Periodontology 2000 Journal Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: Wiley

Journal description

Periodontology 2000 comprises a series of monographs intended for periodontists and general practitioners with interest in periodontics. The editorial board will identify significant topics and outstanding scientists and clinicians for the individual monographs. Periodontology 2000 will serve as a valuable supplement to existing periodontal journals. Three monographs will be published each year.

Current impact factor: 3.00

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 3
2012 Impact Factor 4.012
2011 Impact Factor 3.961
2010 Impact Factor 2.082
2009 Impact Factor 3.027
2008 Impact Factor 3.493
2007 Impact Factor 3.581
2006 Impact Factor 2.8
2005 Impact Factor 2.377
2004 Impact Factor 2.457
2003 Impact Factor 1.333
2002 Impact Factor 2.493
2001 Impact Factor 2.319
2000 Impact Factor 1.391
1999 Impact Factor 1.729
1998 Impact Factor 1.308
1997 Impact Factor 0.75

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 4.34
Cited half-life 8.30
Immediacy index 1.81
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 1.24
Website Periodontology 2000 website
Other titles Periodontology 2000 (Online), Periodontology two thousand
ISSN 1600-0757
OCLC 46654325
Material type Document, Series, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details


  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 months embargo
  • Conditions
    • Some journals have separate policies, please check with each journal directly
    • On author's personal website, institutional repositories, arXiv, AgEcon, PhilPapers, PubMed Central, RePEc or Social Science Research Network
    • Author's pre-print may not be updated with Publisher's Version/PDF
    • Author's pre-print must acknowledge acceptance for publication
    • On a non-profit server
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Publisher source must be acknowledged with citation
    • Must link to publisher version with set statement (see policy)
    • If OnlineOpen is available, BBSRC, EPSRC, MRC, NERC and STFC authors, may self-archive after 12 months
    • If OnlineOpen is available, AHRC and ESRC authors, may self-archive after 24 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 07/08/2014
    • This policy is an exception to the default policies of 'Wiley'
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Intrabony periodontal defects are a frequent complication of periodontitis and, if left untreated, may negatively affect long-term tooth prognosis. The optimal outcome of treatment in intrabony defects is considered to be the absence of bleeding on probing, the presence of shallow pockets associated with periodontal regeneration (i.e. formation of new root cementum with functionally orientated inserting periodontal ligament fibers connected to new alveolar bone) and no soft-tissue recession. A plethora of different surgical techniques, often including implantation of various types of bone graft and/or bone substitutes, root surface demineralization, guided tissue regeneration, growth and differentiation factors, enamel matrix proteins or various combinations thereof, have been employed to achieve periodontal regeneration. Despite positive observations in animal models and successful outcomes reported for many of the available regenerative techniques and materials in patients, including histologic reports, robust information on the degree to which reported clinical improvements reflect true periodontal regeneration does not exist. Thus, the aim of this review was to summarize, in a systematic manner, the available histologic evidence on the effect of reconstructive periodontal surgery using various types of biomaterials to enhance periodontal wound healing/regeneration in human intrabony defects. In addition, the inherent problems associated with performing human histologic studies and in interpreting the results, as well as certain ethical considerations, are discussed. The results of the present systematic review indicate that periodontal regeneration in human intrabony defects can be achieved to a variable extent using a range of methods and materials. Periodontal regeneration has been observed following the use of a variety of bone grafts and substitutes, guided tissue regeneration, biological factors and combinations thereof. Combination approaches appear to provide the best outcomes, whilst implantation of alloplastic material alone demonstrated limited, to no, periodontal regeneration. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Periodontology 2000 06/2015; 68(1):182-216. DOI:10.1111/prd.12086
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical studies have evaluated the effect of conventional periodontal surgical therapy. In general, although some clinical gain in tissue support may be attained, these therapies do not support regeneration of the periodontal attachment. Even though the biological possibility of periodontal regeneration has been demonstrated, the clinical application of this intrinsic potential appears difficult to harness; thus also conceptually most intriguing candidate protocols face clinical challenges. In this review, we explore the bioclinical principles, condiciones sine quibus non, that unleash the innate potential of the periodontium to achieve clinically meaningful periodontal regeneration (i.e. space-provision, wound stability and conditions for primary intention healing). Moreover, limiting factors and detrimental practices that may compromise clinical and biological outcomes are reviewed, as is tissue management in clinical settings. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Periodontology 2000 06/2015; 68(1):83-98. DOI:10.1111/prd.12057
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    ABSTRACT: Evidence indicates that periodontal regeneration is an efficacious and predictable procedure for the treatment of isolated and multiple intrabony defects. Meta-analyses from systematic reviews indicate an added benefit, in terms of clinical attachment level gain, when demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft, barrier membranes and active biologic products/compounds are applied in addition to open flap debridement. On the other hand, a consistent amount of variability of the outcomes is evident among different studies and within the experimental population of each study. This variability is explained, at least in part, by different patient and defect characteristics. Patient-related factors include smoking habit, compliance with home oral hygiene and residual inflammation after cause-related therapy. Defect-associated factors include defect depth and radiographic angle, the number of residual bony walls, pocket depth and the degree of hypermobility. In addition, surgical-related variables, such as surgical skill, clinical experience and knowledge, and application of the different regenerative materials, have a significant impact on clinical outcomes. This paper presents a strategy to optimize the clinical outcomes of periodontal regeneration. The surgical design of the flap, the use of different regenerative materials and the application of appropriate passive sutures are discussed in this review along with the scientific foundations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Periodontology 2000 06/2015; 68(1):282-307. DOI:10.1111/prd.12048
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    ABSTRACT: Translation of experimental data to the clinical setting requires the safety and efficacy of such data to be confirmed in animal systems before application in humans. In dental research, the animal species used is dependent largely on the research question or on the disease model. Periodontal disease and, by analogy, peri-implant disease, are complex infections that result in a tissue-degrading inflammatory response. It is impossible to explore the complex pathogenesis of periodontitis or peri-implantitis using only reductionist in-vitro methods. Both the disease process and healing of the periodontal and peri-implant tissues can be studied in animals. Regeneration (after periodontal surgery), in response to various biologic materials with potential for tissue engineering, is a continuous process involving various types of tissue, including epithelia, connective tissues and alveolar bone. The same principles apply to peri-implant healing. Given the complexity of the biology, animal models are necessary and serve as the standard for successful translation of regenerative materials and dental implants to the clinical setting. Smaller species of animal are more convenient for disease-associated research, whereas larger animals are more appropriate for studies that target tissue healing as the anatomy of larger animals more closely resembles human dento-alveolar architecture. This review focuses on the animal models available for the study of regeneration in periodontal research and implantology; the advantages and disadvantages of each animal model; the interpretation of data acquired; and future perspectives of animal research, with a discussion of possible nonanimal alternatives. Power calculations in such studies are crucial in order to use a sample size that is large enough to generate statistically useful data, whilst, at the same time, small enough to prevent the unnecessary use of animals. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Periodontology 2000 06/2015; 68(1):66-82. DOI:10.1111/prd.12052
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    ABSTRACT: The present article describes the significance of suturing and appropriate suture materials in current periodontal and implant surgery. Synthetic, nonresorbable, monofilament threads appear to be advantageous. The physical and biological properties of such threads remain unchanged with use and, when used in small diameters (i.e. with lower breaking resistance), seem to promote passive wound closure. Wound healing at hard, nonshedding surfaces is conceptually a more complex process than is wound healing in most other sites of the oral cavity. Firm adaptation and stabilization of the flaps by optimal suturing ensures adhesion of the delicate fibrin clot to the nonshedding surface. The early formation and mechanical stability of the blood clot between the mucosal or mucoperiosteal flap and the wound bed are of paramount importance and hence suturing techniques must be considered as a key prerequisite to ensure optimal surgical outcomes. With the sophisticated surgical procedures now applied, there is a greater need for knowledge with regard to the various types of suturing techniques and materials available in order to achieve the above-mentioned goals. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Periodontology 2000 06/2015; 68(1):270-281. DOI:10.1111/prd.12078
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    ABSTRACT: Furcation involvements present one of the greatest challenges in periodontal therapy because furcation-involved molar teeth respond less favorably to conventional periodontal therapy compared with noninvolved molar or nonmolar teeth. Various regenerative procedures have been proposed and applied with the aim of eliminating the furcation defect or reducing the furcation depth. An abundance of studies and several systematic reviews have established the effectiveness of membrane therapy (guided tissue regeneration) for buccal Class II furcation involvement of mandibular and maxillary molars compared with open flap surgery. Bone grafts/substitutes may enhance the results of guided tissue regeneration. However, complete furcation closure is not a predictable outcome. Limited data and no meta-analyses are available on the effects of enamel matrix proteins for furcation regeneration. Enamel matrix protein therapy has demonstrated clinical improvements in the treatment of buccal Class II furcation defects in mandibular molars; however, complete closure of the furcation lesion is achieved only in a minority of cases. Neither guided tissue regeneration nor enamel matrix protein therapy have demonstrated predictable results for approximal Class II and for Class III furcations. Promising preclinical data from furcation regeneration studies in experimental animals is available for growth factor- and differentiation factor-based technologies, but very limited data are available from human clinical studies. Although cell-based therapies have received considerable attention in regenerative medicine, their experimental evaluation in the treatment of periodontal furcation lesions is at a very early stage of development. In summary, the indications and the limitations for currently available treatment modalities for furcation defects are well established. New regenerative treatments are clearly needed to improve the predictability of a complete resolution of furcation defects.
    Periodontology 2000 06/2015; 68(1):308-332. DOI:10.1111/prd.12081
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    ABSTRACT: Tooth extraction induces a series of complex and integrated local changes within the investing hard and soft tissues. These local alterations arise in order to close the socket wound and to restore tissue homeostasis, and are referred to as '"socket healing". The aims of the present report were twofold: first, to describe the socket-healing process; and, second, to discuss what can be learned from the temporal sequence of healing events, in order to improve treatment outcomes. The socket-healing process may be divided into three sequential, and frequently overlapping, phases: inflammatory; proliferative; and modeling/remodeling. Several clinical and experimental studies have demonstrated that the socket-healing process promotes up to 50% reduction of the original ridge width, greater bone resorption at the buccal aspect than at the lingual/palatal counterpart and a larger amount of alveolar bone reduction in the molar region. In conclusion, tooth extraction, once a simple and straightforward surgical procedure, should be performed in the knowledge that ridge reduction will follow and that further clinical steps should be considered to compensate for this, when considering future options for tooth replacement. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Periodontology 2000 06/2015; 68(1):122-134. DOI:10.1111/prd.12082
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    ABSTRACT: The increased use of dental implants and related bone-augmentation procedures creates a need for reliable proof-of-principle preclinical models for evaluating different bone-regenerative techniques. The simulation of clinical scenarios by such models is of importance when the experiments are designed in order for the outcomes to provide basic points of clinical relevance. At the same time, the increased proportion of the population with different chronic diseases of ageing necessitates the need to reproduce these conditions in the same proof-of-principle preclinical models to allow evaluation of the effect of the relevant chronic disease on the bone-healing process. This review presents a number of 'proof-of-principle' preclinical models in health and in chronic systemic conditions in which the guided bone regeneration principle was evaluated. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Periodontology 2000 06/2015; 68(1):99-121. DOI:10.1111/prd.12077
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    ABSTRACT: The orthopedic field has accumulated ample evidence that bone formation is related to functional loading and in general to physical activity. However, despite evidence that immediately loaded implants can be predictably successful, many clinicians still use the classical (delayed loading) treatment protocol. This paper examines the effects of loading on dental implants and discusses the advantages of immediate loading. The role of loading on augmented alveolar ridges is also addressed and provides evidence that early bone resorption may be controlled when bone is functionally loaded. Similar data are emerging for advanced augmentation techniques in order to control crestal bone loss. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Periodontology 2000 06/2015; 68(1):153-167. DOI:10.1111/prd.12058
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    ABSTRACT: Fibroblasts are cells of mesenchymal origin. They are responsible for the production of most extracellular matrix in connective tissues and are essential for wound healing and repair. In recent years, it has become clear that fibroblasts from different tissues have various distinct traits. Moreover, wounds in the oral cavity heal under very special environmental conditions compared with skin wounds. Here, we reviewed the current literature on the various interconnected functions of gingival and mucoperiosteal fibroblasts during the repair of oral wounds. The MEDLINE database was searched with the following terms: (gingival OR mucoperiosteal) AND fibroblast AND (wound healing OR repair). The data gathered were used to compare oral fibroblasts with fibroblasts from other tissues in terms of their regulation and function during wound healing. Specifically, we sought answers to the following questions: (i) what is the role of oral fibroblasts in the inflammatory response in acute wounds; (ii) how do growth factors control the function of oral fibroblasts during wound healing; (iii) how do oral fibroblasts produce, remodel and interact with extracellular matrix in healing wounds; (iv) how do oral fibroblasts respond to mechanical stress; and (v) how does aging affect the fetal-like responses and functions of oral fibroblasts? The current state of research indicates that oral fibroblasts possess unique characteristics and tightly controlled specific functions in wound healing and repair. This information is essential for developing new strategies to control the intraoral wound-healing processes of the individual patient. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Periodontology 2000 06/2015; 68(1):21-40. DOI:10.1111/prd.12076
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    ABSTRACT: Therapies proposed for the treatment of peri-implant diseases are primarily based on the evidence available from treating periodontitis. The primary objective is elimination of the biofilm from the implant surface, and nonsurgical therapy is a commonly used treatment. A number of adjunctive therapies have been introduced to overcome accessibility problems or difficulties with decontamination of implant surfaces as a result of specific surface characteristics. It is now accepted that following successful decontamination, clinicians can attempt to regenerate the bone that was lost as a result of infection. The ultimate goal is re-osseointegration, and a number of regenerative techniques have been introduced. By reviewing the existing evidence, it seems that peri-implant mucositis is reversible when appropriately treated. Additionally, a combined therapy (mechanical therapy with local antimicrobials as adjuncts) can serve as an alternative to surgical intervention when treating peri-implantits in cases not suitable for surgery. Surgical therapy is an effective method for treating peri-implantitis, and various degrees of success of the use of regenerative procedures have been reported, regardless of whether or not radiographic evidence of defect fill has been achieved. Finally, no matter which therapy is employed, a prerequisite for the long-term stability of treatment results obtained is the ability of the patient to maintain good oral hygiene. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Periodontology 2000 06/2015; 68(1):369-404. DOI:10.1111/prd.12069
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present article is to summarize current knowledge in terms of the etiology, diagnosis, prognosis and surgical treatment of gingival recession. Whilst the main etiological factors (i.e. toothbrushing trauma and bacterial plaque) are well established, challenges still remain to be solved in the diagnostic, prognostic and classification processes of gingival recession, especially when the main reference parameter - the cemento-enamel junction - is no longer detectable on the affected tooth or when there is a slight loss of periodontal interdental attachment. Root coverage in single type gingival recession defects is a very predictable outcome following the use of various surgical techniques. The coronally advanced flap, with or without connective tissue grafting, is the technique of choice. The adjunctive use of connective tissue grafts improves the probability of achieving complete root coverage. Surgical coverage of multiple gingival recessions is also predictable with the coronally advanced flap and the coronally advanced flap plus the connective tissue graft, but no data are available indicating which, and how many, gingival recessions should be treated adjunctively with connective tissue grafting in order to limit patient morbidity and improve the esthetic outcome. None of the allograft materials currently available can be considered as a full substitute for the connective tissue graft, even if some recent results are encouraging. The need for future studies with patient-based outcomes (i.e. esthetics and morbidity) as primary objectives is emphasized in this review. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Periodontology 2000 06/2015; 68(1):333-368. DOI:10.1111/prd.12059
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    ABSTRACT: Preclinical in vivo experimental studies are performed for evaluating proof-of-principle concepts, safety and possible unwanted reactions of candidate bone biomaterials before proceeding to clinical testing. Specifically, models involving small animals have been developed for screening bone biomaterials for their potential to enhance bone formation. No single model can completely recreate the anatomic, physiologic, biomechanic and functional environment of the human mouth and jaws. Relevant aspects regarding physiology, anatomy, dimensions and handling are discussed in this paper to elucidate the advantages and disadvantages of small-animal models. Model selection should be based not on the 'expertise' or capacities of the team, but rather on a scientifically solid rationale, and the animal model selected should reflect the question for which an answer is sought. The rationale for using heterotopic or orthotopic testing sites, and intraosseous, periosseous or extraskeletal defect models, is discussed. The paper also discusses the relevance of critical size defect modeling, with focus on calvarial defects in rodents. In addition, the rabbit sinus model and the capsule model in the rat mandible are presented and discussed in detail. All animal experiments should be designed with care and include sample-size and study-power calculations, thus allowing generation of meaningful data. Moreover, animal experiments are subject to ethical approval by the relevant authority. All procedures and the postoperative handling and care, including postoperative analgesics, should follow best practice. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Periodontology 2000 06/2015; 68(1):55-65. DOI:10.1111/prd.12065
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    ABSTRACT: The treatment of infectious diseases affecting osseointegrated implants in function has become a demanding issue in implant dentistry. Since the early 1990s, preclinical data from animal studies have provided important insights into the etiology, pathogenesis and therapy of peri-implant diseases. Established lesions in animals have shown many features in common with those found in human biopsy material. The current review focuses on animal studies, employing different models to induce peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Periodontology 2000 06/2015; 68(1):168-181. DOI:10.1111/prd.12064
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    ABSTRACT: Periodontal wound healing and regeneration are highly complex processes, involving cells, matrices, molecules and genes that must be properly choreographed and orchestrated. As we attempt to understand and influence these clinical entities, we need experimental models to mimic the various aspects of human wound healing and regeneration. In vivo animal models that simulate clinical situations of humans can be costly and cumbersome. In vitro models have been devised to dissect wound healing/regeneration processes into discrete, analyzable steps. For soft tissue (e.g. gingival) healing, in vitro models range from simple culture of cells grown in monolayers and exposed to biological modulators or physical effectors and materials, to models in which cells are 'injured' by scraping and subsequently the 'wound' is filled with new or migrating cells, to three-dimensional models of epithelial-mesenchymal recombination or tissue explants. The cells employed are gingival keratinocytes, fibroblasts or endothelial cells, and their proliferation, migration, attachment, differentiation, survival, gene expression, matrix production or capillary formation are measured. Studies of periodontal regeneration also include periodontal ligament fibroblasts or progenitors, osteoblasts or osteoprogenitors, and cementoblasts. Regeneration models measure cellular proliferation, attachment and migration, as well as gene expression, transfer and differentiation into a mineralizing phenotype and biomineralization. Only by integrating data from models on all levels (i.e. a single cell to the whole organism) can various critical aspects of periodontal wound healing/regeneration be fully evaluated. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Periodontology 2000 06/2015; 68(1):41-54. DOI:10.1111/prd.12079
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    ABSTRACT: The ultimate goals of periodontal therapy remain the complete regeneration of those periodontal tissues lost to the destructive inflammatory-immune response, or to trauma, with tissues that possess the same structure and function, and the re-establishment of a sustainable health-promoting biofilm from one characterized by dysbiosis. This volume of Periodontology 2000 discusses the multiple facets of a transition from therapeutic empiricism during the late 1960s, toward regenerative therapies, which is founded on a clearer understanding of the biophysiology of normal structure and function. This introductory article provides an overview on the requirements of appropriate in vitro laboratory models (e.g. cell culture), of preclinical (i.e. animal) models and of human studies for periodontal wound and bone repair. Laboratory studies may provide valuable fundamental insights into basic mechanisms involved in wound repair and regeneration but also suffer from a unidimensional and simplistic approach that does not account for the complexities of the in vivo situation, in which multiple cell types and interactions all contribute to definitive outcomes. Therefore, such laboratory studies require validatory research, employing preclinical models specifically designed to demonstrate proof-of-concept efficacy, preliminary safety and adaptation to human disease scenarios. Small animal models provide the most economic and logistically feasible preliminary approaches but the outcomes do not necessarily translate to larger animal or human models. The advantages and limitations of all periodontal-regeneration models need to be carefully considered when planning investigations to ensure that the optimal design is adopted to answer the specific research question posed. Future challenges lie in the areas of stem cell research, scaffold designs, cell delivery and choice of growth factors, along with research to ensure appropriate gingival coverage in order to prevent gingival recession during the healing phase. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Periodontology 2000 06/2015; 68(1):7-20. DOI:10.1111/prd.12091
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    ABSTRACT: This literature review provides an overview of the current scenario regarding the impact of smoking on the progression and treatment of periodontitis; clinical, microbiological and immunological data from studies from our and other groups are presented. In general, preclinical and clinical data are unanimous in demonstrating that smokers present increased susceptibility, greater severity and faster progression of periodontal disease compared with nonsmokers. The evidence further demonstrates that smokers lose more teeth and have a less favorable response to therapy than do nonsmokers. Although it is well established that smoking significantly impacts on the onset, progression and outcome of periodontal disease, the mechanisms involved remain unclear. More importantly, some of the reported deleterious effects of smoking on periodontal tissues have been reported to be reversible upon participation in smoking-cessation programs. Therefore, clinicians should strongly advise smokers to enroll in cessation strategies, even temporarily, in order to improve the overall outcome.
    Periodontology 2000 02/2015; 67(1). DOI:10.1111/prd.12063
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    ABSTRACT: About 50 years ago, lasers started to be used in periodontal treatment following evidence that wounds produced in animals healed more quickly after being irradiated with low-intensity lasers. Increased production of growth factors, stimulated mainly by red and infrared lasers, may participate in this process by influencing the behavior of various types of cells. High-intensity lasers have been used as an alternative to nonsurgical periodontal therapy in root biomodification and to reduce dentin hypersensivity; low-intensity lasers are frequently employed to improve tissue repair in regenerative procedures and in antimicrobial photodynamic therapy. Despite the abundance of promising data on the advantages of their use, there is still controversy regarding the real benefits of lasers and antimicrobial photodynamic therapy in periodontal and peri-implant treatment. A huge variation in the parameters of laser application among studies makes comparisons very difficult. An overview of the current concepts and findings on lasers in periodontal therapy is presented with emphasis on data collected from Latin-American researchers.
    Periodontology 2000 02/2015; 67(1). DOI:10.1111/prd.12067