The Protein Journal (PROTEIN J )

Publisher: Springer Verlag


The Protein Journal (formerly the Journal of Protein Chemistry) publishes original research work on all aspects of protein investigations. These include studies concerned with the structure (covalent or three-dimensional), assembly, genetics, evolution, proteomics, molecular biology, engineering, peptide synthesis or the application of these studies to the elucidation and interpretation of the molecular bases of the biological activity of proteins. All facets of protein biological functions and interactions are appropriate.

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    Protein journal (Online)
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Springer Verlag

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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: FtsE is one of the earliest cell division proteins that assembles along with FtsX at the mid-cell site during cell division in Escherichia coli. Both these proteins are highly conserved across diverse bacterial genera and are predicted to constitute an ABC transporter type complex, in which FtsE is predicted to bind ATP and hydrolyse it, and FtsX is predicted to be an integral membrane protein. We had earlier reported that the MtFtsE of the human pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, binds ATP and interacts with MtFtsX on the cell membrane of M. tuberculosis and E. coli. In this study, we demonstrate that MtFtsE is an ATPase, the active form of which is a dimer, wherein the participating monomers are held together by non-covalent interactions, with the Cys84 of each monomer present at the dimer interface. Under oxidising environment, the dimer gets stabilised by the formation of Cys84–Cys84 disulphide bond. While the recombinant MtFtsE forms a dimer on the membrane of E. coli, the native MtFtsE seems to be in a different conformation in the M. tuberculosis membrane. Although disulphide bridges were not observed on the cytoplasmic side (reducing environment) of the membrane, the two participating monomers could be isolated as dimers held together by non-covalent interactions. Taken together, these findings show that MtFtsE is an ATPase in the non-covalent dimer form, with the Cys84 of each monomer present in the reduced form at the dimer interface, without participating in the dimerisation or the catalytic activity of the protein.
    The Protein Journal 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Formation of the powerful osteogenic prostaglandin E2 by osteoblasts, a key modulatory event in the paracrine and autocrine regulation of bone cell activity, is preceded by release of the precursor arachidonic acid from phospholipid stores. The main routes of arachidonate liberation may involve phospholipase enzymes such as group IVA phospholipase A2 which is believed to be the main effector in many cell system due to its preference for arachidonate-containing lipids. MC3T3-E1 cells are non-transformed osteoblasts and are widely used as an in vitro model of osteoblast function. In these cells there is still no clarity about the main release pathway of arachidonic acid. Besides cytosolic phospholipase A2, phospholipase C and D pathways may play a key role in arachidonate release. Despite the crucial role of osteoblastic prostgalandin synthesis information on the occurrence of involved enzymes at the molecular level is scarse in MC3T3-E1 cells. We have characterised group IVA phospholipase A2 at the mRNA in these cells as a constitutively expressed enzyme which is cytosolic and translocates to the membrane upon endothelin-1 stimulation. Using immunopurification combined with Western blotting and high-resolution mass spectrometry, the enzyme was also identified at the protein level. Using specific gene silencing we were able to show that osteoblastic cytosolic phospholipase A2 is crucially involved in ET-1-induced prostaglandin formation.
    The Protein Journal 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Natively unfolded (intrinsically disordered) proteins have attracted growing attention due to their high abundance in nature, involvement in various signalling and regulatory pathways and direct association with many diseases. In the present work the combined effect of temperature and alcohols, trifluoroethanol (TFE) and hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP), on the natively unfolded 4E-BP1 protein was studied to elucidate the balance between temperature-induced folding and unfolding in intrinsically disordered proteins. It was shown that elevated temperatures induce reversible partial folding of 4E-BP1 both in buffer and in the mixed solutions containing denaturants. In the mixed solutions containing TFE (HFIP) 4E-BP1 adopts a partially folded helical conformation. As the temperature increases, the initial temperature-induced protein folding is replaced by irreversible unfolding/melting only after a certain level of the protein helicity has been reached. Onset unfolding temperature decreases with TFE (HFIP) concentration in solution. It was shown that an increase in the temperature induces two divergent processes in a natively unfolded protein—hydrophobicity-driven folding and unfolding. Balance between these two processes determines thermal behaviour of a protein. The correlation between heat-induced protein unfolding and the amount of helical content in a protein is revealed. Heat-induced secondary structure formation can be a valuable test to characterise minor changes in the conformations of natively unfolded proteins as a result of site-directed mutagenesis. Mutants with an increased propensity to fold into a structured form reveal different temperature behaviour.
    The Protein Journal 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were found from Crocodylus siamensis (C. siamensis) blood. The 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging, nitric oxide scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging and linoleic peroxidation assays were used to investigate the antioxidant activities of the crocodile blood. Results show that crocodile blood components had antioxidant activity, especially hemoglobin (40.58 % nitric oxide radical inhibition), crude leukocyte extract (78 % linoleic peroxidation inhibition) and plasma (57.27 % hydroxyl radical inhibition). Additionally, the anti-inflammatory activity of the crocodile blood was studied using murine macrophage (RAW 264.7) as a model. The results show that hemoglobin, crude leukocyte extract and plasma were not toxic to RAW 264.7 cells. Also they showed anti-inflammatory activity by reduced nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) productions from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cells. The NO inhibition percentages of hemoglobin, crude leukocyte extract and plasma were 31.9, 48.24 and 44.27 %, respectively. However, only crude leukocyte extract could inhibit IL-6 production. So, the results of this research directly indicate that hemoglobin, crude leukocyte extract and plasma of C. siamensis blood provide both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, which could be used as a supplementary agent in pharmaceutical products.
    The Protein Journal 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Calprotectin (CP) is widely considered to have diverse roles including growth inhibitory and apoptosis induction in a number of tumor cell lines and antimicrobial activities. As CP has been proposed to bind metal ions with high affinity, we have studied its functional and primarily its structural behavior upon Zn(2+) and Mn(2+) chelation solely and along with Ca(2+). We employed fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism to determine the resulting modifications. Based upon our findings it is clear that treating CP with ions effectively weakened its natural growth inhibitory activity. Moreover, structural analysis of Zn(2+) and Mn(2+)-treated CPs indicated remarkable alterations in the regular secondary structures in favor of irregular structures while Zn(2+) and Mn(2+) treatment of CP after incubation with Ca(2+) displayed no remarkable shifts. Tertiary structure investigation using fluorescence spectroscopy showed that CP undergoes conformational changes upon Zn(2+) and Mn(2+) treatment whereby Trp residues of protein is slightly exposed to the hydrophilic environment, compactness of CP is compromised, whereas in Ca(2+)-treated CP, the tertiary structure integrity is intact upon Zn(2+) and Mn(2+) chelation. Interestingly, CP structural modifications upon Zn(2+) and Mn(2+) treatment was significantly comparable, probably due to similar radii and charges of ions. Taken all together, we have concluded that CP maintains its normal nature in Ca(2+)-loaded state when treated with Zn(2+) and Mn(2+) ions. It can be suggested that Ca(2+) not only stabilize CP structure but also helps CP to keep its structure upon metal ions chelation which is involved in host organism defense system.
    The Protein Journal 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was the isolation, molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of a thermophilic organic solvent-resistant lipase from Bacillus sp. DR90. The lipase gene was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) using pET-28a(+) vector. The purification of recombinant lipase was conducted by nickel affinity chromatography and its biochemical properties were determined. The lipase sequence with an ORF of 639 bp contains the conserved pentapeptide Ala-His-Ser-Met-Gly. His-tagged recombinant lipase had a specific activity of 1,126 U/mg with a molecular mass of 26.8 kDa. The cloned lipase was optimally active at pH 8.0 and 75 °C representing high stability in broad ranges of temperature and pH. High performance liquid chromatography was used to determine the major compounds released during the lipase-catalyzed reaction of p-nitrophenyl derivatives as well as the substrate specificity. The purified lipase showed high compatibility towards various organic solvents, surfactants and commercial solid/liquid detergents; therefore the recombinant DR90 lipase could be considered as a probable candidate for future applications, predominantly in detergent processing industries.
    The Protein Journal 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A 24,118 Da (MALDI-TOF) cysteine peptidase (EC was purified from the latex extract of Cryptostegia grandiflora by two chromatographic steps involving ion exchange and Reverse-phase HPLC. The purified protein (Cg24-I) exhibits a single band profile following reduced SDS-PAGE and a unique amino terminal sequence, 1VPASIDWREKGTVL14, that is similar to other plant cysteine peptidases. Cg24-I displayed optimal proteolytic activity at pH 8.0 with 25 mM phosphate buffer. The proteolytic activity was inhibited with 0.2 mM E-64 and 1 mM iodoacetamide and was stimulated with 1 mM DTT. Cg24-I fully inhibited spore germination of phytopathogenic fungi Fusarium solani at a dose of 28.1 μg/mL. Its toxicity involves the membrane permeabilization of spores as probed by propidium iodide uptake. These results show that latex peptidases are part of the plant’s defensive strategy against phytopathogens and that they most likely act synergistically with other recognized defensive proteins.
    The Protein Journal 04/2014; 33(2).
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents a quantitative approach for measuring pH-controlled protein aggregation using dielectric spectroscopy. The technique is demonstrated through two aggregation experiments, the first between β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) and hen lysozyme (HENL) and the second between bovine serum albumin (BSA) and HENL. In both experiments, the formation of aggregates is strongly dependent on the solution pH and is clearly indicated by a decrease in the measured permittivity when the second protein is added. A quantifiable lower-bound on the ratio of proteins involved in the aggregation process is obtained from the permittivity spectra. Lower-bound aggregation ratios of 83 % for β-Lg/HENL at pH 6.0 and 48 % for BSA/HENL at pH 9.2 were consistent with turbidity measurements made on the same solutions.
    The Protein Journal 09/2012; 31(8).
  • The Protein Journal 01/2012; 31(2):141-149.
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    ABSTRACT: Wrightin, a serine protease from Wrightia tinctoria, has been used as model system to examine structure-function and stability. Our studies show high stability of the enzyme with major elements of secondary structure being β-sheets. Under neutral conditions the enzyme is stable in 8M urea and high temperature. GuHCl induced unfolding of wrightin at lower pH cannot be satisfactorily fit to a two state model for unfolding. Multiple intermediates were identified during unfolding of wrightin. Further, two intermediates, early and late are identified in the urea induced unfolding pathway at pH 3.0. Spectroscopic properties of intermediate states are analyzed and interpreted.
    The Protein Journal 06/2009; 28(5):213-223.
  • The Protein Journal 05/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: The denatured monomers of an integral membrane protein OmpF porin were refolded and reassembled into its sodium dodecyl sulfate-resistant trimer in mixtures of n-octyl beta-D: -glucopyranoside and lipids. Effective reassembly was observed with a yield of 60-70% when the denatured monomers (0.1 mg/mL) were solubilized at 25 degrees C for 24 h in a refolding medium (pH 6.9) containing 7 mg/mL n-octyl beta-D: -glucopyranoside, 1 mg/mL sodium dodecyl sulfate and 2-2.5 mg/mL soybean asolectin. The reassembled species was characterized in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate by physicochemical methods. Low-angle laser light scattering measurements revealed that the molecular weight of the reassembled species is 115,000 +/- 3,500 which corresponds to that of the trimer of this protein. Circular dichroism spectra suggested that the reassembled species is composed of the same beta-structure as the native one. Synchrotron radiation small-angle X-ray scattering measurements confirmed that the reassembled species is a trimer that has the same compactness as the native one.
    The Protein Journal 03/2009; 28(2):66-73.
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    ABSTRACT: Under stressed conditions such as prolonged exposure to high pH, the C-terminal disulfide bridge in bovine somatotropin (bST) is susceptible to a base catalyzed beta-elimination reaction. This reaction converts the disulfide bond to a dehydroalanine residue with loss of a sulphur atom. Two altered species were isolated in pure form and determined to be generated from this dehydroalanine intermediate. One is a monomeric lanthionyl bST (L-bST) with a thioether linkage, and the other is an inter-molecular disulfide linked dimer containing a lysinoalanine. These two novel structures were unambiguously determined using various techniques including enzymatic digestion, amino acid sequencing and analysis, and mass spectrometry. The monomeric L-bST was demonstrated to be equipotent to normal bST in a hypox rat assay, thus showing that formation of lanthionine in place of this disulfide bond does not affect it bioactivity.
    The Protein Journal 03/2009; 28(2):87-95.
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    ABSTRACT: The values of the rate constants and the associated enthalpies and entropies of enzymes with two catalytic steps can be measured by determining the effects of temperature on the k (cat) values. Practical considerations that should be taken into account when doing this are presented. The narrow temperature range available with enzymes and the sensitivity of pH to temperature mean that special attention to detail must be taken and this study highlights the assiduousness needed. The necessity of conversion of apparent k (cat) to true k (cat) values when assays are done with products having pKa values near to the assay pH is shown and the importance of obtaining sufficient data is emphasized. Reasons that non-linear regression should be used to obtain the estimates of rate constants and activation thermodynamic parameters are given. Other precautions and recommendations are also presented. Results obtained by this method for native beta-galactosidase (E. coli) and for a beta-galactosidase in which a Thr was substituted for Asn-460 were analyzed to demonstrate the valuable mechanistic details of enzymes that can be obtained from studies of this type.
    The Protein Journal 03/2009; 28(2):96-103.