Periodontology 2000

Publisher: Blackwell Publishing

Description

Periodontology 2000 comprises a series of monographs intended for periodontists and general practitioners with interest in periodontics. The editorial board will identify significant topics and outstanding scientists and clinicians for the individual monographs. Periodontology 2000 will serve as a valuable supplement to existing periodontal journals. Three monographs will be published each year.

Impact factor 4.01

  • 5-year impact
    4.34
  • Cited half-life
    8.30
  • Immediacy index
    1.81
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    1.24
  • Website
    Periodontology 2000 website
  • Other titles
    Periodontology 2000 (Online), Periodontology two thousand
  • ISSN
    1600-0757
  • OCLC
    46654325
  • Material type
    Document, Series, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Blackwell Publishing

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • Some journals impose embargoes typically of 6 or 12 months, occasionally of 24 months
    • no listing of affected journals available as yet
  • Conditions
    • See Wiley-Blackwell entry for articles after February 2007
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • On author's server, institutional server or subject-based server
    • Server must be non-commercial
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged with set statement ("The definitive version is available at www.blackwell-synergy.com")
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • 'Blackwell Publishing' is an imprint of 'Wiley'
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This literature review provides an overview of the current scenario regarding the impact of smoking on the progression and treatment of periodontitis; clinical, microbiological and immunological data from studies from our and other groups are presented. In general, preclinical and clinical data are unanimous in demonstrating that smokers present increased susceptibility, greater severity and faster progression of periodontal disease compared with nonsmokers. The evidence further demonstrates that smokers lose more teeth and have a less favorable response to therapy than do nonsmokers. Although it is well established that smoking significantly impacts on the onset, progression and outcome of periodontal disease, the mechanisms involved remain unclear. More importantly, some of the reported deleterious effects of smoking on periodontal tissues have been reported to be reversible upon participation in smoking-cessation programs. Therefore, clinicians should strongly advise smokers to enroll in cessation strategies, even temporarily, in order to improve the overall outcome.
    Periodontology 2000 02/2015; 67(1).
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    ABSTRACT: About 50 years ago, lasers started to be used in periodontal treatment following evidence that wounds produced in animals healed more quickly after being irradiated with low-intensity lasers. Increased production of growth factors, stimulated mainly by red and infrared lasers, may participate in this process by influencing the behavior of various types of cells. High-intensity lasers have been used as an alternative to nonsurgical periodontal therapy in root biomodification and to reduce dentin hypersensivity; low-intensity lasers are frequently employed to improve tissue repair in regenerative procedures and in antimicrobial photodynamic therapy. Despite the abundance of promising data on the advantages of their use, there is still controversy regarding the real benefits of lasers and antimicrobial photodynamic therapy in periodontal and peri-implant treatment. A huge variation in the parameters of laser application among studies makes comparisons very difficult. An overview of the current concepts and findings on lasers in periodontal therapy is presented with emphasis on data collected from Latin-American researchers.
    Periodontology 2000 02/2015; 67(1).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Periodontal diseases are a group of infectious diseases that mainly include gingivitis and periodontitis. Gingivitis is the most prevalent form of periodontal disease in subjects of all ages, including children and adolescents. Less frequent types of periodontal disease include aggressive periodontitis, acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis and various diseases of herpesviral and fungal origin. This review aimed to retrieve relevant information from Latin America on the prevalence of periodontal diseases among children and adolescents of the region. Gingivitis was detected in 35% of young Latin American subjects and showed the highest frequencies in Colombia (77%) and Bolivia (73%) and the lowest frequency in Mexico (23%). The frequency of gingivitis in subjects from other Latin American countries was between 31% and 56%. Periodontitis may affect <10% of the young population in Latin America, but the data are based on only a few studies. A more precise assessment of the distribution and severity of periodontal disease in children and adolescents of Latin America may help policy makers and dentists to institute more effective public health measures to prevent and treat the disease at an early age to avoid major damage to the permanent dentition.
    Periodontology 2000 02/2015; 67(1).
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    ABSTRACT: Periodontal disease is one of the most common conditions affecting humans, and current treatment strategies, which focus on the removal and long-term control of dental plaque, are generally successful in eliminating active disease and promoting tissue repair. However, regeneration of the supporting structures of the tooth remains an elusive goal and a challenge. The formation of new bone and cementum with supportive periodontal ligament is the ultimate objective, but current regeneration therapies are incapable of achieving this in a predictable way. The regeneration of periodontal tissue requires a combination of fundamental events, such as appropriate level and sequencing of regulatory signals, the presence of progenitor cells, an extracellular matrix or carrier and an adequate blood supply. Based on tissue-engineering concepts, the regeneration process may be modulated by manipulating the signaling pathways of regulatory molecules, the extracellular matrix or scaffold, or the cellular components. The identification of mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow started a new era in regenerative medicine. Tissue engineering using mesenchymal stem cells became a therapeutic option with several advantages, including high-quality regeneration of damaged tissues without the formation of fibrous tissue, minimal donor-site morbidity compared with autografts and a low risk of autoimmune rejection and disease transmission. The aim of this review was to describe the main sources of mesenchymal stem cells from tissues in the oral cavity and the potential of these cells in regenerative therapy. Special attention is paid to gingival tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells because they represent the most accessible source of stem cells in the human mouth.
    Periodontology 2000 02/2015; 67(1).
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    ABSTRACT: Destruction of the periodontium is normally associated with periodontal disease, although many other factors, such as trauma, aging, infections, orthodontic tooth movement and systemic and genetic diseases, can contribute to this process. Strategies (such as guided tissue regeneration) have been developed to guide and control regeneration using bioresorbable membranes and bone grafts. Although effective to a certain point, these strategies have the problem that they are not predictable and do not completely restore the architecture of the original periodontium. To achieve complete repair and regeneration it is necessary to recapitulate the developmental process with complete formation of cementum, bone and periodontal ligament fibers. Detailed knowledge of the biology of cementum is key for understanding how the periodontium functions, identifying pathological issues and for developing successful therapies for repair and regeneration of damaged periodontal tissue. It is the purpose of this review to focus on the role of cementum and its specific components in the formation, repair and regeneration of the periodontium. As cementum is a matrix rich in growth factors that could influence the activities of various periodontal cell types, this review will examine the characteristics of cementum, its composition and the role of cementum components, especially the cementum protein-1, during the process of cementogenesis, and their potential usefulness for regeneration of the periodontal structures in a predictable therapeutic manner.
    Periodontology 2000 02/2015; 67(1).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Periodontal diseases occur worldwide, and Latin American populations are significantly affected by different manifestations of periodontal disease. The interest in periodontics and periodontal therapy first developed in the early 1930s in the southernmost countries of Latin America, and spread, as the years went by, throughout the region. Today, periodontal research is vibrant in Latin America. The aim of this volume of Periodontology 2000 was to present an overview of the periodontal research currently being performed in different countries of Latin America. The epidemiology of periodontal diseases in adults, children and adolescents, and the pathogenesis of such diseases (including microbiological characteristics and risk factors), are discussed. The role of systemic antibiotic therapy and the effect of smoking are discussed in relation to the progression and the treatment of periodontitis. In addition, the benefit of lasers in periodontal therapy is evaluated. Latin American research groups have been active in exploring new venues of regenerative periodontal treatment, addressing the role of cementum proteins, growth factors and oral mesenchymal stem cells in tissue engineering. Finally, basic research to study cancerization is reported.
    Periodontology 2000 02/2015; 67(1).
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the fact that several clinical studies have shown additional benefits when certain systemic antibiotics are used as adjuncts to periodontal treatment, clear guidelines for the use of these agents in the clinical practice are not yet available. Basic questions concerning the use of systemic antibiotics to treat periodontitis remain unanswered, such as: which drug(s) should be used; which patients would most benefit from treatment; which are the most effective protocols (i.e. doses and durations); and in which phase of the mechanical therapy should the drug(s) be administered? Although not all of those questions have been directly addressed by controlled randomized clinical trials, recent concepts related to the ecology of periodontal diseases, as well as the major advances in laboratory and clinical research methods that have occurred in the past decade, have significantly broadened our knowledge in this field. This article endeavored to provide a ‘state of the art’ overview on the use of systemic antibiotics in the treatment of periodontitis, based on the most recent literature on the topic as well as on a compilation of data from studies conducted at the Center of Clinical Trials at Guarulhos University (São Paulo, Brazil) from 2002 to 2012.
    Periodontology 2000 02/2015; 67(1).
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    ABSTRACT: External carcinogens, such as tobacco and alcohol, induce molecular changes in large areas of oral mucosa, which increase the risk of malignant transformation. This condition, known as ‘field cancerization’, can be detected in biopsy specimens using histochemical techniques, even before histological alterations are identified. The efficacy of these histochemical techniques as biomarkers of early cancerization must be demonstrated in appropriate models. The hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model, universally employed in biological studies and in studies for the prevention and treatment of oral cancer, is also an excellent model of field cancerization. The carcinogen is applied in solution to the surface of the mucosa and induces alterations that recapitulate the stages of cancerization in human oral mucosa. We have demonstrated that the following can be used for the early detection of cancerized tissue: silver staining of nucleolar organizer regions; the Feulgen reaction to stain DNA followed by ploidy analysis; immunohistochemical analysis of fibroblast growth factor-2, immunohistochemical labeling of proliferating cells to demonstrate an increase of epithelial cell proliferation in the absence of inflammation; and changes in markers of angiogenesis (i.e. those indicating vascular endothelial growth factor activity, endothelial cell proliferation and vascular density). The hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer was also proposed and validated by our group for boron neutron capture therapy studies for the treatment of oral cancer. Clinical trials of this novel treatment modality have been performed and are underway for certain tumor types and localizations. Having demonstrated the efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy to control tumors in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model, we adapted the model for the long-term study of field cancerized tissue. We demonstrated the inhibitory effect of boron neutron capture therapy on tumor development in field cancerized tissue with acceptable levels of mucositis, a dose-limiting side-effect.
    Periodontology 2000 02/2015; 67(1).
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    ABSTRACT: A decade has passed since we first reviewed the epidemiology of periodontal diseases in Latin America. At that time, lack of population-based studies was the norm and our conclusions were based on very limited evidence. The aim of the present comprehensive review was to update and expand our previous work by providing a broad overview of Latin America and its current social, economic and demographic status and by focusing on the epidemiology of periodontal diseases in Latin American adults published in the last 15 years. The amount of periodontal epidemiological data available has increased but is still restricted to a few countries only. The scope of the literature available has also broadened to include oral health-related quality of life and systemic interactions; however, most studies had methodological limitations that might have biased their results. In general, periodontitis was very prevalent, but severe periodontal destruction was localized. Besides being associated with well-established risk factors, periodontitis was associated with demographics and socio-economic factors in Latin American populations. To advance epidemiological knowledge, population-based cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, using appropriate methodologies, should be the future focus of the research agenda of researchers and public health planners in Latin American countries.
    Periodontology 2000 02/2015; 67(1).
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    ABSTRACT: Growth factors play critical roles in periodontal repair through the regulation of cell behavior. Many of the cell responses regulated by these proteins include cell adhesion, migration, proliferation and differentiation. Periodontal regeneration involves an organized response of different cells, tissues and growth factors implicated in the coordination of these events. However, periodontal tissue reconstruction is an extremely difficult task. Multiple studies have been performed to understand the specific role of growth factors in periodontal wound healing. In the present review we analyze the evidence that supports the roles of growth factors in periodontal wound healing and regeneration.
    Periodontology 2000 02/2015; 67(1).
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    ABSTRACT: The development of bone augmentation procedures has allowed placement of dental implants into jaw bone areas lacking an amount of bone sufficient for standard implant placement. Thus, the indications for implants have broadened to include jaw regions with bone defects and those with a bone anatomy that is unfavorable for implant anchorage. Of the different techniques, the best documented and the most widely used method to augment bone in localized alveolar defects is guided bone regeneration. A large body of evidence has demonstrated the successful use of guided bone regeneration to regenerate missing bone at implant sites with insufficient bone volume and the long-term success of implants placed simultaneously with, or after, guided bone regeneration. However, the influence of guided bone regeneration on implant survival and success rates, and the long-term stability of the augmented bone, remain unknown. Many of the materials and techniques currently available for bone regeneration of alveolar ridge defects were developed many years ago. Recently, various new materials and techniques have been introduced. Many of them have, however, not been sufficiently documented in clinical studies. The aim of this review was to present the scientific basis of guided bone regeneration and the accepted clinical procedures. A classification of bone defects has been presented, aiming at simplifying the decision-making process regarding the choice of strategy for bone augmentation. Finally, an outlook into actual research and the possible future options related to bone augmentation has been provided.
    Periodontology 2000 10/2014; 66(1).
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    ABSTRACT: Rehabilitation of severely resorbed jaws with dental implants remains a surgical and prosthetic challenge for clinicians. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the available data on short-length implants and discuss their indications and limitations in daily clinical practice. A structured review of MEDLINE and a manual search were conducted. Thirty-two case series devoted to short-length implants, 14 reviews and 3 randomized controlled trials were identified. Of this group of papers, we can conclude that short-length implants can be successfully used to support single and multiple fixed reconstructions in posterior atrophied jaws, even in those with increased crown-to-implant ratios. The use of short-length implants allows treatment of patients who are unable to undergo complex surgical techniques for medical, anatomic or financial reasons. Moreover, the use of short-length implants in daily clinical practice reduces the need for complex surgeries, thus reducing morbidity, cost and treatment time. The use of short implants promotes the new concept of stress-minimizing surgery, allowing the surgeon to focus more on the correct three-dimensional positioning of the implant.
    Periodontology 2000 10/2014; 66(1).
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    ABSTRACT: Intra-oral and panoramic radiographs are most frequently used in oral health care. Yet, the inherent nature of jaws and teeth renders three-dimensional diagnosis essential, especially in relation to oral surgery. Nowadays, this can be accomplished by dental cone beam computed tomography, which provides high-quality images at low radiation doses and low costs. Nonetheless, the effective dose ranges of cone beam computed tomography machines may easily vary from 10 to 1000 μSv, this being equivalent to two to 200 panoramic radiographs, even for similar presurgical indications. Moreover, the diagnostic image quality varies massively among available machines and parameter settings. Apart from the radiodiagnostic possibilities, dental cone beam computed tomography may offer a vast therapeutic potential, including opportunities for surgical guidance and further prosthetic rehabilitation via computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing solutions. These additional options may definitely explain part of the success of cone beam computed tomography for oral implant placement. In conclusion, dental cone beam computed tomography imaging could be justified for oral implant-related diagnosis, planning and transfer to surgical and further prosthetic treatment, but guidelines for justification and cone beam computed tomography optimization remain mandatory.
    Periodontology 2000 10/2014; 66(1).
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    ABSTRACT: Different computer-assisted implant-placement procedures are currently available. These differ in software, template manufacture, guiding device, stabilization and fixation. The literature seems to indicate that one has to accept a certain inaccuracy of ±2.0 mm, which seems large initially but is clearly smaller than for nonguided surgery. A reduction of accuracy to below 0.5 mm seems extremely difficult. A common shortcoming identified in the studies included in this review is inconsistency in how clinical data and outcome variables are reported. Another limitation is the small number of comparative clinical studies. In order to find the best guiding system or the most important parameters for optimal accuracy, more randomized clinical trials are necessary. Information on cost-effectiveness and patient-centered evaluations (i.e. questionnaires and interviews) must also be included.
    Periodontology 2000 10/2014; 66(1).
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    ABSTRACT: Dental implants have proven to be a successful treatment option in fully and partially edentulous patients, rendering long-term functional and esthetic outcomes. Various factors are crucial for predictable long-term peri-implant tissue stability, including the biologic width; the papilla height and the mucosal soft-tissue level; the amounts of soft-tissue volume and keratinized tissue; and the biotype of the mucosa. The biotype of the mucosa is congenitally set, whereas many other parameters can, to some extent, be influenced by the treatment itself. Clinically, the choice of the dental implant and the position in a vertical and horizontal direction can substantially influence the establishment of the biologic width and subsequently the location of the buccal mucosa and the papilla height. Current treatment concepts predominantly focus on providing optimized peri-implant soft-tissue conditions before the start of the prosthetic phase and insertion of the final reconstruction. These include refined surgical techniques and the use of materials from autogenous and xenogenic origins to augment soft-tissue volume and keratinized tissue around dental implants, thereby mimicking the appearance of natural teeth.
    Periodontology 2000 10/2014; 66(1).
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    ABSTRACT: A transalveolar approach for sinus floor elevation with subsequent placement of dental implants was first suggested by Tatum in 1986. In 1994, Summers described a different transalveolar approach using a set of tapered osteotomes with increasing diameters. The transalveolar approach of sinus floor elevation, also referred to as ‘osteotome sinus floor elevation’, the ‘Summers technique’ or the ‘Crestal approach’, may be considered as being more conservative and less invasive than the conventional lateral window approach. This is reflected by the fact that more than nine out of 10 patients who experienced the surgical procedure would be willing to undergo it again. The main indication for transalveolar sinus floor elevation is reduced residual bone height, which does not allow standard implant placement. Contraindications for transalveolar sinus floor elevation may be intra-oral, local or medical. The surgical approach utilized over the last two decades is the technique described by Summers, with or without minor modifications. The surgical care after implant placement using the osteotome technique is similar to the surgical care after standard implant placement. The patients are usually advised to take antibiotic prophylaxis and to utilize antiseptic rinses. The main complications reported after performing a transalveolar sinus floor elevation were perforation of the Schneiderian membrane in 3.8% of patients and postoperative infections in 0.8% of patients. Other complications reported were postoperative hemorrhage, nasal bleeding, blocked nose, hematomas and benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Whether it is necessary to use grafting material to maintain space for new bone formation after elevating the sinus membrane utilizing the osteotome technique is still controversial. Positive outcomes have been reported with and without using grafting material. A prospective study, evaluating both approaches, concluded that significantly more bone gain was seen when grafting material was used (4.1 mm mean bone gain compared with 1.7 mm when no grafting material was utilized). In a systematic review, including 19 studies reporting on 4388 implants inserted using the transalveolar sinus floor elevation technique, the 3-year implant survival rate was 92.8% (95% confidence interval: 87.4–96.0%). Furthermore, a subject-based analysis of the same material revealed an annual failure rate of 3.7%. Hence, one in 10 subjects experienced implant loss over 3 years. Several of the included studies demonstrated that transalveolar sinus floor elevation was most predictable when the residual alveolar bone height was ≥ 5 mm and the sinus floor anatomy was relatively flat.
    Periodontology 2000 10/2014; 66(1).
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    ABSTRACT: Peri-implant diseases are defined as inflammatory lesions of the surrounding peri-implant tissues and include peri-implant mucositis (an inflammatory lesion limited to the surrounding mucosa of an implant) and peri-implantitis (an inflammatory lesion of the mucosa that affects the supporting bone with resulting loss of osseointegration). This review aims to describe the different approaches to manage both entities and to provide a critical evaluation of the evidence available on their efficacy. Therapy of peri-implant mucositis and nonsurgical therapy of peri-implantitis usually involve mechanical debridement of the implant surface using curettes, ultrasonic devices, air-abrasive devices or lasers, with or without the adjunctive use of local antibiotics or antiseptics. The efficacy of these therapies has been demonstrated for mucositis: controlled clinical trials show an improvement in clinical parameters, especially in bleeding on probing. For peri-implantitis, the results are limited, especially in terms of probing pocket-depth reduction. Surgical therapy of peri-implantitis is indicated when nonsurgical therapy fails to control the inflammatory changes. Selection of the surgical technique should be based on the characteristics of the peri-implant lesion. In the presence of deep circumferential and intrabony defects, surgical interventions should aim to provide thorough debridement, implant-surface decontamination and defect reconstruction. In the presence of defects without clear bony walls or with a predominant suprabony component, the aim of the surgical intervention should be the thorough debridement and the repositioning of the marginal mucosa to enable the patient to perform effective oral-hygiene practices, although this aim may compromise the esthetic result of the implant-supported restoration.
    Periodontology 2000 10/2014; 66(1):255-73.
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    ABSTRACT: For computer-guided surgery a static surgical guide is used that transfers the virtual implant position from computerized tomographic data to the surgical site. These guides are produced by computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture technology, such as stereolithography, or manually in a dental laboratory (using mechanical positioning devices or drilling machines). With computer-navigated surgery the position of the instruments in the surgical area is constantly displayed on a screen with a three-dimensional image of the patient. In this way, the system allows real-time transfer of the preoperative planning and visual feedback on the screen. A workflow of the different systems is presented in this review.
    Periodontology 2000 10/2014; 66(1).