Harmful Algae (HARMFUL ALGAE )

Publisher: Elsevier


This new journal will provide a forum to promote knowledge of harmful microalgae, including cyanobacteria, as well as monitoring, management and control of these organisms. Both original research and review papers will be considered. Papers dealing with the following aspects of harmful microalgae and cyanobacteria in marine and fresh waters will be considered: the distribution, life histories and taxonomy of harmful microalgae; the physiology and toxicology of harmful microalgae; harmful microalgal bloom ecology; trophic, socio-economic, public health and aquacultural impacts of harmful microalgal bloom events; occurrence, methods of detection and chemical structure of toxins in harmful microalgae, cyanobacteria, foodwebs and seafood; factors controlling toxin production, biosynthesis and chemical ecology.

Impact factor 3.34

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  • Website
    Harmful Algae website
  • Other titles
    Harmful algae (Online)
  • ISSN
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  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details


  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Pre-print allowed on any website or open access repository
    • Voluntary deposit by author of authors post-print allowed on authors' personal website, arXiv.org or institutions open scholarly website including Institutional Repository, without embargo, where there is not a policy or mandate
    • Deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate only allowed where separate agreement between repository and the publisher exists.
    • Permitted deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate, may be required to comply with embargo periods of 12 months to 48 months .
    • Set statement to accompany deposit
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to journal home page or articles' DOI
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • NIH Authors articles will be submitted to PubMed Central after 12 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 18/10/2013
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • Harmful Algae 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Harmful algal blooms that disrupt and degrade ecosystems (ecosystem disruptive algal blooms, EDABs) are occurring with greater frequency and severity with eutrophication and other adverse anthropogenic alterations of coastal systems. EDAB events have been hypothesized to be caused by positive feedback interactions involving differential growth of competing algal species, low grazing mortality rates on EDAB species, and resulting decreases in nutrient inputs from grazer-mediated nutrient cycling as the EDAB event progresses. Here we develop a stoichiometric nutrient–phytoplankton–zooplankton (NPZ) model to test a conceptual positive feedback mechanism linked to increased cell toxicity and resultant decreases in grazing mortality rates in EDAB species under nutrient limitation of growth rate. As our model EDAB alga, we chose the slow-growing, toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis, whose toxin levels have been shown to increase with nutrient (nitrogen) limitation of specific growth rate. This species was competed with two high-nutrient adapted, faster-growing diatoms (Thalassiosira pseudonana and Thalassiosira weissflogii) using recently published data for relationships among nutrient (ammonium) concentration, carbon normalized ammonium uptake rates, cellular nitrogen:carbon (N:C) ratios, and specific growth rate. The model results support the proposed positive feedback mechanism for EDAB formation and toxicity. In all cases the toxic bloom was preceded by one or more pre-blooms of fast-growing diatoms, which drew dissolved nutrients to low growth rate-limiting levels, and stimulated the population growth of zooplankton grazers. Low specific grazing rates on the toxic, nutrient-limited EDAB species then promoted the population growth of this species, which further decreased grazing rates, grazing-linked nutrient recycling, nutrient concentrations, and algal specific growth rates. The nutrient limitation of growth rate further increased toxin concentrations in the EDAB algae, which further decreased grazing-linked nutrient recycling rates and nutrient concentrations, and caused an even greater nutrient limitation of growth rate and even higher toxin levels in the EDAB algae. This chain of interactions represented a positive feedback that resulted in the formation of a high-biomass toxic bloom, with low, nutrient-limited specific growth rates and associated high cellular C:N and toxin:C ratios. Together the elevated C:N and toxin:C ratios in the EDAB algae resulted in very high bloom toxicity. The positive feedbacks and resulting bloom formation and toxicity were increased by long water residence times, which increased the relative importance of grazing-linked nutrient recycling to the overall supply of limiting nutrient (N).
    Harmful Algae 12/2014; 39:342–356.
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    ABSTRACT: We compare risk assessment and management of toxic cyanobacteria around the globe.•Three exposure vehicles for the main oral exposure route, drinking water, recreation, “seafood”.•Worldwide the WHO guideline of 1 μg L−1 MCYST-LR is applied for drinking water.•In recreational waters mainly cyanobacterial abundance, not toxins, are regulated.•Typically 2 or 3 tier alert level systems with incremental severity are in place.
    Harmful Algae 12/2014; 40.
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    ABSTRACT: A large dataset of ribosomal and new mitochondrial gene sequences of Ostreopsis spp. was generated.•Improved phylogenetic characterization of Ostreopsis spp.•O. cf. ovata isolates exhibited geographical distribution based on ITS-5.8S rDNA.
    Harmful Algae 12/2014; 40.
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    ABSTRACT: Occurrence of toxic cyanobacterial blooms has become a worldwide problem, increasing the risk of human poisoning due to consumption of seafood contaminated with cyanotoxins. Though no such cases of human intoxication due to toxic blooms have been reported so far from India, most of the studies related to blooms have been restricted to reporting of a bloom and/or antimicrobial activity of its extract.Detailed toxicity study of cyanobacterial blooms are lacking. A study on the toxicity of a dense bloom (14.56 � 10 6 trichomes L�1) of the marine diazotrophic cyanobacteria, Trichodesmium erythraeum,observed in the coastal waters of Phoenix Bay, Port Blair, Andamans was undertaken. The significance of this bloom is that it was a single species and had conspicuously inhibited the growth of other phytoplankton and complete exclusion of zooplankton from the bloom region, intimating the involvement of toxins in the bloom. The cyanobacterial extracts showed prominent antimicrobial activity against certain human pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Studies on the toxicity of the cyanobacterial extracts was carried out using brine shrimp bioassay, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and comet assay. The cyanobacterial extract exhibited toxic effect to Artemia salina causing mortality of up to 40% after 48 h at a concentration of 1 mg mL�1,while it induced cytotoxicity in cell lines (HepG2 and HaCat) and caused DNA damage in human lymphocytes in vitro.
    Harmful Algae 11/2014; 40.
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    ABSTRACT: Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii is a diazotrophic and potentially toxic cyanobacterium that was initially thought to be confined to tropical freshwaters. Recently it appears to have expanded its range to more temperate regions of the globe. There are contrasting hypotheses to explain this spread including; dispersal of highly adapted strains or localised spread from warm refuges as climatic or environmental conditions change. C. raciborskii was first detected in the isolated island nation of New Zealand in 2003, providing a unique opportunity to explore whether this recent identification is due to a new incursion or resultant from climatic or environmental change. Phylogenetic analysis (nifH, ITS1-L, ITS1-S, and rpoC1) of six strains isolated from two New Zealand lakes showed they were most closely related to those from South America, and suggest that the recent detection of this species was not due to a new incursion. Ten years of environmental data from three lakes (Waaki, Waikare and Whangape) experiencing blooms were analysed to identify potential reasons for recent C. raciborskii blooms. This analysis showed that the relatively recent (within the last 20–30 years) collapses of extensive macrophyte stands in lakes Waaki, Waikare and Whangape have resulted in increased turbidity’, low water column dissolved reactive phosphorus and seasonal shifts in the dissolved inorganic nitrogen availability, all conditions known to facilitate C. raciborskii dominance. Collectively these data indicate that C. raciborskii has always been present in New Zealand, and that recent changes in environmental conditions in these lakes are now facilitating bloom events.
    Harmful Algae 10/2014; 39:64–74.
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    ABSTRACT: Large biomass of Ulva propagules existed widely during the blooming process.•The quantity of Ulva propagules decreased sharply after the bloom disappearing.•Ulva propagules were significantly correlated with salinity, turbidity and nutrients.
    Harmful Algae 10/2014; 39.