 h/week] group. Slackline training was given for 6 weeks (3 times per week, attendance 97%). Static and slackline standing balance performance, force development, and maximal strength of the ankle muscles were assessed before and after slackline training. Muscle activity (lower limb and trunk) was recorded during balance testing. Moderate to large group × time interactions (0.02 < P < 0.04, 0.11 < ηp (2) < 0.17) in favor of INT were found for slackline standing times (INT: left, +278%, P = 0.02; right, +328%, P = 0.03; tandem, +94%, P = 0.007) and muscle activity during single-limb slackline standing [INT: right: rectus abdominis (RA), P = 0.003, -15%; multifidus (MF), P = 0.01, -15%; left: tibialis anterior (TIB), P = 0.03, -12%; soleus (SOL), P = 0.006, -18%; RA, P = 0.04, -11%; MF, P = 0.01, -16%; gastrocnemius medialis (GM), P = 0.02, -19%]. Static balance performance, ankle strength, and power were not affected. Slackline training induced large task-specific improvements of slackline standing performance accompanied with reductions of lower limb and trunk muscle activity. Transfer effects to static balance and strength measures seem limited. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 03/2015; DOI:10.1111/sms.12423
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    ABSTRACT: This observational study investigated skydiver neck muscle activity during parachute opening shock (POS), as epidemiological data recently suggested neck pain in skydivers to be related to POS. Twenty experienced skydivers performed two terminal velocity skydives each. Surface electromyography quantified muscle activity bilaterally from the anterior neck, the upper and lower posterior neck, and the upper shoulders; and two triaxial accelerometers sampled deceleration. Muscle activity was normalized as the percentage of reference maximum voluntary electrical activity (% MVE); and temporal muscle activity onset was related to POS onset. Our results showed that neck muscle activity during POS reached mean magnitudes of 53-104% MVE, often exceeding reference activity in the lower posterior neck and upper shoulders. All investigated muscle areas' mean temporal onsets occurred <50 ms after POS onset (9-34 ms latencies), which is consistent with anticipatory motor control. The high muscle activity observed supports that the neck is under substantial strain during POS, while temporal muscle activation suggests anticipatory motor control to be a strategy used by skydivers to protect the cervical spine from POS. This study's findings contribute to understanding the high rates of POS-related neck pain, and further support the need for evaluation of neck pain preventative strategies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 03/2015; DOI:10.1111/sms.12428
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an active rehabilitation intervention for adolescents who are slow-to-recover after a sport-related concussion. Ten adolescents (three girls and seven boys) seen at the Montreal Children's Hospital Concussion Clinic participated in this case series. Adolescents who were symptomatic more than 4 weeks after the injury were provided with an active rehabilitation intervention (M = 7.9 weeks following injury; range = 3.7 to 26.2 weeks). The rehabilitation program includes gradual, closely monitored light aerobic exercise, general coordination exercises, mental imagery, as well as reassurance, normalization of recovery, and stress/anxiety reduction strategies. The program continued until complete symptom resolution and readiness to begin stepwise return to activities. The primary outcome of the study was evolution of post-concussion symptoms. Secondary outcomes included mood, energy, balance, and cognition. After the intervention, post-concussion symptoms significantly decreased for the group of participants. They also had decreased fatigue and improved mood after 6 weeks of initiating the rehabilitation intervention. This case series shows that postconcussive symptoms and functioning in adolescents following sports-related concussion can be improved after participation in an active rehabilitation intervention. The introduction of graded light intensity exercise in the post-acute period following concussion is safe, feasible and appears to have a positive impact on adolescents' functioning. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 03/2015; DOI:10.1111/sms.12441
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    ABSTRACT: Organizational stressors are particularly prevalent across sport performers' experiences and can influence their performance, health, and well-being. Research has been conducted to identify which organizational stressors are encountered by sport performers, but little is known about how these experiences vary from athlete to athlete. The purpose of this study was to examine if the frequency, intensity, and duration of the organizational stressors that sport performers encounter vary as a function of gender, sport type, and performance level. Participants (n = 1277) completed the Organizational Stressor Indicator for Sport Performers (OSI-SP; Arnold et al., 2013), and the resultant data were analyzed using multivariate analyses of covariance. The findings show that demographic differences are apparent in the dimensions of the goals and development, logistics and operations, team and culture, coaching, and selection organizational stressors that sport performers encounter. More specifically, significant differences were found between males and females, between team and individual-based performers, and between performers competing at national or international, regional or university, and county or club levels. These findings have important implications for theory and research on organizational stress, and for the development of stress management interventions with sport performers. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 03/2015; DOI:10.1111/sms.12439
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of oral salt supplementation to improve exercise performance during a half-ironman triathlon. Twenty-six experienced triathletes were matched for age, anthropometric data, and training status, and randomly placed into the salt group (113 mmol Na(+) and 112 mmol Cl(-) ) or the control group (cellulose). The experimental treatments were ingested before and during a real half-ironman triathlon competition. Pre- and post-race body mass, maximal force during a whole-body isometric strength test, maximal height during a countermovement jump, were measured, and blood samples were obtained. Sweat samples were obtained during the running section. Total race time was lower in the salt group than in the control group (P = 0.04). After the race, whole-body isometric strength (P = 0.17) and jump height (P = 0.49) were similarly reduced in both groups. Sweat loss (P = 0.98) and sweat Na(+) concentration (P = 0.72) were similar between groups. However, body mass tended to be less reduced in the salt group than in the control group (P = 0.09) while post-race serum Na(+) (P = 0.03) and Cl(-) (P = 0.03) concentrations were higher in the salt group than in the control group. Oral salt supplementation was effective to lessen body mass loss and increase serum electrolyte concentration during a real half-ironman. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 03/2015; DOI:10.1111/sms.12427
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    ABSTRACT: The sex difference in marathon performance increases with finishing place and age of the runner but whether this occurs among swimmers is unknown. The purpose was to compare sex differences in swimming velocity across world record place (1st–10th), age group (25–89 years), and event distance. We also compared sex differences between freestyle swimming and marathon running. The world's top 10 swimming times of both sexes for World Championship freestyle stroke, backstroke, breaststroke, and butterfly events and the world's top 10 marathon times in 5-year age groups were obtained. Men were faster than women for freestyle (12.4 ± 4.2%), backstroke (12.8 ± 3.0%), and breaststroke (14.5 ± 3.2%), with the greatest sex differences for butterfly (16.7 ± 5.5%). The sex difference in swimming velocity increased across world record place for freestyle (P < 0.001), breaststroke, and butterfly for all age groups and distances (P < 0.001) because of a greater relative drop-off between first and 10th place for women. The sex difference in marathon running increased with the world record place and the sex difference for marathon running was greater than for swimming (P < 0.001). The sex difference in swimming increased with world record place and age, but was less than for marathon running. Collectively, these results suggest more depth in women's swimming than marathon running.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 03/2015; DOI:10.1111/sms.12412
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    ABSTRACT: We sought to determine if an in-field gait retraining program can reduce excessive impact forces and peak hip adduction without adverse changes in knee joint work during running. Thirty healthy at-risk runners who exhibited high-impact forces were randomized to retraining [21.1 (±1.9) years, 22.1 (±10.8) km/week] or control groups [21.0 (±1.3) years, 23.2 (±8.7) km/week]. Retrainers were cued, via a wireless accelerometer, to increase preferred step rate by 7.5% during eight training sessions performed in-field. Adherence with the prescribed step rate was assessed via mobile monitoring. Three-dimensional gait analysis was performed at baseline, after retraining, and at 1-month post-retraining. Retrainers increased step rate by 8.6% (P < 0.0001), reducing instantaneous vertical load rate (−17.9%, P = 0.003), average vertical load rate (−18.9%, P < 0.0001), peak hip adduction (2.9° ± 4.2 reduction, P = 0.005), eccentric knee joint work per stance phase (−26.9%, P < 0.0001), and per kilometer of running (−21.1%, P < 0.0001). Alterations in gait were maintained at 30 days. In the absence of any feedback, controls maintained their baseline gait parameters. The majority of retrainers were adherent with the prescribed step rate during in-field runs. Thus, in-field gait retraining, cueing a modest increase in step rate, was effective at reducing impact forces, peak hip adduction and eccentric knee joint work.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 03/2015; DOI:10.1111/sms.12413
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the 1-year self-reported incidence of overuse and traumatic sport injuries and risk factors for injuries in children participating in a summer sports camp representing seven different sports. 4363 children, 11 to 15 years old participating in a summer camp in seven different sports answered a questionnaire. Injury in this cross-sectional study was defined as a sport-related trauma or overload leading to pain and dysfunction preventing the person from participation in training or competition for at least 1 week. A number of risk factors for injury were investigated such as sex, age, number of hours spent on training in general, and on resistance training with weights. Nearly half [49%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 48-51%] of the participants had been injured as a result of participation in a sport during the preceding year, significantly more boys than girls (53%, 95% CI 50-55% vs 46%, 95% CI 43-48%; P < 0.001). Three factors contributed to increased incidence of sport injuries: age, sex, and resistance training with weights. Time spent on resistance training with weights was significantly associated with sport injuries in a logistic regression analysis. In children age 11 to 15 years, the risk of having a sport-related injury increased with age and occurred more often in boys than in girls. Weight training was the only modifiable risk factor that contributed to a significant increase in the incidence of sport injuries. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 03/2015; DOI:10.1111/sms.12432
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to determine how different categorizations of self-reported and objectively measured physical activity (PA) reflect variations in cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max ). A total of 759 individuals (366 women) with a mean age of 48.5 years (SD 14.4) wore an accelerometer (ActiGraph GT1M) for seven consecutive days and answered the short International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). VO2max was directly measured during a continuous graded exercise treadmill test until exhaustion. Men and women categorized as highly active by IPAQ had 9% and 13% higher VO2max , respectively, than those reporting a low PA level (P < 0.05). Men and women meeting the PA recommendation of 150 min/week of daily moderate intensity PA, measured by accelerometer, had 13% and 9% higher VO2max , respectively, than participants not meeting this recommendation (P < 0.01). No significant differences in average sedentary time, analyzed in total min/day and in bouts of 10 and 30 min, were found between participants with high or low cardiorespiratory fitness. However, women spent less time than men in bouts of sedentary behaviors. Self-reported PA by IPAQ and objectively measured PA by accelerometer were both useful instruments for detecting differences in VO2max . © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 03/2015; DOI:10.1111/sms.12425
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    ABSTRACT: Bovine colostrum (COL) has been advocated as a nutritional countermeasure to exercise-induced immune dysfunction. The aims of this study were to identify the effects of 4 weeks of COL supplementation on neutrophil responses and mucosal immunity following prolonged exercise. In a randomized double-blind, parallel group design, participants [age 28 ± 8 years; body mass 79 ± 7 kg; height 182 ± 6 cm; maximal oxygen uptake ( V ˙ O 2 m a x ) 55 ± 9 mL/kg/min] were assigned to 20 g per day of COL (n = 10) or an isoenergetic/isomacronutrient placebo (PLA; n = 10) for 4 weeks. Venous blood and unstimulated saliva samples were obtained before and after 2.5 h of cycling at 15% Δ (∼55-60% V ˙ O 2 m a x ). A significantly greater formyl-methionyl-leucyl phenylalanine-stimulated oxidative burst was observed in the COL group compared with PLA group (P < 0.05) and a trend toward a time × group interaction (P = 0.06). However, there was no effect of COL on leukocyte trafficking, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-stimulated oxidative burst, bacterial-stimulated neutrophil degranulation, salivary secretory IgA, lactoferrin or lysozyme (P > 0.05). These findings provide further evidence of the beneficial effects of COL on receptor-mediated stimulation of neutrophil oxidative burst in a model of exercise-induced immune dysfunction. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 03/2015; DOI:10.1111/sms.12433
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    ABSTRACT: The goals of this study were to determine the prevalence and determinants of false-positive exercise tests in athletes. Data from all athletes who visited the Department of Sport Medicine for assessment of sports eligibility during a 1.5-year period were reviewed retrospectively. Potential determinants of (false) positive test results that were evaluated included demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, sports characteristics, resting electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities, and exercise capacity. Data from 1298 athletes were included. In 53 athletes (4.1%), the exercise ECG was classified as positive. Among 38 athletes who were referred to a sports cardiologist for further diagnostic evaluation, 36 (95%) were classified as having a false-positive test result and 2 athletes (5%) required coronary revascularization. Athletes with a false-positive test were older than athletes with a negative test (53 ± 8 vs 45 ± 13 years, P = 0.03). In conclusion, exercise electrocardiography has a low positive predictive value in asymptomatic recreational and competitive athletes, with a false-positive test result being associated with higher age. Given the relatively high prevalence of false-positive test results in this population, efforts should be made to develop strategies aimed at identifying false-positive test results in a simple noninvasive manner. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 03/2015; DOI:10.1111/sms.12420
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    ABSTRACT: To determine risk factors for running injuries during the Lage Landen Marathon Eindhoven 2012. Prospective cohort study. Population-based study. This study included 943 runners. Running injuries after the Lage Landen Marathon. Sociodemographic and training-related factors as well as lifestyle factors were considered as potential risk factors and assessed in a questionnaire 1 month before the running event. The association between potential risk factors and injuries was determined, per running distance separately, using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. In total, 154 respondents sustained a running injury. Among the marathon runners, in the univariate model, body mass index ≥ 26 kg/m(2) , ≤ 5 years of running experience, and often performing interval training, were significantly associated with running injuries, whereas in the multivariate model only ≤ 5 years of running experience and not performing interval training on a regular basis were significantly associated with running injuries. Among marathon runners, no multivariate model could be created because of the low number of injuries and participants. This study indicates that interval training on a regular basis may be recommended to marathon runners to reduce the risk of injury. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 02/2015; DOI:10.1111/sms.12424