Asia Pacific Education Review (ASIA PAC EDUC REV )

Publisher: Sŏul Taehakkyo. Asia Tʻaepʻyŏngyang Kyoyuk Palchŏn Yŏnʼgudan, Springer Verlag


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    Asia Pacific education review (Online), APER
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    Document, Periodical
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    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Computer File

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Springer Verlag

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Publications in this journal

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This article reports the results of a mixed methodology analysis of the assumptions of academic staff and Masters students in an Iranian university regarding various aspects of the assessment of the Masters degree thesis, including the main objective for writing the thesis, the role of the students, supervisors and advisors in writing the proposal, conducting the project, writing the thesis, and asking/answering questions in the viva. Assuming that the Masters degree oral exams are important historical moments to investigate these issues, qualitative observations were made of 32 Masters vivas in an Iranian university, leading to 18 core categories. These were then drawn upon to develop two questionnaires, which were completed by 57 academic staff and 101 Masters students in various disciplines in the same institution. The results indicate lack of consistency and transparency with regard to roles, responsibilities, and obligations of various stakeholders in handling various aspects of the Masters thesis.
    Asia Pacific Education Review 07/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigates the impact of transformational leadership as idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration on teachers’ commitment towards organization, teaching profession, and students’ learning. A quantitative survey method was applied, and four broadly hypothesized relationships were tested with a sample of 1,014 trained non-graduate and graduate teachers serving in twenty-seven secondary schools in Sarawak, Malaysia. The results indicate a moderate level of teachers’ commitment and a low level of transformational leadership qualities among the respondents. This study found that inspirational motivation, individualized consideration, and intellectual stimulation were the factors contributing towards teachers’ commitment to teaching profession, and there was no dominant factor influencing commitment to students’ learning. Moreover, it was discovered that inspirational motivation was a factor to teachers’ efficacy and teaching experience. Besides, teachers’ efficacy and teaching experience were predictors to teachers’ commitment to organization, teaching profession, and students’ learning, respectively. These findings revealed that there was a significant relationship between transformational leadership and teachers’ commitment to organization and teaching profession, but not students’ learning. The results of this study indicate the necessity for leadership development of school leaders so that they could systematically acquire and internalize the effective transformational leadership qualities that are crucial in changing teachers’ attitude and improving their commitment towards their profession.
    Asia Pacific Education Review 01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Meta-analysis is a class of statistical methods for combining the results from a series of studies addressing the same research question. These methods can powerfully test hypotheses that cannot be answered clearly with one or a few studies and eliminates the ambiguity that results from narrative reviews of a research literature or from counting the number of studies that support a particular conclusion. The usefulness of meta-analysis is demonstrated by reviewing instances in psychotherapy, education, and medicine that show how meta-analysis was used successfully to end acrimonious debate and reach a firm and lasting conclusion.
    Asia Pacific Education Review 04/2012; 1(1):67-74.
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    ABSTRACT: Educators worldwide are faced with challenges of understanding how undergraduates are making their school-to-university transition and becoming inducted into their academic discipline. A recent study investigated Hong Kong first-year Chinese students’ experiences of transition from school to university and induction into their discipline in relation to perceived course experiences, approaches to study and achievement of goals. Analysis of the survey data of this study indicates that although students reported transition difficulties, these were unrelated to perceptions of the course, approaches to study or achievement of goals. Students who reported good understanding of their discipline were those who achieved their goals, had a good course experience and adopted deeper study approaches. These findings suggested that rather than focusing mainly on tackling students’ transition difficulties, efforts of promoting a positive first-year experience for Chinese university students and facilitating their goals achievement should be oriented towards constructing a facilitative learning environment. KeywordsFirst-year experience–Induction into the academic discipline–Achievement of goals–Course experience–Approaches to learning
    Asia Pacific Education Review 01/2012; 13(2):1-10.
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    ABSTRACT: This study introduced various nonlinear growth models, including the quadratic conventional polynomial model, the fractional polynomial model, the Sigmoid model, the growth model with negative exponential functions, the multidimensional scaling technique, and the unstructured growth curve model. It investigated which growth models effectively describe student growth in math and reading using four-wave longitudinal achievement data. The objective of the study is to provide valuable information to researchers especially when they consider applying one of the nonlinear models to longitudinal studies. The results showed that the quadratic conventional polynomial model fit the data best. However, this model seemed to overfit the data and made statistical inference problematic concerning parameter estimates. Alternative nonlinear models with fewer parameters adequately fit the data and yielded consistent significance testing results under extreme multicollinearity. It indicates that the alternative models denoting somewhat simpler models would be selected over the conventional polynomial model with more fixed parameters. Other practical issues pertaining to these growth models are also discussed.
    Asia Pacific Education Review 01/2012; 13(1):1-12.
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    ABSTRACT: Even though colleges have long attempted to promote civic-mindedness among students, recently there have been strong calls for a return and rededication to this mission. Given the many social and political changes that have occurred since Pascarella et al. (J High Educ 59(4):412–437, 1988) in Higher education: Handbook of theory and research, study, the purpose of the present investigation was to extend their established line of inquiry by examining college’s influence on the civic values held by a more recent cohort of students. Using hierarchical linear modeling, we analyzed a sample obtained from the Cooperative Institutional Research Program, a nationally representative panel study of college students administered by the Higher Education Research Institute at the University of California, Los Angeles, which sample includes 12,738 undergraduate students from 106 four-year universities. Our findings mostly confirmed our theoretic conceptualization of collegiate influences on the civic values of students. As expected, those values were positively associated with students’ involvement in diverse activities. Institutional impacts, however, disappeared, except for structural diversity. University administrators and educators might find these results informative when developing institutional policies and practices to prepare students for good citizenship in the global society. KeywordsCivic values–College impact–Structural diversity
    Asia Pacific Education Review 01/2011; 12(3):497-508.
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    ABSTRACT: Given the widely accepted notion of whole person education in Confucian societies such as Hong Kong, Mainland China and Singapore, it is surprising that research literature originated in these societies pays little attention to how students learn and develop through out-of-class experiences at university. There is little research evidence on how the prevailing culture among student social communities (residential halls and student societies/clubs) influences students’ social involvement and development. This paper examines 42 Chinese students’ social experiences and development during their freshman year at a Hong Kong university. The majority of them were intensively involved in out-of-class activities. Their active social involvement was both a response to the culture of student communities and a conscious choice about social experiences at university. As a result, the students attained development in four dimensions: (1) the social competences of interpersonal and collaboration skills and new friendships; (2) the practical competences of time management, organisation, negotiation, decision making and leadership; (3) the intellectual competences of open-mindedness and independent judgment; and (4) the personal competences of self- responsibility and self-confidence. Educational implications are discussed towards the end of the paper on supporting and advising students regarding social involvement, particularly during the first year of university. KeywordsWhole person education–Social involvement–Development outcomes–Out-of-class experiences–Student communities–Student culture
    Asia Pacific Education Review 01/2011; 12(3):393-402.
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    ABSTRACT: Based on a three-year ethnographic study, in such nested contexts involving six Korean-immigrant families, one regular French classroom, one private English institute, and one Korean church in Montreal, Canada, this study explores how the literacy practices and strategies of culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) learners were influenced and shaped by the literacy objects and practices of their social environments. By implementing a qualitative research methodology, interviews, surveys, observations, and conversations with Korean-Canadian parents and teachers plus the author’s own teaching experiences at a Korean school were used. Using activity theory, this qualitative study identifies two distinct orientations to literacy teaching and learning in the lower primary grades depending literacy objects such as from written language-centered literacy to student-centered literacy. On the basis of this study, the author proposes an activity-centered approach to literacy emphasizing the development of the creativity of teachers and higher mental functions (i.e., concept formation) in young CLD children through the development of interactive and collaborative learning environments, so-called literacy-based and concept-oriented playful activities. KeywordsLiteracy goals–Concept-oriented literacy activities–Multimodal mediation–Vygotskian perspectives–Korean-immigrant teachers and parents
    Asia Pacific Education Review 01/2011; 12(3):447-461.
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    ABSTRACT: The change toward competence-based education has implications for teachers as well as school management. This study investigates which professional development activities teachers undertake related to this change and how these activities differ among schools with various human resource (HR) policies. Two types of HR policy were involved: (1) a government-enforced, national system of Integrated Personnel Management and (2) a voluntary, integrative approach of Schooling of teachers, Organizational development of schools and teacher training institutes, Action- and development-oriented research, and Professional development of teachers. Semi-structured interviews with 30 teachers in nine schools with different HR policies were held and analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Findings show that teachers undertake professional development activities in five categories: maintaining knowledge base, applying and experimenting, reflection, collaboration, and activities indirectly related to teaching practice. Teachers’ professional development activities were found to be relatively similar across schools with different HR policies. It is concluded that neither government-enforced nor voluntary HR policies seem to play much of a role in the participation by teachers in professional development activities. Implications for further research and school practice are discussed.
    Asia Pacific Education Review 01/2011; 12(1):149-160.
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    ABSTRACT: To date, few studies have focused solely upon understanding the unique characteristics of Chinese international students in the United States. This inquiry examines what Chinese international students’ demographic trends are over decades, what their motivations are for studying in the United States, what the unique features of their group acculturation process are, and what special challenges they face in U.S. universities that are different from what they might face in Chinese universities? This study reveals that the life of Chinese students in the United States is not easy and they have to endure multifaceted life-stresses. These results can be used to help Chinese international students adapt to the American educational environment and improve the services and programs American universities deliver to their foreign students. KeywordsChinese international students–United States–Unique characteristics
    Asia Pacific Education Review 01/2011; 12(2):173-184.
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    ABSTRACT: Multicultural policy in South Korea faces variants of challenges endemic to multiculturalism. These challenges are “dilemmas of difference,” “variable terms of inclusion,” and “legitimacy.” In Korea, these challenges arise in a setting in which ethnic diversity is of relatively recent origin, an ideology of ethnic homogeneity is prevalent, and official multicultural policy is limited in its reach to those who are designated as “multicultural families,” that is families in which one spouse is Korean and the other an immigrant, usually the wife, and their offspring. The exclusion of migrant workers and their families from Korea’s multicultural framework poses a core contradiction in Korean multicultural policies. This contradiction must be resolved if multiculturalism in education and other spheres is to promote equality and provide a foundation for national integration on terms that are equitable to the diverse constituents of Korean society. Inevitably, this will require a redefinition of what it means to “be Korean.” Even if multicultural policies fall short in their immediate effects on those toward whom they are directed, multiculturalism represents a significant shift in the discourse of Korean identity and will be terrain on which the status of diverse groups in Korea will be contested.
    Asia Pacific Education Review 01/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: This study explores Korean elementary school students’ decreased motivation for English learning by analyzing the questionnaire data obtained from 6,301 students in a large city in South Korea. The students’ school grades and their prior experience in private institutes were considered as the major factors behind the decrease in their motivation. There was a statistically significant and consistent decrease in the students’ satisfaction with their English learning experience; expectation of ultimate success in English; and intrinsic/extrinsic motivation and integrative/instrumental motivation. Prior experience in attending private institutes had a substantial impact on the students’ motivation. Those who attended private institutes (hakwons) exhibited higher levels of instrumental and intrinsic motivation. However, in terms of other motivational constructs of integrative and extrinsic (parental, academic) motivation, private instruction had a negligible or negative impact. By comparing the results with those of Lamb (2007), the present study proposes that Korean students should be made to internalize the beneficial role played by English so that their English learning motivation can be maintained.
    Asia Pacific Education Review 01/2011; 12(1):1-11.
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we use decomposition methods on PISA 2006 data to compare student academic performance across OECD countries. We first establish an empirical model to explain the variation in academic performance across individuals, and then use the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method to decompose the achievement gap between each of the OECD countries and the OECD average. Results indicate that the explained portion of the achievement gap varies across countries. In some countries, our empirical models are able to account for almost all the achievement gap, while unexplained country-specific effects still dominate in other countries. Finally, we use two Asian countries, Japan and Korea, to demonstrate how to identify major factors that have contributed to the observed achievement gap across countries. KeywordsAcademic performance–International comparison–Decomposition
    Asia Pacific Education Review 01/2011; 12(3):463-474.
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    ABSTRACT: This paper investigates Korean high school students’ English learning motivation and attitudes. In this regard, the results of a 2002 study were compared with those of a 2006 study. Questionnaire data were obtained from a total of 1,037 high school students in a major city in South Korea, and the data were compared with those on the students’ English proficiency. Statistical analyses verified two distinctive Korean-specific constructs: competitive motivation and attitudes toward Americans among the participants. The results suggest that negative washback effects of the College Scholastic Ability Test in Korea and influences of peer group cohesion, mass media, and the Information Technology (IT) infrastructure play a crucial role in EFL motivation and attitudes among Korean high school students.
    Asia Pacific Education Review 01/2010; 11(2):211-222.
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    ABSTRACT: The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the mathematical characteristics of the test reliability coefficient ρ XX′ as a function of item response theory (IRT) parameters and present the lower and upper bounds of the coefficient. Another purpose is to examine relative performances of the IRT reliability statistics and two classical test theory (CTT) reliability statistics (Cronbach’s alpha and Feldt–Gilmer congeneric coefficients) under various testing conditions that result from manipulating large-scale real data. For the first purpose, two alternative ways of exactly quantifying ρ XX′ are compared in terms of computational efficiency and statistical usefulness. In addition, the lower and upper bounds for ρ XX′ are presented in line with the assumptions of essential tau-equivalence and congeneric similarity, respectively. Empirical studies conducted for the second purpose showed across all testing conditions that (1) the IRT reliability coefficient was higher than the CTT reliability statistics; (2) the IRT reliability coefficient was closer to the Feldt–Gilmer coefficient than to the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient; and (3) the alpha coefficient was close to the lower bound of IRT reliability. Some advantages of the IRT approach to estimating test-score reliability over the CTT approaches are discussed in the end. KeywordsTest reliability-Item response theory (IRT)-Lower and upper bounds of reliability coefficient-Test score metric versus ability score metric
    Asia Pacific Education Review 01/2010; 11(2):179-188.

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