The Protein Journal Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: Springer Verlag

Journal description

The Protein Journal (formerly the Journal of Protein Chemistry) publishes original research work on all aspects of protein investigations. These include studies concerned with the structure (covalent or three-dimensional), assembly, genetics, evolution, proteomics, molecular biology, engineering, peptide synthesis or the application of these studies to the elucidation and interpretation of the molecular bases of the biological activity of proteins. All facets of protein biological functions and interactions are appropriate.

Current impact factor: 0.91

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 0.912
2013 Impact Factor 1.039
2012 Impact Factor 1.126
2011 Impact Factor 1.038
2010 Impact Factor 1.101
2009 Impact Factor 1.017
2008 Impact Factor 0.94
2007 Impact Factor 1.01
2006 Impact Factor 0.962
2005 Impact Factor 1.2
2004 Impact Factor

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 1.06
Cited half-life 4.90
Immediacy index 0.18
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.29
Website Protein Journal, The website
Other titles Protein journal (Online)
ISSN 1572-3887
OCLC 54453099
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Springer Verlag

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Author's pre-print on pre-print servers such as
    • Author's post-print on author's personal website immediately
    • Author's post-print on any open access repository after 12 months after publication
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Set phrase to accompany link to published version (see policy)
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • The Protein Journal 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10930-015-9632-z
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    ABSTRACT: A novel phytase from Ganoderma australe G24 was produced by submerged cultivation and recovery. Liquid and solid forms of phytase were developed; both types of product were formulated using different additives. Ganoderma australe G24 phytase was very stable in liquid form with NaCl and sodium acetate buffer. Solid form products were obtained by spray-drying using different polymers to encapsulate the phytase and the capsules obtained were analyzed by electron microscopy. Micrographs confirmed micro and nanoparticles formed with maltodextrin (300 nm to 7-8 µm) without the presence of agglomerates. The use of maltodextrin for solid formulation of G. australe G24 phytase is recommended, and resulted in good stability after the drying process and during storage (shelf life). Kinetic models of phytase inactivation in the microencapsulated powders over time were proposed for the different stabilizing additives. Inactivation rate constants, half-lives and D values (decimal reduction time) were obtained. Phytase encapsulated with maltodextrin remained stable after 90 days, with k 0.0019 day(-1) and a half-life (t1/2) of 367.91 days(-1).
    The Protein Journal 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10930-015-9631-0
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    ABSTRACT: Family 4 carbohydrate esterases (CE-4) have deacetylate different forms of acetylated poly/oligosaccharides in nature. This family is recognized with a specific polysaccharide deacetylase domain assigned as NodB homology domain in their secondary structure. Most family 4 carbohydrate esterases have been structurally and biochemically characterized. However, this is the first study about the enzymological function of pdaB-like CE4s from thermophilic bacterium Anoxybacillus flavithermus DSM 2641T. A. flavithermus WK1 genome harbors five putative CE4 family genes. One of them is 762 bp long and encodes a protein of 253 amino acids in length and it was used as reference sequence in this study. It was described as acetyl xylane esterase (AXE) in genome project and this AfAXE gene was amplified without signal sequence and cloned. The recombinant protein was expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3), purified by nickel affinity chromatography and its purity was visualized on SDS-PAGE. The activity of the recombinant enzyme was shown by zymogram analysis with α-naphtyl acetate as a substrate. The enzyme was characterized spectrophotometrically using chromogenic p-nitrophenyl acetate. Optimum temperature and pH were determined as 50 °C and 7.5, respectively. Km and Vmax were determined as 0.43 mM and 3333.33 U/mg, respectively under optimum conditions. To our knowledge this is the first enzymological characterization of a pdaB-like family 4 carbohydrate esterase from the members of Anoxybacillus genus.
    The Protein Journal 07/2015; 34(4):237-242. DOI:10.1007/s10930-015-9618-x
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    ABSTRACT: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a key regulatory enzyme involved in the pentose phosphate pathway. This works represents purification of two buffalo liver glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenases (BLG6PD1 and BLG6PD2) using combination of ammonium sulfate precipitation and several chromatographic columns. Both enzymes (BLG6PD1 and BLG6PD2) were homogenous on both native PAGE as well as 12 % SDS PAGE with molecular weights of 28 and 66 kDa. The molecular weight of BLG6PD1 and BLG6PD2 native forms were determined to be 28 and 66 kDa by gel filtration; indicating monomeric proteins. The K m values for BLG6PD1 and BLG6PD2 estimated to be 0.059 and 0.06 mM of β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. The optimum activity of BLG6PD1 and BLG6PD2 were displayed at pH 8.0 and 8.2 with an isoelectric point (pI) of pH 7.7-7.9 and 5.7-5.9. The divalent cations MgCl2, and CoCl2 act as activators, on the other hand, FeCl2, CuCl2 and ZnCl2 are potent inhibitors of BLG6PD1 and BLG6PD2 activity. NADPH inhibited both isoenzymes competitively with Ki values of 0.012 and 0.030 mM. This study describes a reproducible purification scheme of G6PD from the liver of buffalo as a rich source.
    The Protein Journal 05/2015; 34(3). DOI:10.1007/s10930-015-9615-0
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    ABSTRACT: Previously we purified fibrinogenase from venom of Echis multisquamatis and showed that the enzyme predominantly cleaves BβArg42-Ala43 peptide bond of fibrinogen. A much slower hydrolysis of its Aα-chain was also shown. To evaluate the accessibility of the hydrolysis sites to fibrinogenase's hydrolytic action, the pathway of cleavage of Aα- and Bβ-chains of fibrinogen, monomeric and polymeric fibrin desA and desAB has been investigated using western blot with monoclonal antibodies to Bβ 26-42 and Aα 20-78 of fibrinogen. The data indicated that the BβArg42-Ala43 peptide bond is available for cleavage in all forms of fibrin(ogen) with the exception of polymerized fibrin desAB. This is direct evidence of BβN-domain involvement in formation of protofibrils that makes it inaccessible to protease. The Aα-chain of fibrinogen remained intact after 3 min of incubation with fibrinogenase. Further incubation resulted in cleaving of the fibrin(ogen) αC-regions with the formation of two kinds of degradation products (~30 and ~60 kDa). In the case of monomeric fibrin desA or desAB we observed simultaneous hydrolysis of Aα and Bβ-chains and the cleavage of Aα-chain was more apparent for both forms of polymeric fibrin.
    The Protein Journal 03/2015; 34(2). DOI:10.1007/s10930-015-9605-2
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    ABSTRACT: Directed evolution is a common tool employed to generate enzymes suitable for industrial use. High thermal stability is often advantageous or even a requirement for biocatalysts, as such the evolution of protein stability is of practical as well as academic interest. Even when evolving enzymes for new or improved catalytic functions, stability is an important factor since it can limit the accumulation rate and number of desired active site mutations. Dienelactone hydrolase, a small monomeric protein, has been previously evolved via a three-stage process to possess enhanced activity and specificity toward non-physiological substrates. In addition to seven active site mutations there were three surface mutations that were thought to increase the stability of the enzyme and compensate for the destabilizing active site mutations. Here, the individual influence of the three surface mutations-Q110L, Y137C and N154D-on the thermal and chemical stability of DLH has been assessed. While the Q110L and N154D mutations improved the thermal stability, the influence of the Y137C mutation was more complex. Individually it was destabilizing both thermally and chemically, but when in the presence of the Q110L and N154D mutations its effect was neutralized in relation to thermal but not chemical stability. In the context of a directed evolution experiment, these compensatory surface mutations play important roles. However, our results show that detrimental mutations can arise, thus the simultaneous monitoring of stability changes while evolving enzymes for enhanced catalytic properties can be beneficial.
    The Protein Journal 02/2015; 34(1):82-9. DOI:10.1007/s10930-015-9600-7
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    ABSTRACT: The influence of several factors on the activity of cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) transiently exposed to a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) was studied. Presence of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD, prosthetic group of ChOx) during exposure to RTIL makes the procedure enzyme-friendly, while the use of RTIL (green reagent) makes it environmentally-friendly. Following exposure to RTIL and its subsequent removal, FAD becomes part of the molecular structure of the refolded protein (a molecular "wire"). This makes the procedure used here a molecular one. The factors studied were: FAD presence in RTIL during modification, water presence during exposure to RTIL, and ratio FAD:RTIL during "wiring". Performance parameters monitored were: enzyme activity before and after "wiring" (expressed as (dA/dt)/mg enzyme, and measured spectrophotometrically), peak current in an amperometric biosensor for cholesterol detection, and linearity of the biosensor response depending on cholesterol concentration. After RTIL removal, the modified enzyme (ME) retained a high percentage of the added FAD, which supplemented that of the native enzyme (functioning as a "wire" and enhancing electron transfer kinetics), and a fraction of the initial activity. Used in an amperometric biosensor, ME showed catalytic activity, linear behavior as a function of cholesterol concentration, and stability.
    The Protein Journal 01/2015; 34(1). DOI:10.1007/s10930-015-9599-9
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    ABSTRACT: Formation of the powerful osteogenic prostaglandin E2 by osteoblasts, a key modulatory event in the paracrine and autocrine regulation of bone cell activity, is preceded by release of the precursor arachidonic acid from phospholipid stores. The main routes of arachidonate liberation may involve phospholipase enzymes such as group IVA phospholipase A2 which is believed to be the main effector in many cell system due to its preference for arachidonate-containing lipids. MC3T3-E1 cells are non-transformed osteoblasts and are widely used as an in vitro model of osteoblast function. In these cells there is still no clarity about the main release pathway of arachidonic acid. Besides cytosolic phospholipase A2, phospholipase C and D pathways may play a key role in arachidonate release. Despite the crucial role of osteoblastic prostgalandin synthesis information on the occurrence of involved enzymes at the molecular level is scarse in MC3T3-E1 cells. We have characterised group IVA phospholipase A2 at the mRNA in these cells as a constitutively expressed enzyme which is cytosolic and translocates to the membrane upon endothelin-1 stimulation. Using immunopurification combined with Western blotting and high-resolution mass spectrometry, the enzyme was also identified at the protein level. Using specific gene silencing we were able to show that osteoblastic cytosolic phospholipase A2 is crucially involved in ET-1-induced prostaglandin formation.
    The Protein Journal 12/2014; 34(1). DOI:10.1007/s10930-014-9594-6
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    ABSTRACT: Natively unfolded (intrinsically disordered) proteins have attracted growing attention due to their high abundance in nature, involvement in various signalling and regulatory pathways and direct association with many diseases. In the present work the combined effect of temperature and alcohols, trifluoroethanol (TFE) and hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP), on the natively unfolded 4E-BP1 protein was studied to elucidate the balance between temperature-induced folding and unfolding in intrinsically disordered proteins. It was shown that elevated temperatures induce reversible partial folding of 4E-BP1 both in buffer and in the mixed solutions containing denaturants. In the mixed solutions containing TFE (HFIP) 4E-BP1 adopts a partially folded helical conformation. As the temperature increases, the initial temperature-induced protein folding is replaced by irreversible unfolding/melting only after a certain level of the protein helicity has been reached. Onset unfolding temperature decreases with TFE (HFIP) concentration in solution. It was shown that an increase in the temperature induces two divergent processes in a natively unfolded protein—hydrophobicity-driven folding and unfolding. Balance between these two processes determines thermal behaviour of a protein. The correlation between heat-induced protein unfolding and the amount of helical content in a protein is revealed. Heat-induced secondary structure formation can be a valuable test to characterise minor changes in the conformations of natively unfolded proteins as a result of site-directed mutagenesis. Mutants with an increased propensity to fold into a structured form reveal different temperature behaviour.
    The Protein Journal 12/2014; 34(1). DOI:10.1007/s10930-014-9595-5
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    ABSTRACT: The release of target protein with high efficiency and low cost from expressed fusion protein is a key requirement for commercial production of target proteins. To establish such a cleavage system, we have designed four formic acid (FA) cleavage sites C1 (DPDPDP), C2 (DPPDPP), C3 (DDDDPI) and C4 (IVDPNP), which was placed in between the E and G fusion protein. Four expression vectors were individually constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli. Purified proteins were reacted with a series of FA concentrations or under different temperatures followed by SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis to verify the degree of cleavage efficiency. Results showed that the C2 was the most efficient site compared with the other three. After optimization of cleavage conditions for E-C2-G, the cleavage efficiently could reach as high as 87.3 % within 2.5 h in 37 % FA at 45 °C. Comparing with previous reports, a significant reduction (26 %) of FA concentration at a lower temperature in a short duration of reaction (18 times less) was achieved. We believe the cleavage site of DPPDPP identified in this study can be used in the large-scale production of valuable fusion proteins to save the cost, time and energy.
    The Protein Journal 12/2014; 34(1). DOI:10.1007/s10930-014-9592-8
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    ABSTRACT: Botulinum Neurotoxin (BoNT) produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum as a complex with NAPs causes botulism. It has been known that the NAPs protect the toxin from both extremes of pHs and proteases of the GI tract. In an attempt to emulate the physiological conditions encountered by the toxin, we examined BoNT/A, BoNT/A complex, and NAPs under different pH conditions and monitored their structural characteristics by far-UV CD and thermal denaturation analysis. BoNT/A complex showed the maximum CD signal with a mean residue weight ellipticity of -1.8 × 10(5)° cm(2)/dmol at 222 nm at both acidic and neutral pHs. Thermal denaturation analysis revealed NAPs to be the most stable amongst the three protein samples examined. Interestingly and quite uniquely, at pH 2.5, there was an increase in CD signal for BoNT complex as a function of temperature, which correlated with the NAPs profile, indicating a shielding effect of NAPs on BoNT complex at low pH. Calculation of the weighted mean of the ellipticities at the Tm for thermal unfolding of toxin and NAPs at neutral and acidic pHs showed variation with that of BoNT complex, suggesting structural reorganization in BoNT complex upon the association of NAPs and BoNT. In conclusion, this study reveals the structural behavior of BoNT complex and NAPs with pH changes substantially, which could be quite relevant for BoNT survival under extreme pH conditions in vivo.
    The Protein Journal 12/2014; 33(6):557-64. DOI:10.1007/s10930-014-9588-4