The Protein Journal (PROTEIN J )

Publisher: Springer Verlag


The Protein Journal (formerly the Journal of Protein Chemistry) publishes original research work on all aspects of protein investigations. These include studies concerned with the structure (covalent or three-dimensional), assembly, genetics, evolution, proteomics, molecular biology, engineering, peptide synthesis or the application of these studies to the elucidation and interpretation of the molecular bases of the biological activity of proteins. All facets of protein biological functions and interactions are appropriate.

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    Protein Journal, The website
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    Protein journal (Online)
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Springer Verlag

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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A 24,118 Da (MALDI-TOF) cysteine peptidase (EC was purified from the latex extract of Cryptostegia grandiflora by two chromatographic steps involving ion exchange and Reverse-phase HPLC. The purified protein (Cg24-I) exhibits a single band profile following reduced SDS-PAGE and a unique amino terminal sequence, 1VPASIDWREKGTVL14, that is similar to other plant cysteine peptidases. Cg24-I displayed optimal proteolytic activity at pH 8.0 with 25 mM phosphate buffer. The proteolytic activity was inhibited with 0.2 mM E-64 and 1 mM iodoacetamide and was stimulated with 1 mM DTT. Cg24-I fully inhibited spore germination of phytopathogenic fungi Fusarium solani at a dose of 28.1 μg/mL. Its toxicity involves the membrane permeabilization of spores as probed by propidium iodide uptake. These results show that latex peptidases are part of the plant’s defensive strategy against phytopathogens and that they most likely act synergistically with other recognized defensive proteins.
    The Protein Journal 04/2014; 33(2).
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents a quantitative approach for measuring pH-controlled protein aggregation using dielectric spectroscopy. The technique is demonstrated through two aggregation experiments, the first between β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) and hen lysozyme (HENL) and the second between bovine serum albumin (BSA) and HENL. In both experiments, the formation of aggregates is strongly dependent on the solution pH and is clearly indicated by a decrease in the measured permittivity when the second protein is added. A quantifiable lower-bound on the ratio of proteins involved in the aggregation process is obtained from the permittivity spectra. Lower-bound aggregation ratios of 83 % for β-Lg/HENL at pH 6.0 and 48 % for BSA/HENL at pH 9.2 were consistent with turbidity measurements made on the same solutions.
    The Protein Journal 09/2012; 31(8).
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    ABSTRACT: 6-Mercaptopurine (6-MP) is one of a large series of purine analogues which has been found active against human leukemias. The equilibrium dialysis, circular dichroism (CD) and molecular docking were employed to study the binding of 6-MP to human serum albumin (HSA). The binding of 6-MP to HSA in the equilibrium dialysis experiment was detected by measuring the displacement of 6-MP by specific markers for site I on HSA, warfarin (RWF), phenylbutazone (PhB) and n-butyl p-aminobenzoate (ABE). It was shown, according to CD data, that binding of 6-MP to HSA leads to alteration of HSA secondary structure. Based on the findings from displacement experiment and molecular docking simulation it was found that 6-MP was located within binding cavity of subdomain IIA and the space occupied by site markers overlapped with that of 6-MP. Displacement of 6-MP by the RWF or PhB was not up the level expected for a competitive mechanism, therefore displacement of 6-MP was rather by non-cooperative than that the direct competition. Instead, in case of the interaction between ABE and 6-MP, when the little enhancement of the binding of ABE by 6-MP was found, the interaction could be via a positively cooperative mechanism.
    The Protein Journal 09/2012; 31(8).
  • The Protein Journal 01/2012; 31(2):141-149.
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    ABSTRACT: Wrightin, a serine protease from Wrightia tinctoria, has been used as model system to examine structure-function and stability. Our studies show high stability of the enzyme with major elements of secondary structure being β-sheets. Under neutral conditions the enzyme is stable in 8M urea and high temperature. GuHCl induced unfolding of wrightin at lower pH cannot be satisfactorily fit to a two state model for unfolding. Multiple intermediates were identified during unfolding of wrightin. Further, two intermediates, early and late are identified in the urea induced unfolding pathway at pH 3.0. Spectroscopic properties of intermediate states are analyzed and interpreted.
    The Protein Journal 06/2009; 28(5):213-223.
  • The Protein Journal 05/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: The values of the rate constants and the associated enthalpies and entropies of enzymes with two catalytic steps can be measured by determining the effects of temperature on the k (cat) values. Practical considerations that should be taken into account when doing this are presented. The narrow temperature range available with enzymes and the sensitivity of pH to temperature mean that special attention to detail must be taken and this study highlights the assiduousness needed. The necessity of conversion of apparent k (cat) to true k (cat) values when assays are done with products having pKa values near to the assay pH is shown and the importance of obtaining sufficient data is emphasized. Reasons that non-linear regression should be used to obtain the estimates of rate constants and activation thermodynamic parameters are given. Other precautions and recommendations are also presented. Results obtained by this method for native beta-galactosidase (E. coli) and for a beta-galactosidase in which a Thr was substituted for Asn-460 were analyzed to demonstrate the valuable mechanistic details of enzymes that can be obtained from studies of this type.
    The Protein Journal 03/2009; 28(2):96-103.
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    ABSTRACT: The denatured monomers of an integral membrane protein OmpF porin were refolded and reassembled into its sodium dodecyl sulfate-resistant trimer in mixtures of n-octyl beta-D: -glucopyranoside and lipids. Effective reassembly was observed with a yield of 60-70% when the denatured monomers (0.1 mg/mL) were solubilized at 25 degrees C for 24 h in a refolding medium (pH 6.9) containing 7 mg/mL n-octyl beta-D: -glucopyranoside, 1 mg/mL sodium dodecyl sulfate and 2-2.5 mg/mL soybean asolectin. The reassembled species was characterized in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate by physicochemical methods. Low-angle laser light scattering measurements revealed that the molecular weight of the reassembled species is 115,000 +/- 3,500 which corresponds to that of the trimer of this protein. Circular dichroism spectra suggested that the reassembled species is composed of the same beta-structure as the native one. Synchrotron radiation small-angle X-ray scattering measurements confirmed that the reassembled species is a trimer that has the same compactness as the native one.
    The Protein Journal 03/2009; 28(2):66-73.
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    ABSTRACT: Under stressed conditions such as prolonged exposure to high pH, the C-terminal disulfide bridge in bovine somatotropin (bST) is susceptible to a base catalyzed beta-elimination reaction. This reaction converts the disulfide bond to a dehydroalanine residue with loss of a sulphur atom. Two altered species were isolated in pure form and determined to be generated from this dehydroalanine intermediate. One is a monomeric lanthionyl bST (L-bST) with a thioether linkage, and the other is an inter-molecular disulfide linked dimer containing a lysinoalanine. These two novel structures were unambiguously determined using various techniques including enzymatic digestion, amino acid sequencing and analysis, and mass spectrometry. The monomeric L-bST was demonstrated to be equipotent to normal bST in a hypox rat assay, thus showing that formation of lanthionine in place of this disulfide bond does not affect it bioactivity.
    The Protein Journal 03/2009; 28(2):87-95.
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    ABSTRACT: Using the data from Protein Data Bank the correlations of primary and secondary structures of proteins were analyzed. The correlation values of the amino acids and the eight secondary structure types were calculated, where the position of the amino acid and the position in sequence with the particular secondary structure differ at most 25. The diagrams describing these results indicate that correlations are significant at distances between -9 and 10. The results show that the substituents on Cbeta or Cgamma atoms of amino acid play major role in their preference for particular secondary structure at the same position in the sequence, while the polarity of amino acid has significant influence on alpha-helices and strands at some distance in the sequence. The diagrams corresponding to polar amino acids are noticeably asymmetric. The diagrams point out the exchangeability of residues in the proteins; the amino acids with similar diagrams have similar local folding requirements.
    The Protein Journal 03/2009; 28(2):74-86.
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    ABSTRACT: Cry5Aa is a crystal protein produced by Bacillus thuringiensis serovar. damstadiensis during its stationary phase, this delta-endotoxin is active against nematodes and has great potential for nematodes control. The theoretical model of the three-dimensional structure of Cry5Aa was predicted by homology modeling on the structures of the Cry1Aa which is specific to Lepidopteran insects. The structure of the Cry5Aa resembles previously reported Cry toxin structures but shows the following distinctions. Cry5Aa has a long insertion in alpha2 of domain I. Some loops in the domain II and III of Cry5Aa are exposed to the solvent. In this work we give a brief description of our model and hypothesize the residues of the Cry5Aa that could be important in receptor recognition and pore formation. This model will be helpful for the design of mutagenesis experiments aimed to the improvement of toxicity, and lead to a deep understanding of the mechanism of action of nematicidal toxins.
    The Protein Journal 03/2009; 28(2):104-10.
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    ABSTRACT: With the development of bioinformatics, more and more protein sequence information has become available. Meanwhile, the number of known protein-protein interactions (PPIs) is still very limited. In this article, we propose a new method for predicting interacting protein pairs using a Bayesian method based on a new feature representation. We trained our model using data on 6,459 PPI pairs from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae core subset. Using six species of DIP database, our model demonstrates an average prediction accuracy of 93.67%. The result showed that our method is superior to other methods in both computing time and prediction accuracy.
    The Protein Journal 03/2009; 28(2):111-5.
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    ABSTRACT: Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations have been used to understand how protein structure, dynamics, and flexibility are affected by adaptation to high temperature for several years. We report here the results of the high temperature MD simulations of Bacillus stearothermophilus L1 (L1 lipase). We found that the N-terminal moiety of the enzyme showed a high flexibility and dynamics during high temperature simulations which preceded and followed by clear structural changes in two specific regions; the small domain and the main catalytic domain or core domain of the enzyme. These two domains interact with each other through a Zn(2+)-binding coordination with Asp-61 and Asp-238 from the core domain and His-81 and His-87 from the small domain. Interestingly, the His-81 and His-87 were among the highly fluctuated and mobile residues at high temperatures. The results appear to suggest that tight interactions of Zn(2+)-binding coordination with specified residues became weak at high temperature which suggests the contribution of this region to the thermostability of the enzyme.
    The Protein Journal 02/2009; 28(1):14-23.
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we investigate a simple protein sequence conservation measure which takes amino acid similarity into account. Instead of grouping 20 amino acids into disjoint sets in previous methods, we consider ten overlapping classes. The method is based on the assumption that a column in a multiple sequence alignment is evolved from an identical column in the evolutionary history. Two ten-dimensional vectors are constructed for each position to denote frequencies of ten classes in a column and the corresponding hypothetical identical column. Then the cosine function of the angle between these two vectors is considered as a measure of divergence of stereochemical properties at this position. This divergence, combining with other conservation scores, is used as conservation measure of the column. Finally, we evaluate our methods by identifying catalytic sites, using rank analysis criterion and receiver operator characteristic analysis criterion.
    The Protein Journal 02/2009; 28(1):29-33.
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    ABSTRACT: Using 3'-RACE and 5'-RACE, we have cloned and sequenced the genomic gene and complete cDNA encoding L: -glutamine D: -fructose 6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFAT) from the edible straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea. Gfat contains five introns, and encodes a predicted protein of 697 amino acids that is homologous to other reported GFAT sequences. Southern hybridization indicated that a single gfat gene locus exists in the V. volvacea genome. Recombinant native V. volvacea GFAT enzyme, over-expressed using Escherichia coli and partially purified, had an estimated molecular mass of 306 kDa and consisted of four equal-sized subunits of 77 kD. Reciprocal plots revealed K (m) values of 0.55 and 0.75 mM for fructose 6-phosphate and L: -glutamine, respectively. V. volvacea GFAT activity was inhibited by the end-product of the hexosamine pathway, UDP-GlcNAc, and by the glutamine analogues N (3)-(4-methoxyfumaroyl)-L: -2,3-diaminopropanoic acid and 2-amino-2-deoxy-D: -glucitol-6-phosphate.
    The Protein Journal 02/2009; 28(1):34-43.

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