Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports (Scand J Med Sci Sports )

Publisher: Blackwell Publishing


Representing the Scandinavian sports medicine and science associations the journal publishes original articles on the traumatologic (orthopaedic) physiologic biomechanic medical (including rehabilitation) sociologic psychologic pedagogic historic and philosophic aspects of sport. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports is thus multidisciplinary and encompasses all elements of research in sport. Leading authorities are invited to contribute reviews on selected topics. The journal is divided into three sections: I Physiology and Biomechanics; II Medicine Traumatology and Rehabilitation; III Social and Behavioural Aspects of Sports.

Impact factor 3.21

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    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports website
  • Other titles
    Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports (Online), Scandinavian journal of medicine and science in sports
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  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Blackwell Publishing

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    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • 'Blackwell Publishing' is an imprint of 'Wiley'
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • L. Holm, A. P. Jespersen, D. S. Nielsen, M. B. Frøst, S. Reitelseder, T. Jensen, S. B. Engelsen, M. Kjaer, T. Damsholt
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 02/2015; 25(1).
  • S. Williams, G. Trewartha, S. P. T. Kemp, R. Michell, K. A. Stokes
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    ABSTRACT: This prospective cohort study investigated the influence of an artificial playing surface on injury risk and perceptions of muscle soreness in elite English Premiership Rugby Union players. Time loss (from 39.5 matches) and abrasion (from 27 matches) injury risk was compared between matches played on artificial turf and natural grass. Muscle soreness was reported over the 4 days following one match played on each surface by 95 visiting players (i.e., normally play on natural grass surfaces). There was a likely trivial difference in the overall injury burden relating to time-loss injuries between playing surfaces [rate ratio = 1.01, 90% confidence interval (CI): 0.73–1.38]. Abrasions were substantially more common on artificial turf (rate ratio = 7.92, 90% CI: 4.39–14.28), although the majority of these were minor and only two resulted in any reported time loss. Muscle soreness was consistently higher over the 4 days following a match on artificial turf in comparison with natural grass, although the magnitude of this effect was small (effect sizes ranging from 0.26 to 0.40). These results suggest that overall injury risk is similar for the two playing surfaces, but further surveillance is required before inferences regarding specific injury diagnoses and smaller differences in overall injury risk can be made.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 02/2015;
  • J Farup, F de Paoli, K Bjerg, S Riis, S Ringgard, K Vissing
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the hypertrophic potential of load-matched blood-flow restricted resistance training (BFR) vs free-flow traditional resistance training (low-load TRT) performed to fatigue. Ten healthy young subjects performed unilateral BFR and contralateral low-load TRT elbow flexor dumbbell curl with 40% of one repetition maximum until volitional concentric failure 3 days per week for 6 weeks. Prior to and at 3 (post-3) and 10 (post-10) days post-training, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to estimate elbow flexor muscle volume and muscle water content accumulation through training. Acute changes in muscle thickness following an early vs a late exercise bout were measured with ultrasound to determine muscle swelling during the immediate 0-48 h post-exercise. Total work was threefold lower for BFR compared with low-load TRT (P < 0.001). Both BRF and low-load TRT increased muscle volume by approximately 12% at post-3 and post-10 (P < 0.01) with no changes in MRI-determined water content. Training increased muscle thickness during the immediate 48 h post-exercise (P < 0.001) and to greater extent with BRF (P < 0.05) in the early training phase. In conclusion, BFR and low-load TRT, when performed to fatigue, produce equal muscle hypertrophy, which may partly rely on transient exercise-induced increases in muscle water content. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Elevated patellofemoral joint kinetics during running may contribute to patellofemoral joint symptoms. The purpose of this study was to test for independent effects of foot strike pattern and step length on patellofemoral joint kinetics while running. Effects were tested relative to individual steps and also taking into account the number of steps required to run a kilometer with each step length. Patellofemoral joint reaction force and stress were estimated in 20 participants running at their preferred speed. Participants ran using a forefoot strike and rearfoot strike pattern during three different step length conditions: preferred step length, long (+10%) step length, and short (-10%) step length. Patellofemoral kinetics was estimated using a biomechanical model of the patellofemoral joint that accounted for cocontraction of the knee flexors and extensors. We observed independent effects of foot strike pattern and step length. Patellofemoral joint kinetics per step was 10-13% less during forefoot strike conditions and 15-20% less with a shortened step length. Patellofemoral joint kinetics per kilometer decreased 12-13% using a forefoot strike pattern and 9-12% with a shortened step length. To the extent that patellofemoral joint kinetics contribute to symptoms among runners, these running modifications may be advisable for runners with patellofemoral pain. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: There is growing evidence suggesting that nutritional supplement (NS) use is strongly associated to doping use in elite and amateur sports. However, there is a paucity of research on the psychological processes that underlie this association. The present study investigated the cognitive and behavioral components of the association between NS use and doping among adolescent sub-elite athletes. Six hundred and fifty adolescent athletes completed a questionnaire including measures of doping intentions, attitudes, norms, and beliefs about NS use. The results showed that NS users who did not report doping use had significantly stronger doping intentions and more positive attitudes and favorable beliefs toward doping use, as compared with athletes who did not use NS. In support of the “shared mental representations” hypothesis, the present findings show that NS use is associated with biased reasoning patterns in favor of doping use. This mechanism may explain why some NS users decide to engage in doping.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Water-based activities may result in the loss of thermal comfort (TC). We hypothesized that in cooling water, the hands and feet would be responsible. Supine immersions were conducted in up to five clothing conditions (exposing various regions), as well as investigations to determine if a “reference” skin temperature (Tsk) distribution in thermoneutral air would help interpret our findings. After 10 min in 34.5 °C water, the temperature was decreased to 19.5 °C over 20 min; eight resting or exercising volunteers reported when they no longer felt comfortable and which region was responsible. TC, rectal temperature, and Tsk were measured. Rather than the extremities, the lower back and chest caused the loss of overall TC. At this point, mean (SD) chest Tsk was 3.3 (1.7) °C lower than the reference temperature (P = 0.005), and 3.8 (1.5) °C lower for the back (P = 0.002). Finger Tsk was 3.1 (2.7) °C higher than the reference temperature (P = 0.037). In cool and cooling water, hands and feet, already adapted to colder air temperatures, will not cause discomfort. Contrarily, more discomfort may arise from the chest and lower back, as these regions cool by more than normal. Thus, Tsk distribution in thermoneutral air may help understand variations in TC responses across the body.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: It is investigated if recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) treatment for 15 weeks (n = 8) reduces extracellular accumulation of metabolic stress markers such as lactate, H+, and K+ during incremental exhaustive exercise. After rHuEPO treatment, normalization of blood volume and composition by hemodilution preceded an additional incremental test. Group averages were calculated for an exercise intensity ∼80% of pre-rHuEPO peak power output. After rHuEPO treatment, leg lactate release to the plasma compartment was similar to before (4.3 ± 1.6 vs 3.9 ± 2.5 mmol/min) and remained similar after hemodilution. Venous lactate concentration was higher (P < 0.05) after rHuEPO treatment (7.1 ± 1.6 vs 5.2 ± 2.1 mM). Leg H+ release to the plasma compartment after rHuEPO was similar to before (19.6 ± 5.4 vs 17.6 ± 6.0 mmol/min) and remained similar after hemodilution. Nevertheless, venous pH was lower (P < 0.05) after rHuEPO treatment (7.18 ± 0.04 vs 7.22 ± 0.05). Leg K+ release to the plasma compartment after rHuEPO treatment was similar to before (0.8 ± 0.5 vs 0.7 ± 0.7 mmol/min) and remained similar after hemodilution. Additionally, venous K+ concentrations were similar after vs before rHuEPO (5.3 ± 0.3 vs 5.1 ± 0.4 mM). In conclusion, rHuEPO does not reduce plasma accumulation of lactate, H+, and K+ at work rates corresponding to ∼80% of peak power output.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to determine whether glucose-fructose (GF) ingestion, relative to glucose-only, would alter performance, metabolism, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, and psychological affect during prolonged running. On two occasions, 20 runners (14 men) completed a 120-min submaximal run followed by a 4-mile time trial (TT). Participants consumed glucose-only (G) or GF (1.2:1 ratio) beverages, which supplied ∼ 1.3 g/min of carbohydrate. Substrate use, blood lactate, psychological affect [Feeling Scale (FS)], and GI distress were measured. Differences between conditions were assessed using magnitude-based inferential statistics. Participants completed the TT 1.9% (−1.9; −4.2, 0.4) faster with GF, representing a likely benefit. FS ratings were possibly higher and GI symptoms were possibly-to-likely lower with GF during the submaximal period and TT. Effect sizes for GI distress and FS ratings were relatively small (Cohen's d = ∼0.2 to 0.4). GF resulted in possibly higher fat oxidation during the submaximal period. No clear differences in lactate were observed. In conclusion, GF ingestion – compared with glucose-only – likely improves TT performance after 2 h of submaximal running, and GI distress and psychological affect are likely mechanisms. These results apply to runners consuming fluid at 500–600 mL/h and carbohydrate at 1.0–1.3 g/min during running at 60–70% VO2peak.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: The present study validated a Swedish version of the 47-item Coaching Behavior Scale for Sport (CBS-S). Sample 1 consisted of 506 team sport athletes [262 men and 244 women; mean age: 22.20, standard deviation (SD) = 3.90] distributed across 41 coaches at the two highest national levels of various sports. Athletes completed the CBS-S and established questionnaires of coaching behaviors (LSS), self-confidence (CSAI-2R), and coach–athlete relationship (CART-Q). An additional sample of 39 basketball players (21 men and 18 women; mean age = 17.40, SD = 2.39) completed the CBS-S twice, approximately 4 weeks apart. Confirmatory factor analysis showed an acceptable model fit for the seven-factor version of the CBS-S, although two items of the negative personal rapport subscale displayed insufficient factor loadings. Correlations between the subscales of the CBS-S and established instruments were in accordance with theoretical expectations, supporting the concurrent validity. Cronbach's alpha (> 0.82) for all dimensions provided support for the reliability of the CBS-S, and test-retest correlations indicated moderate stability over time. Cultural differences in the assessment of coaching behaviors and the usability of the CBS-S by coaches for self-reflection and development are discussed.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Atypical running gait biomechanics are considered a primary factor in the aetiology of iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS). However, a general consensus on the underpinning kinematic differences between runners with and without ITBS is yet to be reached. This lack of consensus may be due in part to three issues: gender differences in gait mechanics, the pre-selection of discrete biomechanical variables, and/or relatively small sample sizes. Therefore, this study was designed to address two purposes: (1) examining differences in gait kinematics for male and female runners experiencing ITBS at the time of testing and (2) assessing differences in gait kinematics between healthy gender- and age-matched runners as compared with their ITBS counterparts using waveform analysis. Ninety-six runners participated in this study: 48 ITBS and 48 healthy runners. The results show that female ITBS runners exhibited significantly greater hip external rotation compared to male ITBS and female healthy runners. On the contrary, male ITBS runners exhibited significantly greater ankle internal rotation compared to healthy males. These results suggest that care should be taken to account for gender when investigating the biomechanical aetiology of ITBS.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: This study analyzed the effects of pseudoephedrine (PSE) provided at different time of day on neuromuscular performance, side effects, and violation of the current doping cut-off threshold [World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA)]. Nine resistance-trained males carried out bench press and full squat exercises against four incremental loads (25%, 50%, 75%, and 90% one repetition maximum [1RM]), in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design. Participants ingested either 180 mg of PSE (supra-therapeutic dose) or placebo in the morning (7:00 h; AMPLAC and AMPSE) and in the afternoon (17:00 h; PMPLAC and PMPSE). PSE enhanced muscle contraction velocity against 25% and 50% 1RM loads, only when it was ingested in the mornings, and only in the full squat exercise (4.4–8.7%; P < 0.05). PSE ingestion raised urine and plasma PSE concentrations (P < 0.05) regardless of time of day; however, cathine only increased in the urine samples. PSE ingestion resulted in positive tests occurring in 11% of samples, and it rose some adverse side effects such us tachycardia and heart palpitations. Ingestion of a single dose of 180 mg of PSE results in enhanced lower body muscle contraction velocity against low and moderate loads only in the mornings. These mild performance improvements are accompanied by undesirable side effects and an 11% risk of surpassing the doping threshold.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: A short maximal steep ramp test (SRT, 25 W/10 s) has been proposed to guide exercise interventions in type 2 diabetes, but requires validation. This study aims to (a) determine the relationship between Wmax and reached during SRT and the standard ramp test (RT); (b) obtain test-retest reliability; and (c) document electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities during SRT. Type 2 diabetes patients (35 men, 26 women) performed a cycle ergometer-based RT (women 1.2; men 1.8 W/6 s) and SRT on separate days. A random subgroup (n = 42) repeated the SRT. ECG, heart rate, and were monitored. Wmax during RT: 193 ± 63 (men) and 106 ± 33 W (women). Wmax during SRT: 193 ± 63 (men) and 188 ± 55 W (women). The relationship between RT and SRT was described by men RT (mL/min) = 152 + 7.67 × Wmax SRT1 (r: 0.859); women RT (mL/min) = 603 + 4.75 × Wmax SRT1 (r: 0.771); intraclass correlation coefficients between first (SRT1) and second SRT Wmax (SRT2) were men 0.951 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.899–0.977] and women 0.908 (95% CI 0.727–0.971). No adverse events were noted during any of the exercise tests. This validation study indicates that the SRT is a low-risk, accurate, and reliable test to estimate maximal aerobic capacity during the RT to design exercise interventions in type 2 diabetes patients.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: The Achilles tendon (AT) consists of fascicles that originate from the medial head of the gastrocnemius (MG), lateral head of the gastrocnemius (LG), and soleus muscle (Sol). These fascicles are reported to have a twisted structure. However, there is no consensus as to the degree of torsion. The purpose of this study was to investigate the twisted structure of the AT at the level of fascicles that originate from the MG, LG, and Sol, and elucidate the morphological characteristics. Gross anatomical study of 60 Japanese cadavers (111 legs) was used. The AT fascicles originated from the MG, LG, and Sol were fused while twisting among themselves. There were three classification types depending on the degree of torsion. Further fine separation of each fascicle revealed MG ran fairly parallel in all types, whereas LG and Sol, particularly of the extreme type, were inserted onto the calcaneal tuberosity with strong torsion. In addition, the sites of Sol torsion were 3–5 cm proximal to the calcaneal insertion of the AT. These findings provide promising basic data to elucidate the functional role of the twisted structure and mechanisms for the occurrence of AT injury and other conditions.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 01/2015;